1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television 1.1. INTRODUCTION From small beginnings less than 100 years ago, the television industry has grown to be a significant part of the lives of most people in the developed world, providing arguably the largest single source of information to its viewers. The first true television system was demonstrated by John Logie Baird in the 1920s. Further experiments were conducted in the following decade, leading to trial broadcasts in Europe and the United States, and eventually to the regular television service we know today. Originally, only monochrome pictures were supported. Color television was introduced in the United States in 1954 and in Europe in Television systems have evolved as simplex transmission systems, as shown in Figure 1.1. The term simplex means that information flows only in one direction across the channel. A transmitter, whose antenna is usually mounted on a tall tower, broadcasts a signal to a large number of receivers. Each receiver decodes the transmission and passes it on to a display device. Sometimes, the receiver and display are integrated into a single device, such as in a standard television that incorporates a means for the user to select the channel to be viewed. Sometimes, the receiver and display are separate devices, such as when a signal is received through a video cassette recorder (VCR) and passed to an external display. This system is known as terrestrial broadcast television. Satellite and cable television systems operate on similar models. Figure 1.2 shows the outline structure of a cable television system. COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL 1.2. ANALOG TELEVISION Traditional television services make use of analog technology to provide an audiovisual, broadcast service. The basic structure of an analog television transmitter is shown in Figure 1.3. Video and audio signals, which may be derived from live sources such as cameras and microphones or from storage devices such as video Digital Television, by John Arnold, Michael Frater and Mark Pickering. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1
2 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Receiver Display Video/audio signal Transmitter Receiver Display Receiver Display Figure 1.1 Simplex structure of terrestrial broadcast television. recorders, are fed into separate modulators, whose output is multiplexed and upconverted to form the broadcast signal. Various methods of modulating, multiplexing, and upconverting the signals to specific broadcast frequencies (as shown in Figure 1.3) are defined in the various analog television standards. Three of the major standards used for analog television are National Television System Committee (NTSC) , used primarily in North, Central, and South America, Systeme Electronique (pour) Couleur avec Memoire (SECAM), used in France and countries in eastern Europe such as Poland and Russia, and Phase Alternating Line (PAL) , used in many other countries including western Europe and Australia. In this chapter, we discuss the operation of analog television with reference to three areas: the representation of video, the representation of audio, and the systems that provide the multiplexing of video and audio services into a single channel Video An analog video signal is created by a time sequence of pictures, with 25 or 30 of these pictures displayed every second. Each picture consists of a number of lines, Receiver Display Video/audio signal Video/audio signal Transmitter/ multiplexer Receiver Display Cable distribution network Receiver Display Figure 1.2 Structure of a cable television system.
3 1.2. Analog Television 3 Video camera Modulator Multiplexer Upconverter Microphone Modulator Figure 1.3 Basic structure of an analog television system. each of which is scanned left to right, as illustrated in Figure 1.4. The vertical resolution is usually 576 lines for 25 Hz systems and 480 lines for 30 Hz systems. In addition to the displayed lines, a number of other lines of data are transmitted. These are intended to provide time for the scan in a cathode ray tube to return from the bottom right of the display at the end of one picture to the top left of the display at the beginning of the next picture. The inclusion of these nondisplayed lines brings the total number of lines per picture to 625 for 25 Hz systems and 525 for 30 Hz systems. The time in which these nondisplayed lines are transmitted is known as the vertical blanking interval (VBI) Horizontal Synchronization In an analog television signal, a synchronization pulse is provided at the start of every line in the picture as shown in Figure 1.5, which shows the waveform for a single line where the brightness decreases in steps from left to right. This means that the display begins its horizontal scan at the same place in the signal as the camera that captured the video signal. In addition, a longer synchronization pulse is used to indicate that the scan should restart at the top left of the display. These synchronization pulses allow the receiver to achieve synchronism with the incoming signal. First, scan left to right Second, scan top to bottom Figure 1.4 Simple left-to-right, top-to-bottom scan.
4 4 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Line synch pulse Video line Figure 1.5 Waveform of a single picture line of analog video. The interval allocated for transmission of the line synchronization pulse and the immediately surrounding regions (known as the front and back porches) is known as the line blanking interval or the horizontal blanking interval. Its length is 11 µs in NTSC and 12 µs in PAL and SECAM systems Horizontal Resolution The horizontal resolution of an analog television system depends on the bandwidth of the video signal. Roughly speaking, the resolution of the system is 2 pixels per Hertz of video bandwidth. These pixels are shared equally between the transmitted lines. The number of useful pixels in each line is reduced by the length of the line blanking interval. The horizontal resolution r h of an analog video system with bandwidth B is therefore r h 2Bt ULI where t ULI is the useful line interval. The horizontal resolutions for a number of in-service analog television systems are shown in Table 1.1. In the case of PAL and SECAM, there are a number of different implementations, each denoted by a Table 1.1 Approximate horizontal resolution for selected analog television systems. System Lines per second (KHz) Line period (µs) Useful line interval (line period line blanking interval) (µs) Video bandwidth (B) (MHz) Approximate horizontal resolution (pixels) NTSC PAL (B, G, H)/ SECAM (B, G) PAL (I) PAL (D)/SECAM (D, K, K1, L)
5 1.2. Analog Television 5 single letter. The video bandwidth varies between implementations, and a number of options are shown Interlaced Video When analog television was designed, an important design trade-off was between the service picture rate and the service bandwidth. The picture rate chosen needs to be sufficiently fast to ensure that a human viewer perceives an apparently continuous service (as opposed to a rapid series of individual pictures called flicker which would be subjectively most unpleasant). Once the appropriate horizontal and vertical resolution of a television picture had been decided, the desired bandwidth meant that a relatively low picture rate (25 or 30 Hz) was all that could be achieved. These picture rates are insufficient to avoid flicker in all circumstances. However, simply increasing the picture rate would lead to an increase in the required service bandwidth. This was an unacceptable outcome. The developers of analog television overcame this problem using a technique called interlacing. Interlacing divides each picture into two fields, as shown in Figure 1.6. One field contains the odd lines from the picture (i.e., lines 1, 3, 5, ) and is called the odd field, whereas the other field contains the even lines from the picture (i.e., lines 2, 4, 6, ) and is called the even field (Figure 6(a)). The odd lines are scanned from the camera system and then half a picture time later (i.e., 1/50th or 1/60th of a second) the even lines are scanned (Figure 6(b)). This approach improves the rendition of moving objects and also completely removes the flicker problem discussed earlier. The trade-off is some loss in vertical resolution of the picture. (a) Odd (top) field Even (bottom) field Figure 1.6 Interlace structure showing location of odd and even fields, (a) as seen on the display, and (b) the formation of pictures from two consecutive fields. Time (b)
6 6 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Table 1.2 Numbers of video lines per field and picture. System Notional picture frequency Hz Field frequency Hz Displayed lines per picture Displayed lines per field Total lines per picture Total lines per field PAL, SECAM (odd)/ 312 (even) NTSC (odd)/ 262 (even) Table 1.2 shows the number of lines per picture and field for 25 and 30 Hz analog television systems. EXAMPLE 1.1 MATLAB The aim of this example is to demonstrate the impact of combining two fields containing a moving object into a single picture. SOLUTION Figure 1.7 shows two fields of pixels consisting of a black background and a white square of size pixels that has moved four pixels to the right between fields. A zeros(128); % black background for odd fi eld B zeros(128); % black background for even fi eld A(49:80, 49:80) 255 ones(32); % white square in odd fi eld B(49:80, 57:88) 255 ones(32); % white square in even fi eld (moved 8 pixels right) image(a) image(b) The individual fields can be displayed using the MATLAB function image.m: % display odd fi eld % display even fi eld The images obtained by displaying A and B are shown in Figure 1.7. The two fields can be merged into a single picture, which is then displayed, using the commands below. C zeros(256,128); C(1:2:255,:) A; C(2:2:256,:) B; image(c); Figure 1.7 Odd and even fields produced in Example 1.
7 1.2. Analog Television 7 Figure 1.8 Merged fields to form a picture. The resulting image is shown in Figure 1.8. The jagged edges are caused by the movement of the white block between the odd and even fields. In some circumstances, these jagged edges can lead to localized flickering. When fields containing moving objects are merged to form a single picture, straight edges that are moving horizontally are turned into jagged edges. An example from the Mobile and Calendar sequence is shown in Figure 1.9, in which the jagged edges of moving objects such as the spots on the ball and the numbers on the calendar are clearly apparent Color Television Television was initially a monochrome (black-and-white) service. When color television was to be introduced, the color information needed to be introduced in a way that did not affect substantially the quality of service received by consumers who still had a black-and-white television receiver. As is well known, color receivers display only three colors (red (R), green (G), and blue (B)). The mixing of these colors at the human eye provides the range of colors that we are used to with color television. Transmitting separate signals for red, green, and blue would triple the bandwidth requirement for color television compared to monochrome television. Because a monochrome signal is not present in this set, the only way to provide a good quality monochrome picture for existing receivers would be to send yet another signal just for this purpose; this would be a very wasteful use of valuable spectrum. The quality of reception at monochrome receivers would have been significantly compromised.
8 8 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Figure 1.9 Picture from the Mobile and Calendar sequence. The approach taken was to transmit not the color signals R, G, and B but the monochrome signal (known as the luminance Y) accompanied by two color difference, or chrominance, signals (U and V) from which the three colors R, G, and B can be reconstructed. The values of the luminance signal and two chrominance signals can be calculated from R, G, and B according to Y 0.299R 0.587G 0.114B U B Y 203. R Y V 114. Slightly different versions of these equations are used in different television systems. The three color signals R, G, and B are reconstructed at the receiver and displayed. Because the luminance signal is still transmitted, it is still available to monochrome receivers and so there is a minimal impact on existing viewers. The color difference signals can also be transmitted with a significantly smaller bandwidth than the luminance signal. This is acceptable because the resolution of the human eye is lower for chrominance than it is for luminance. The use of color difference signals was therefore an early attempt at bandwidth compression.
9 1.2. Analog Television Audio The audio accompanying video in an analog television system usually has a bandwidth of approximately 15 khz. The audio system in analog television originally supported only a single (monophonic) channel. It has been extended with the same philosophy of backward compatibility used for adding color information in the video to provide a range of services, including options for stereo audio, and two independent audio channels. In all cases, the original monophonic audio is still transmitted to support older receivers, with other signals added to provide higher levels of functionality Systems Specification of the representation of audio and video is not sufficient to define a television service. A means is required to multiplex the video signals (luminance and chrominance) and the audio (mono or stereo) onto a single channel. We refer to this capability as the systems part of the television service. Each country specifies a channel bandwidth for broadcast television systems. In North and Central America, 6 MHz is used, whereas 7 or 8 MHz is commonly used in the rest of the world. Approximately 70% of the bandwidth of the channel is allocated to video, with the remaining capacity available for audio and guard bands between channels. Figure 1.10 shows the spectrum of a typical, monochrome, analog television channel with a single audio channel. Most of the capacity of the channel is allocated to the video, with a small amount available for audio. The video signal is usually modulated using vestigial sideband amplitude modulation with the upper sideband dominant, whereas the audio signal is frequency modulated with a maximum deviation of approximately 50 khz (giving an audio bandwidth of 100 khz). The audio carrier is located within the channel, but outside that part of the channel specified for the transmission of video. Each of the analog television standards specifies the locations of the video and audio carriers. Extension to support color television can be achieved by the multiplexing of the chrominance signals onto the channel, as shown in Figure This is done by using Video carrier Audio carrier Audio (monophonic) Video (luminance) Channel bandwidth Figure 1.10 Spectrum of a typical monochrome analog television channel.
10 10 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Video carrier Audio carrier Color subcarrier Audio (monophonic) Video (luminance) Channel bandwidth Chrominance Figure 1.11 Spectrum of a color analog television channel. vestigial sideband modulation for the chrominance signal, with the lower sideband dominant. Each of the three standards specifies the location for the color subcarrier, which is the carrier frequency associated with the modulation of the chrominance signal. The carriers for the two chrominance signals have the same frequency, but differ in phase by 90. This phase multiplexing allows separation of the signals at the receiver. Noting that most of the energy in video signals occurs at low frequencies, the chrominance information is transmitted toward the upper end of the video spectrum. This does have the effect that high-frequency luminance information can sometimes be mistakenly decoded as color information. It is for this reason that herringbone tweed jackets sometime flair purple on color television receivers. The high-frequency monochrome information from the tweed is incorrectly decoded as color information. The problem has been addressed by television producers becoming aware of the problem and making sure that presenters do not wear inappropriate clothing. A second audio channel can be incorporated simply by specifying the location of its carrier. Frequency modulation is usually also used for the second audio channel. Backward compatibility is maintained by ensuring that a valid monophonic audio signal for the program is transmitted on the original audio carrier. This is illustrated in Figure Each of the various standards for analog television (NTSC, PAL, and SECAM) specifies frequencies for the video carrier, color subcarrier, and audio carriers. Each standard also specifies maximum bandwidths for the video and each of the audio channels. Video carrier Audio carriers Color subcarrier Audio (monophonic) Video (luminance) Second audio channel Channel bandwidth Chrominance Figure 1.12 Spectrum of a typical color analog television channel with stereo audio.
11 1.3. The Motivation for Digital Television Ancillary Services Analog television systems have evolved to carry not only audio and video signals, but also a range of ancillary data services. These ancillary services make use of the nondisplayed lines of the video vertical blanking interval to provide low-rate data services such as closed captioning (also known as subtitling) and teletext. Because these services are carried in the vertical blanking interval, they have no impact on receivers that are not equipped to decode them THE MOTIVATION FOR DIGITAL TELEVISION The initial impetus for moving to a digital signal was standards conversion (e.g., from 525 line NTSC at 30 pictures/s to 625 line PAL at 25 pictures/s). This is an extremely difficult process in the analog domain. Significant signal processing is still required in the digital domain. However, appropriate high-speed hardware can be built to allow the task to be successfully carried out. Other motivations for the change from analog to digital television include carrying multiple digital television channels within the existing bandwidth allocated to a single analog television service, the ability to carry higher resolution services (such as high-definition television) in a single channel, and the integration of a range of interactive services into the television broadcast. From a communication point of view, digital transmission has many advantages. In particular, it offers considerable noise immunity. Consider the analog signal shown in Figure The original analog signal is perturbed by noise. If the noise is Original analog signal Signal after addition of noise Figure 1.13 Impact of noise on an analog signal.
12 12 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television Original digital signal Signal after addition of noise Signal after thresholding Figure 1.14 Impact of noise on a digital signal. in the same area of the spectrum as the signal (so-called in-band noise), then there is little that can de done to remove it. The impact of noise on a digital signal is quite different, as illustrated in Figure In this case, a simple thresholding operation allows the original signal to be perfectly reconstructed. Even when the noise is large enough to cross the threshold, enhanced signal processing techniques such as matched filtering  can be employed to achieve good performance (which can be improved still further using error correction techniques such as those described in a later chapter). The ability of digital signals to reject noise makes digital systems ideal for long-distance transmission because quality can be maintained through many repeaters. Other advantages of digital systems include the fact that digital components are of low cost and are very stable. In addition, many digital networks are now emerging for the transmission of audiovisual material at a range of transmission rates THE NEED FOR COMPRESSION If digital systems offer so many advantages, why have we not moved to digital television long ago? The answer lies in the very high data rates required for transmitting raw, uncompressed digital video and the complexity of the digital systems required to provide real-time processing for compression and decompression.
13 1.4. The Need for Compression 13 Table 1.3 Resolution of digital television. Picture rate (Hz) Lines per picture Luminance samples per line Fields per second Interlace Two fields per picture (2:1) Two fields per picture (2:1) The resolution defined for digital television by the ITU-R Recommendation BT.601  is given in Table 1.3. The number of lines per picture is the same as the number of displayed lines for the analog services. When an analog television signal is converted to digital, the nondisplayed lines in the vertical blanking interval are removed. For both 25 and 30 Hz transmission, 14,400 lines per second are transmitted, which means that 10,368,000 pixels (or luminance samples) must be transmitted each second. For distribution of digital television, each chrominance signal is sampled at half the rate of the luminance signal, that is, at 360 samples per line. Thus, there is one sample of each of the chrominance components (U and V) for every two luminance components (Y). If each of the Y, U, and V is represented to 8-bit accuracy, then an average of 16 bits is required for each luminance sample. The raw bit rate is therefore 10,368,000 luminance samples per second multiplied by 16 bits per sample, giving a data rate of Mbit/s. Even in the highest capacity, modern, communications networks, this is an extremely high capacity to be allocated to a single service. The corresponding bandwidth requirement for various digital modulation schemes is shown in Table 1.4, each of which is much greater than the 6, 7, or 8 MHz allocated for the transmission of an analog television service. If digital television is to compete effectively with analog television, it needs to be able to utilize a bandwidth not more than (and preferably significantly less than) an equivalent analog service. Of course, the raw data rate could be reduced to achieve this Table 1.4 Bandwidth requirement for uncompressed digital video using various digital modulation schemes. Modulation scheme Bits/second/Hertz of bandwidth Required bandwidth (MHz) Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) ary phase-shift keying (8-ary PSK) ary quadrature amplitude modulation (256-ary QAM)
14 14 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television goal. This could be done by reducing either the number of samples per line, the number of lines per picture, or the number of pictures per second. Such an approach would seriously affect the quality of the received service and so is not a viable solution. A similar method can be used to calculate the rate required for transmitting uncompressed digital audio. If each channel of audio is sampled at 44.1 khz with a resolution of 16 bits per sample, kbit/s is required per channel. For fivechannel audio (such as that used for surround-sound systems), a total of 3.5 Mbit/s is required. Although this is much less than the rate required for raw digital video, it still represents a significant expansion of the bandwidth requirement for the audio service compared to analog television. Fortunately, the characteristics of the video and audio signals are such that significant savings are possible in the amount of data that needs to be transmitted in order to adequately represent the original signals. The digital signal processing techniques that allow this aim to be achieved will be a major focus of the first two parts of this text. It turns out that 5 10 Mbit/s is a reasonable target bit rate for a digital television service, with approximately 10% of the available data rate taken by transmission overheads, 10% allocated to audio, and the remaining 80% to video. Under these circumstances, compression factors of approximately 40 are required for digital video (meaning that the compressed digital video should require one fortieth of the rate required by the uncompressed video) and 10 for digital audio STANDARDS FOR DIGITAL TELEVISION The use of standards in television broadcast systems is critical to their success. It is necessary that a consumer be able to purchase a receiver from any manufacturer and be confident of being able to watch television transmissions from any television broadcaster. Standards have always played a major part in providing this interoperability. For analog television, these were NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Modern digital television systems are based on one of the two standards, both named after the groups that developed them. The US Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)  family of standards is used in North America, whereas the Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)  family of standards is used in much of the rest of the world, including Europe, much of Asia, and Australia. DVB uses the MPEG-2 video standard  to provide video compression, the MPEG-2 audio standard  for audio compression, and the MPEG-2 systems standard  to multiplex the compressed video and audio with other data for transmission. Additional DVB standards extend the functionality of the MPEG-2 systems specification and specify how additional data (including subtitling and teletext) are carried in the bit stream. ATSC also uses the MPEG-2 standards for video compression and multiplexing. Instead of using the MPEG-2 audio standard, ATSC specifies its own standard for
15 References 15 Raw digital video Video encoder Raw digital audio Audio encoder System encoder Modulator Other data Data encoder Figure 1.15 Outline structure of a digital television encoding and transmission system. audio compression, which uses the Dolby AC-3 compression system . Like DVB, ATSC specifies additional standards for carrying data (including closed captioning) in the bit stream. The DVB and ATSC standards are available free of charge, at the time of writing. MPEG standards are available for purchase through national bodies affiliated to the International Standards Organization. In all cases, sufficient information is provided in this text for the reader to understand how the technology embedded in each relevant standard works. Access to the standard would be required, however, for a complete implementation to be developed. The notional structure of a digital video transmitter is shown in Figure 1.15, consisting of separate encoders for each type of signal to be included in the transmitted program, a system encoder that multiplexes the outputs of these encoders and a modulator that converts the multiplexed bit stream into a form suitable for transmission in the same channel as that used for analog television. Part 1 of this book is concerned with the characteristics of the video encoder, its output bit stream, and the corresponding decoder. Part 2 is concerned with the audio encoder, its output bit stream, and decoder. Part 3 of the book covers the system encoder, encoders for other types of data, and modulation. REFERENCES 1. See, for example, (a) D.G. Fink (Ed.), Color Television Standards NTSC, New York: McGraw-Hill, (b) D.H. Pritchard, US color television fundamentals a review, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., CE-23, Television systems; Enhanced 625-line Phased Alternate Line (PAL) television; PALplus, Sofia Antipolis: ETSI, Further details on matched filtering can be found in many textbooks on digital communications, including B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Recommendation BT.601, Studio encoding parameters of digital television for standard 4:3 and wide-screen 16:9 aspect ratios, Geneva: ITU-R, See, for example, 6. See, for example,
16 16 Chapter 1 Introduction to Analog and Digital Television 7. ISO/IEC , Information technology Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information Part 2: Video, ISO/IEC , Information technology Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information Part 3: Audio, ISO/IEC , Information technology Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information Part 1: Systems, ATSC Standard A/58, Digital audio compression standard (AC-3), Advanced Television Systems Committee, 1995.
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Will Widescreen (16:9) Work Over Cable? Ralph W. Brown Digital video, in both standard definition and high definition, is rapidly setting the standard for the highest quality television viewing experience.
Rec. TU-R BT.1203 1 RECOMMENDATON TU-R BT.1203 * User requirements for generic bit-rate reduction coding of digital TV signals (, and ) for an end-to-end television system (1995) The TU Radiocommunication
TV Synchronism Generation with PIC Microcontroller With the widespread conversion of the TV transmission and coding standards, from the early analog (NTSC, PAL, SECAM) systems to the modern digital formats
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Introduction Mechanical early developments. Electrical how it works. Digital advantages over analogue. brian egan isnm Mechanical television First televisions were mechanical based on revolving disc, first
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191 192 PAL uncompressed 768x576 pixels per frame x 3 bytes per pixel (24 bit colour) x 25 frames per second 31 MB per second 1.85 GB per minute 191 192 NTSC uncompressed 640x480 pixels per frame x 3 bytes
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Advanced Television Systems Robert Hopkins United States Advanced Television Systems Committee Washington, DC CES, January 1986 Abstract The United States Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) was
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To Place an Order or get more info. Call Uniforce Sales and Engineering (510) 657 4000 www.uniforcesales.com Transitioning from NTSC (analog) to HD Digital Video Sheet 1 NTSC Analog Video NTSC video -color
Content storage architectures DAS: Directly Attached Store SAN: Storage Area Network allocates storage resources only to the computer it is attached to network storage provides a common pool of storage
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Software FG-38-II has signed drivers for 32-bit and 64-bit Microsoft Windows. The standard interfaces such as Microsoft Video for Windows / WDM and Twain are supported to use third party video software.
DVNCED TELEVISION SYSTEMS Robert Hopkins United States dvanced Television Systems Committee STRCT This paper was first presented as a tutorial to engineers at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The Lecture Contains: Analog Video Raster Interlaced Scan Characterization of a video Raster Analog Color TV systems Signal Bandwidth Digital Video Parameters of a digital video Pixel Aspect Ratio file:///d
Chrominance Subsampling in Digital Images Douglas A. Kerr Issue 2 December 3, 2009 ABSTRACT The JPEG and TIFF digital still image formats, along with various digital video formats, have provision for recording
SM06 Advanced Composite Video Interface: HD-SDI to acvi converter module User Manual Revision 0.4 1 st May 2017 Page 1 of 26 Revision History Date Revisions Version 17-07-2016 First Draft. 0.1 28-08-2016
Video Philco H3407C (circa 1958) Never before have I witnessed compressed into a single device so much ingenuity, so much brain power, so much development, and such phenomenal results David Sarnoff Topics
2 Traditionally video signals have been transmitted along cables in the form of lower energy electrical impulses. As new technologies emerge we are seeing the development of new connection methods within
Introduction Z Technology's RF NEWSLETTER DTV edition -- May 2002 DTV RF Transmission Path Measurements Digital television transmissions have started in every major U.S. market and television viewers can
W h i t e P a p e r VIDEO 101: INTRODUCTION: Understanding how the PC can be used to receive TV signals, record video and playback video content is a complicated process, and unfortunately most documentation
Rec. ITU-R BT.1201 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BT.1201 * Extremely high resolution imagery (Question ITU-R 226/11) (1995) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that extremely high resolution imagery
Federal Communications Commission 73.682 generated sidebands is partially attenuated at the transmitter and radiated only in part. Visual carrier frequency. The frequency of the carrier which is modulated
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Composite Video vs. Component Video Composite video is a clever combination of color and black & white information. Component video keeps these two image components separate. Proper handling of each type
Chapter 6 & Chapter 7 Digital Video CS3570 Video, Film, and Television Compared Movie : a story told with moving images and sound The word motion picture and movie are the same thing The word film seems
Australian Broadcasting Corporation Submission Digital Conversion of Self-Help Television Retransmission Sites (Department of Communications, Information and the Arts) August 2007 Australian Broadcasting
An FPGA Based Solution for Testing Legacy Video Displays Dale Johnson Geotest Marvin Test Systems Abstract The need to support discrete transistor-based electronics, TTL, CMOS and other technologies developed
DVM-3000 Series 12 Bit DIGITAL VIDEO, AUDIO and 8 CHANNEL BI-DIRECTIONAL FIBER OPTIC MULTIPLEXER for SURVEILLANCE and TRANSPORTATION Exceeds RS-250C Short-haul and Broadcast Video specifications. 12 Bit
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MATLAB Simulation of the DVB-S Channel Coding and Decoding Tejas S. Chavan, V. S. Jadhav MAEER S Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Kothrud, Pune, India Department of Electronics & Telecommunication,Pune
Television System EE 3414 May 9, 2003 Group Members: Jun Wei Guo Shou Hang Shi Raul Gomez Overview Basic Components of TV Camera Transmission of TV signals Basic Components of TV Reception of TV signals
Media Delivery Technical Specifications for VMN US Network Operations October 19, 2016 VIACOM MEDIA NETWORKS US NETWORK OPERATIONS CENTER 35 ADAMS AVENUE HAUPPAUGE, NY 11788 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Standard
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Laboratory platform DVB-T technology v1 1. Theoretical notions Television can be defined as a set of principles, methods and techniques used for transmitting moving images. The essential steps in television