Section 1: The Basic Elements of Music

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1 1 Section 1: The Basic Elements of Music Unit 1.1 Rhythm and melody Page 2 2. The ords are dramatic, the dynamics varied, the tempo/speed changes, the rhythm is free. The teacher should encourage students to discuss the song, using the limited music vocabulary available to them at this stage. Page 3 4. (a) crotchet minim (c) quavers (d) semibreve (e) quavers (f) minim (g) crotchet Page 4 6. (a) (i) ta ta ti-ti ta (ii) ti-ti ti-ti ta-a (iii) ti-ti ta ti-ti ta (iv) ta ti-ti ta-a (v) ta-a-a-a (vi) ta-a ti-ti ta Each missing beat can be filled in by a crotchet or to quavers at student s choice. 7. (a) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Page 5 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vi) (c) The missing beat can be filled in ith a crotchet or to quavers as played by teacher. Page 6 9. (a) (i) m r m s m d s m (ii) d m s l s m r m d (i) (ii) d m s d ms d r m l s s m (e) s d ms l l s d m

2 2 Page d ms d s l l s m r m s l r r d ms d s l l s l r s s m d d 11. (a) (e) Doh d' d' s m s l l s d' d' l s l s m d 12. A melody based on given rhythm using the tonic solfa notes d r m s l d Page 8 Crossord 1. pitch 2. rhythm 3. soh 4. tune 5. American 6. chilly 7. quavers 8. notes

3 3 Unit 1.2 More on rhythm Page 9 1. There are four beats in each bar.

4 4 Page (a) There are four beats in each bar. 3. (a) There are three beats in each bar. (c) Page Rocky Mountain (a) d r m s l minim (c) the same rhythm (d) Bars 1 & 2; 5 & 6 Botany Bay (a) under the first line

5 5 semibreve (c) The ords of each verse are different. The ords of each chorus are the same. (d) Accept students interpretations of the ords, and discuss in class. L il Liza Jane (a) semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver Doh is on the second line in both songs. (c) d r m s l (d) on different tonic solfa notes Unit 1.3 Staff notation Page L L S S L L S S 3. (a) B A D C A G E B A D G E (c) & B Á D G E Á G A F E A C C É A D & C Á C Á F Á G D A D A B E A G Page (a) D (crotchet) E (minim) (c) CB (quavers) (d) F (crotchet) (e) G (minim) (f) B (semibreve) 6. (a) G F E G B B C B G B m r d m s s l s m s Song: L il Liz Jane

6 6 Page 14 (c) Song: John Smith D E E D E A D D B G G s l l s l r s s m d d B D D A D D B A G m s s r s s m r c 7. & Song: Botany Bay 8. (a) C G D A B B A G C C B Á D C É A D F Á G F A D A B E A G (c) Page (a) 7 beats 3 beats 6 beats 3 beats 6 beats 5 beats

7 7 4 3 & 2 & 4 Œ Œ Seven examples of tied notes Ó Ó Ó Œ Unit 1.4 Music form Page Song Form Unitary or binary L il Liza Jane A A B B Binary John Smith A A Unitary Pop Goes the Weasel Song While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks by Night Page 17 Form A A (unitary) A B (binary) 6. Students can offer their on interpretation of the song. 7. p means soft. This song is sung softly. The mood is calm, reflective and peaceful. Accept student s on valid reasons. 8. Song Rocky Mountain (page 12) Botany Bay (page 13) L il Liza Jane (page 14) Jim Along Josie (page 24) My Dog s Name is Lucy (page 25) Page 18 Crossord 1. phrase 2. quavers 3. beats Speed allegro or moderato largo or moderato allegro largo moderato 4. minim 5. double 6. common 7. bars 8. to 9. lines 10. crotchet 11. form 12. four

8 8 Unit 1.5 Scales and keys Page This song is in the key of C. & c 2. j dm f s s l l s d' r' m' f' r' d' t d' F F C G D C F E A 3. & (a) This tune is in the key of G. # F# # # # # 1 24 (a) # # 4 3 & # s s m s m d r m f r s m d (c) The last note is G. # #

9 9 Page (a) 5. (f) Rerite this piece in the key of C. & c & 6. (a) England 4 Page 21 (c) B (e) (i) 5 (ii) 3 beats (f) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 (g) D.C. al fine means go back to the start and repeat the chorus. [N.B. Not repeated on the recording] 7. A E B C E D G G

10 10 (c) 8. (a) Sharp Flat Sign Effect raises the note a semibreve loers the note a semibreve C D F G A Page 22 D E G A B 9. (a) b & # # 10. # # J b # b F F D G F E C E G G B Minim Minim crotchet semibreve quaver minim crotchet minim semibreve minim quaver & # 4 J j b # b J &b J j 2 & 4 Œ &b Œ

11 (a) & # & b & b n & b & b n & # n & # & # n Unit 1.6 More on rhythmic notation Page (a) & 4 Π& 4 j j j j Π& 4 Π& 4 j j j Π(c) & 4 4 & J J J

12 12 2. (a) 3 4 j 4 j j 2 4 j j (i) & # 4 Time value: dotted minim (3 beats) Page 24 4 &b4 (ii) j (iii) Time value: crotchet 4 3 & J Time value: minim (to beats) 5. The dotted rhythm makes this tune more lively. Page (a) crotchet rest ledger lines (c) folk (d) crotchet (e) semibreve (f) a half beat (g) getting gradually softer (h) double bar-line (i) repeat (j) minim (k) G (l) 4 Unit 1.7 More on keys and bass clef Page four beats (c) loud (d) minim (e) crotchet rest (f) quavers (g) sharp (h) (i) 2. (a) The tune is in the key of D (a) & # # 4 d m s d f l l s m f s d f m f m r d (c) D is the letter name of the first and last notes.

13 13 (d) Page (f) The key of D sounds higher than the key of C. 4. s s d' d' d' r' d' t d' r' f' m' d' l r' d' &b b 4 s s d' d' d' r' d' t d' r' f' m' d' l r' d' & bb 4 5. Correct order 4, 1, 2, 3 6. (a) Correct order 2, 4, 3, 1 & # # Key D & Key C (c) (d) & b & bb Key F Key Bb (e) & # Key G Page (a) Bars 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 (Any to) Student s on 2-bar rhythmic ostinato (repeated). 9. (a) Sad: The ords refer to crying. The key is minor. Happy: The ords refer to joy. The tonality is major.

14 (a) 4 3 &b j j lah Major or minor? minor fah mi re doh ti doh ti lah Page 29 2 & # # 4 d r m s s l s m d r m m r r d Major or minor? major (c) c &b b j J # m l d t l m r d t l t d r f m r d t l si l Major or minor? minor (d) & # c j j # m l t d t t l t d d m l t d t l si l Major or minor? minor 11. B E D C A G E B A D G E D E A D F E D (c) j j j j (d) (e) j j (f)

15 15 Page Students complete bars ith suitable notes. (c) (i) simple (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) compound simple simple compound Page (a) Song: Amazing Grace Time signature: Correct order of bars: 5, 2, 1, 4, 3 Song: Oh Dear, What Can The Matter Be Time signature: Correct order of bars: 3, 1, 4, 2 (c) Song: Old Macdonald Had a Farm Time signature: Correct order of bars: 3, 2, 4, 1 Unit 1.8 Instruments of the orchestra Page (a) violin viola (c) cello (d) bass 2. bo 3. plucked or pizzicato 4. four 5. The violins are divided into to groups called first and second violins. CD 1, Tracks (a) cello (Emperor Quartet Mov. 2, Haydn) violin (Meditation, Massenet) (c) double bass (Symphony No 1, Mahler) (d) viola (Hary Janos Suite, Lied, Kodaly) 7. (a) ood vibrate (c) flute (d) oboe/bassoon (e) range (f) largest/loest Page 33 CD 1, Tracks (a) oboe (Italian Concerto, Cimarosa) clarinet (Appalachian Spring, Copland) (c) bassoon (Peter and the Wolf, Prokofiev) (d) flute (Badinerie from Orchestral Suite No. 2, Bach) 9. (a) trombone trumpet (c) tuba (d) horn

16 16 CD 1, Tracks (a) horn (Cello Concerto Mov. 1, Dvorak) trumpet (Trumpet Concerto, Telemann) (c) trombone (William Tell Overture, Rossini) 11. (a) clash together, or hit or roll ith drumstick shake, tap or hit 12. (a) side drum a metal beater (c) kettle drum (d) ood (e) tuned (f) piano (g) tubular bells Page 34 Wordsearch S S K I N A P M I T X G R W C O D K Y A D Y T X C A G J Z M N B L Z R V E W Z B W A M O B X I Z L O V S J L P Z W B A U E S F A U H G I U R N D S B X J O TIMPANI BASS DRUM TAMBOURINE XYLOPHONE CELESTA TRIANGLE CYMBAL D T I X R G M T O V N K N P U S Y L Q A C E E W M I C Z J E J Q M A M J S U W U Y X H L General questions 1. (a) string oodind (c) brass (d) percussion 2. string 3. percussion 4. (a) oodind brass 5. string 6. (a) timpani bass drum (c) side drum 7. xylophone; glockenspiel; celesta; tubular bells (Any to) Page oboe and bassoon 9. flute or piccolo 10. trombone

17 Strings Woodind Brass Percussion violin viola cello double bass harp piccolo flute oboe cor anglais clarinet bassoon saxophone trumpet cornet trombone tuba horn tubular bells xylophone oodblock timpani glockenspiel 12. (a) A timpani F tuba B cymbals G triangle C violin H bassoon D trombone I cello E trumpet J flute Page 36 Strings: violin, cello Woodind: flute, bassoon Brass: trumpet, trombone, tuba Percussion: timpani, cymbals, triangle CD 1, Tracks (a) flute (Carnival of Venice, Briccialdi) violin (Spring from the Four Seasons, Vivaldi) (c) harpsichord (Suite in D, Bach) (d) cello (Cello Concerto, Dvorak) Page 37 CD 1, Track (a) horn brass (c) (any to of the folloing) trumpet, trombone, tuba CD 1, Track (a) double bass (any one of the folloing) violin, viola, cello (c) timpani (d) steady CD 1, Track (a) oboe (i) flute (ii) clarinet (iii) bassoon (c) strings Page 38 Crossord 1. bassoon 2. trumpet 3. cello 4. horn 5. oboe 6. glockenspiel 7. flute 8. trombone 9. viola

18 18 Unit 1.9 Expressive qualities of music Page 39 CD 4, Track Section A: The accents over the repeated notes in bar 1, theme 1, contribute to the confident mood. The crescendo and decrescendo marks in each short phrase of theme 2 contribute to the dramatic effect. Note the accented notes in this phrase. Section B: The dynamic mark mp creates a quiet contrast at the beginning of Section B. CD 1, Track The song starts softly, sloly, ith homophonic texture, voice and guitar and gentle accompaniment. The singer gets gradually louder (crescendo), the cello is added. By the chorus, voice and cello interact as cello comments on the singer s obsession. Dynamics become louder in second half of song. Accompaniment stronger also. Variation in tempo. Backing vocals added for variety toard the end. Guitar accompaniment is no interesting. Melodic variation, tempo variation. Song ends very softly, ith very light accompaniment. CD 1, Track (a) mixed voices, male and female at a moderate speed (c) begin in unison, texture monophonic; then in imitation, texture polyphonic; drum accompaniment CD 1, Track (a) a symphony orchestra exciting or dramatic (c) The piece opens ith repeated notes and a sequence. There is a contrast in dynamics, moving from f to p. Instruments: the string family is prominent. Any other valid description.

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