1 Page 4 Lesson Plan Exercises Score Pages Goal Students will progress in developing comprehensive musicianship through a standards-based curriculum, including singing, performing, reading and notating, listening and analyzing, evaluating, interdisciplinary relationships, and historical and cultural relationships. Objectives for Student Learning Accurately perform tempo, rhythms, pitches, dynamics, articulations, and Rudiments with correct posture, embouchure, hand position, fingerings/slide positions, sticking, intonation, and a characteristic tone quality. Flute and oboe: Play new notes Concert G and F with the correct fingering, posture, hand position, intonation, and a characteristic tone quality. Flute, oboe, clarinet, bass clarinet, and saxophones: Play new note Concert Eb with the correct fingering, posture, hand position, intonation, and a characteristic tone quality. Electric bass: Play new note Concert Ab in two octaves with the correct fingering, posture, hand position, intonation, and a characteristic tone quality. Share information about Louis Bourgeois. Locate France on a world map and share information about the country. Perform the Concert Eb major scale. F Horns Only: Play new note Concert Bb with the correct fingering, posture, hand position, intonation, and a characteristic tone quality. Identify, define, and perform staccato. Define and perform 12-bar blues. See Private Lessons Homogeneous Study for individualized objectives. Procedure (Activities) Warm-up Use 14. Warm-up: Chop Builder as a daily warm-up in addition to any long tones, scales, or GREAT WARM-UPS (beginning on student page 42, score page 507). Have students use a full sound and steady air stream, making sure all players are slurring. Have the brass players perform the warm-up on their mouthpieces while the woodwind players and percussionists perform on their instruments.
2 2 14. Warm-up: Chop Builder Introduction of Concert G, F, Eb [flute and oboe]; Concert Eb [clarinet, bass clarinet, and saxophones]; Concert Ab [electric bass] 1) Have woodwinds inspect the first two measures of music and consult the fingering chart at the top of the page. 2) Have brass play the first three pitches on their mouthpieces while the woodwinds/mallets sustain them one note at a time, focusing on finding any new pitches and performing them with the correct fingerings and a characteristic tone quality. (Mallets do not have new pitches here, but this is a great opportunity to practice rolls.) Consider allowing flutes to breathe in between each pitch at first, as sustaining pitches in this register is a challenge initially. Saxophonists need to maintain a firm embouchure and focused air stream as they learn to control this concert Eb. 3) Have the brass and woodwinds sing the exercise on the syllable too while the percussionists play. Students should reflect articulations, dynamics, and breath marks in their singing. Snare drummers should strive for a seamless, consistent sound on each repetitive stroke in both hands. 4) Play this exercise with the recorded accompaniment. Flute players may need to add a breath in the second measure. Each time this warm-up is used, encourage flutists to strive for the four-measure phrase. 15. Chorale: Old Hundredth Band Arrangement Introduction of Concert Ab [electric bass] 1) Sizzle this exercise while using the correct fingerings, slide positions, or air sticking. Be sure that style and dynamics are reflected in the sizzle. 2) Perform this arrangement as a full band. Encourage students to use a more legato tongue (e.g., du ) on the attacks. 3) When playing chorales, encourage students to focus on balance, blend, tone, and intonation. Consult Teaching Band with Excellence for more information on balance and blend. 4) As students become more comfortable with the arrangement, add rubato as well as alternate dynamic shape through conducting gestures. 5) Consider making this chorale a part of your daily warm-up routine. 6) Have students complete the Louis Bourgeois Worksheet available in the Interactive Teacher Studio (ITS). 7) Louis Bourgeois was from France. Identify France on a world map and have students follow along with the map located on page 47 of their books. Ask students to share information that they may know about France, such as climate, geography, history, cuisine, art, and culture. 8) Help students explore the relationships between music and French culture and geography by using the France Worksheet available in the ITS. Distribute the pages to students as homework, or review by displaying them in class. 9) Use Excellence in Theory Book 1 and/or Book 2, pages for a preliminary study of the Romantic Period.
3 3 10) Using the Interactive Practice Studio (IPS)/ITS, explore the history of the song: In 16th-century Europe, Protestant Christians often sang devotional songs that were based on Hebrew poetry from the book of Psalms. This melody was first composed by French composer Louis Bourgeois (c c. 1561*) as an accompaniment to Psalm 134. Bourgeois s melody was by far the best-known Psalm melody, and it was later applied to many different texts. In England, it was the melody to Psalm 100, which is why it is often called the Old Hundredth. * Did you know that c. is short for the Latin word circa, which means around? It is used for dates that historians are uncertain about. Written by Mark C. Samples, American musicologist 16. Concert Eb Major Scale, Arpeggio, and Chords Introduction of Concert Bb [F Horns Only] 1) Review the concept of concert pitch with students. 2) Project a piano keyboard on a screen. Review the definitions of whole and half step. Consider referring students to the top of page 2 for the definition and construction of a major scale. Walk them through the scale step by step. 3) Play the scale together (only measures 1 5). 4) Review the definition of arpeggio and play the arpeggio together (measures 6 7). 5) Review with students the following information: tonic first note of a scale; chord built on the first note of a scale subdominant fourth note of a scale; chord built on the fourth note of a scale dominant fifth note of a scale; chord built on the fifth note of a scale 6) Play the chords together (measures 8 9). Use this opportunity to review the principles of balance in the concert band. (Consult Teaching Band With Excellence for more information on tuning, balance, and blend.) 7) Play the entire exercise. Consider adding this scale to the end of your daily warm-ups. 17. Report Card Blues Introduction of staccato [all except percussion] 1) Select a student to read the definition of staccato from the top of the page. 2) While the length of a staccato pitch is often determined by its musical context, generally, staccato pitches are half the length of the written rhythmic value. Have students perform concert D on five quarter notes (about q = 84) at full value. Next, have them perform the five Ds staccato (about an eighth note in length). Go back and forth between the full value quarter notes and the staccato quarter notes as students listen to each other to match the length of the notes. As students are playing the staccato pitches, make sure the tone of each
4 4 note is maintained and not clipped or choked. Consider using a metronome to avoid rushing during this exercise. 3) Next, in the same tempo, have students play five concert Ds as successive full value eighth notes. Then, play the notes staccato. Again, the tone of the sounding pitch should be resonant but short not clipped or choked. 4) Sizzle this exercise while using the correct fingerings, slide positions, or air sticking. Students should pay particular attention to the length of their sizzle on staccato pitches, as well as the force of their sizzle on the accents. 5) Perform this exercise. 6) Select a student to read the history text. Consult the enrichment studies at the bottom of this page for further ideas on teaching the blues. 7) Perform this exercise with the recorded accompaniment. 18. Skill Builder Test 1) As this line is designed for assessment, it is suggested that students learn how to perform this exercise on their own. 2) Assign this exercise for a performance evaluation. Evaluation (Assessment) Use 18. Skill Builder as an evaluation tool to assess the skills learned on student page 4. Consult Teaching Band with Excellence (pages 53 62) for recommended assessment styles and rubrics for this performance evaluation. These evaluation tools are also readily available in the ITS. Tradition of Excellence is available on SmartMusic for computer-based assessment. Have students conduct a self-evaluation. A Test Reflection form is available on this exercise in the IPS. Enrichment Studies Instrument Identification Take time each day to listen to the recorded accompaniments correlated with page 4. Have students identify the instrument(s) playing the student melody. Also ask which instruments they can hear in the accompaniment. The Pyramid of Sound Many of the finest bands have a dark sound because of the predominance of the lower and darker sounding instrumental voices (e.g., bass clarinet, bassoon, baritone saxophone, baritone/ euphonium, and tuba). The tenor, alto, and soprano voices produce proportionately less of the band s volume respectively. While the ultimate goal is a balanced pyramid of sound, an overall pleasant tone quality is the primary objective in the early stages of instruction. Beginning instruction involves proper breathing techniques and formation of correct embouchure. Once students have become confident in these areas, the development of the pyramid can commence.
5 5 Dynamic understanding and control are the next steps for students. When they are comfortable playing basic dynamic levels as a group (piano, mezzo piano, mezzo forte, forte), integrate the following pyramid-creating steps (these steps may also be applied to a single pitch played by the entire band): 1) Instruct the bass instruments to play the root of a Concert Bb major triad at a f volume level. 2) Add the tenor instruments playing the fifth (Concert F) of a Concert Bb major triad at a mf volume level. 3) Add the alto instruments playing the third (Concert D) of a Concert Bb major triad at a mp volume level. 4) Add the soprano instruments playing the root of the Concert Bb major triad at a p volume level. Once the basic balance is established, experiment with crescendos and decrescendos. Use the suggested pitches above and direct students to students to maintain the proper relative balance while performing these dynamic changes. Students should consider how a proportional increase of sound is useful in maintaining correct balance. For more information and visual representations of these concepts, see Teaching Band with Excellence pages Listening to good models of balanced sound in addition to their own experiences will provide students a clearer understanding of the concept. Instructors should build a list of resources representing well-balanced bands for student use. This can include a library of audio and video recordings for check-out or independent study while in class, as well as a list of appropriate websites and other computer/online resources. In addition, the pyramid techniques should be applied to performance literature during the band rehearsal. Using 15. Chorale: Old Hundredth, isolate the chords in measures 3, 6, 9, and 12. Build these chords using the techniques outlined in the section above. Be sure to play these chords in context before leaving this portion of your rehearsal. Twelve Bar Blues Using an interactive whiteboard, chalkboard, or dry-erase board, draw 12 empty measures, 4 bars per system. Or use a grid to represent the measures, as shown below. The twelve-bar blues is perhaps the most well-known chord progression in popular music. The music repeats a series of twelve measures that use the same chords in the same pattern.
6 6 Play a musical example of twelve-bar blues. As the music is playing, have students clap on count 1 of each measure. While they are doing that, keep track of each beat by placing 4 slashes in each measure as shown below. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / The basic blues progression uses three chords: one built off of the first scale degree, the tonic (I); one built off of the fourth scale degree, the subdominant (IV); and one built off of the fifth scale degree, the dominant (V). The chord changes occur as follows: I (I) (I) (I) IV (IV) I (I) V IV I (I) As the music plays, have students stomp their feet on each chord change (beat one of measures 1, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11). Be sure to add the chords to the grid you have drawn. Have students play the Concert Bb scale in unison. Next, have students play only the first scale degree, the fourth scale degree, and the fifth scale degree. Have students play the first beat of each measure of the 12-bar blues using the correct note (1, 4, or 5). Only play on count 1, and only play a quarter note. The music should sound like this (notated on the following page in concert pitch), but no music should be written down for the class to read:
7 7 Next, discuss the form of blues lyrics. In many songs, the lyrics take the form A-A-B. One line of the lyrics is sung over the first 4 measures. The same line spans over the next 4 measures, and a different line is sung over the final 4 measures. For example: A: I woke up this morning, and I had to come to school A: I woke up this morning, and I had to come to school B: But I got to come to band, so school is kind of cool Have students write their own lyrics to a blues song. Have students perform their approved lyrics for the class as sections of the band play the roots to the chords (as outlined above). Have many students sing or chant their lyrics as different sections of the band play the chords. Have the percussion section create a groove that matches the music. Scale Construction Part 2 Provide each student with a sheet of manuscript paper. Together, construct scales starting on F, G, Bb, and Eb. Students should refer to a keyboard layout when constructing scales. Review the concept of concert pitch with students using the information from the book 2 page 7 lesson plan. Remind students that in order to play a concert pitch note correctly, many band members will have to think of and play a different note. This process is called transposition. A transposing instrument is one whose written notes should be thought of as fingering indicators rather than the actual sounding pitches.
8 8 Instruct students to play the following concert pitches by using the fingering for the notes listed below. Concert Bb Concert C Concert Eb Concert F Note fingering used for: Bb instruments Eb instruments F instruments C instruments C G F Bb D A G C F C Bb Eb G D C F After students identify Concert Bb, have each student write that scale for their instrument on the manuscript paper. Next, find the correct pitches for Concert F and Concert Eb. Construct each scale on the manuscript paper. When finished, have students play the scales as a class: Concert Bb, Concert F, and Concert Eb. Have students check their work with 5. Concert Bb Major Scale, Arpeggio, and Chords, 10. Concert F Major Scale, Arpeggio, and Chords, and 16. Concert Eb Major Scale, Arpeggio, and Chords in their books. This is an excellent time to visually harvest the flats or sharps from the notated scale and place them in the key signature. Conducting Lesson: Pick-up Notes 15. Chorale: Old Hundredth provides a great opportunity to address conducting a pick-up note, as well as apply what students have learned regarding conducting dynamics. First, using a metronome, have the class conduct a ƒ pattern. As the metronome clicks, float around the room to privately correct individual students placement of the pattern. Once students are comfortable, have them take a look at the music: On what beat does the music begin? (Count 4.) To get the band to play on count 4, what beat must the conductor provide? (Count 3.) To conduct count 3, where does a conductor s hand have to start? (At the end of count 2.) Have students place their hands in the appropriate places while addressing each beat. With the metronome still on, have students conduct only beats 4 and 1. (Have students say four and one as they conduct.) As they prepare for the pick-up note (giving the preparatory gesture on count 3), be sure students are taking a good breath. Repeat this pick-up practice several times. Extend this lesson by asking students to conduct the previous exercises with pick up notes (9. Ellacombe and 11. Sight-Reading Challenge: Waves on the Sea in ƒ and 2. Academic Festival March in ƒ). Select student conductors to conduct the band through these etudes, focusing mainly on their beat pattern and pick-up preparatory gesture.
9 9 Private Lessons Homogeneous Study These Private Lessons are written to address technical challenges unique to each individual instrument. Because they are geared for homogeneous instruction, many of the lessons have been linked to instrument-specific Mastering Excellence exercises beginning on student page 40. These Mastering Excellence exercises are written to engage students at different skill levels. Each Mastering Excellence has a basic and an advanced preparatory exercise to be accomplished before attempting the cumulative exercise. The combination of the Private Lesson and the Mastering Excellence exercises is designed to maximize the use of instructional time in the small group setting. Goals for 19. Private Lesson Flute and oboe: Perform octave shifting. Clarinet, alto clarinet, and bass clarinet: Play F# using the alternate fingering. Alto saxophone and baritone saxophone: Play new notes A, B, and C. Tenor saxophone: Play F# using the alternate fingering. Bassoon: Play new note F#. Identify, define, and perform sharp and courtesy accidental. Trumpet/cornet, trombone, baritone/euphonium, and tuba: Perform lip slurs and Concert Eb major finger patterns. F horn: Perform lip slurs and a low-range exercise. Eb horn: Perform lip slurs and F major finger patterns. Electric bass: Perform finger patterns in Eb major. Mallets: Identify, define, and perform sharp and courtesy accidental. Play new note F# in two octaves. Snare drum: Identify and perform open double stroke and Nine Stroke Roll (Quarter Note Roll).