A Scalable HDD Video Recording Solution Using A Real-time File System

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Scalable HDD Video Recording Solution Using A Real-time File System"

Transcription

1 H. L et al.: A Scalable HDD Vdeo Recordng Soluton Usng A Real-tme Fle System A Scalable HDD Vdeo Recordng Soluton Usng A Real-tme Fle System Hong L, Stephen R. Cumpson Member, IEEE, Robert Jochemsen, Jan Korst and Nek Lambert 663 Abstract We present a scalable soluton that enables a sngle manstream hard dsk drve to smultaneously record and play back multple real-tme vdeo streams, n addton to supportng non real-tme PC-lke applcatons. Our soluton can handle dfferent types of dsks, dfferent numbers of streams wth dfferent bt rates, and arbtrary non-rt applcatons at the same tme. Index Terms HDD, vdeo recordng, real-tme, fle system. I. INTRODUCTION anstream IDE Hard Dsk Drves (HDD) have enabled Mrandomly accessble mass storage for home audo/vdeo (A/V) applcatons. The contnuously mproved HDD performance and capacty have enabled revolutonary functons on a CE devce, such as Personal Vdeo Recordng (PVR), tme-shftng, network surfng, games, ntellgent collectng and navgatng of prvate and publc A/V content and nformaton usng broadcast and network servces, and other nterestng Personal Computer (PC) functons. For an advanced Home Meda Server (HMS) that can support the above exctng functons, the HDD needs to support multple smultaneous real-tme (RT) A/V streams n addton to non-rt applcaton requests. Such a HDD recordng soluton should be scalable and should not mpose restrctons on the applcaton software mplementaton. Although manstream HDDs have reached hgh throughput, such as ~2 MB/s for contnuous readng or wrtng, the actual throughput of scattered data blocks could be unacceptably low due to the swtch overhead of the HDD. For an advanced HMS that supports multple users wth multple A/V streams, the system requres HDD throughput schedulng and proper fragmentaton lmts for A/V fles on the dsk to guarantee real-tme (RT) streamng throughput for the streams. Typcal embedded system mplementatons based on PC fle systems cannot provde streamng guarantees, and often the amount of PC-lke (non-rt) dsk requests has to be strctly lmted. Several mplementatons use pre-allocated fles on a PC fle system to avod fragmentaton for A/V fles. But ths needs separate admnstraton code for A/V content. Another problem for PC fle systems, e.g. a FAT fle system, s that t could become corrupt due to a power falure. Typcal embedded mplementatons have no specal HDD The authors are all wth Phlps Research Laboratores (Endhoven), Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656AA Endhoven, The Netherlands. (e-mal of Hong L: Manuscrpt receved June 17, / $1. 23 IEEE tme assgnment functon. The dsk throughput assgnment s done at applcaton level, or s applcaton dependent. Therefore t works only for dedcated applcatons. Some mplementatons do not care about the streamng performance at all; they smply assume hgh enough dsk throughput and smple enough applcatons runnng on the system. The above mplementatons often requre sgnfcant reengneerng effort, f a developer wants to swtch to dfferent types of dsks, or to support a dfferent number of streams wth dfferent bt rates, or to upgrade wth varous connectvty features and other PC functons. The soluton we present has the requred scalablty and t s robust aganst power falures. II. GUARANTEEING REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE FOR STREAMING When enjoyng A/V content, consumers do not accept vsble or audble A/V artfacts, such as lost frames, (MPEG2) block artfacts, mage hccups, strange sounds, etc. These artfacts could be caused by any component n the stream process chan, e.g. a HDD, an encoder/decoder, buffers, buses, CPU, etc. Focusng on usng the HDD n ths paper, we want to guarantee real-tme streamng performance by guaranteeng suffcent throughput for each stream. In other words, the streamng buffer between the HDD and a stream processng chan never overflows (for recordng to the HDD) or underflows (for playng back). We also want the buffer sze to be small for latency and cost reasons. We want guaranteed streamng performance ndependent of random non-rt dsk requests. The above requrements can only be reached wth predctable HDD performance. However, for current standard (ATA-6 and pror) IDE dsks, the tme penalty caused by the Error Recovery Procedure (ERP) of the drve s not predctable. The streamng throughput guarantee n ths paper s a nomnal guarantee, whch does not take the rare ERP events nto account. We assume that the CPU latency s low enough for ssung HDD commands n tme. Ths s usually true because onemllsecond latency s acceptable for HDD control. We also assume that the bus throughput and the rest of the stream process chan have suffcent performance. A. Stream Bt Rate Upper Bound Although a compressed A/V stream, e.g. an MPEG2 stream, may have a varable bt rate, the maxmum bt rate s usually a good upper bound to calculate the guaranteed dsk throughput for a stream.

2 664 The maxmum bt rate condton leads to over-reservaton of HDD throughput n realty. For typcal DVB broadcast encoders, the average bt rate can be half of the maxmum bt rate. The system may waste dsk bandwdth, f other dsk requests cannot take advantage of the unconsumed tme that s reserved for a varable bt rate stream. Such slack tme can be used to mprove the throughput for non-rt dsk requests. B. Predctable HDD Performance Manstream HDDs organze ther meda platters n tracks and sectors. A track conssts of all sectors on a crcle and a sector conssts of 512 contnuous bytes. Ignorng the rare random ERP events, the nomnal command completon tme of a dsk request s predctable and conssts of seek tme, rotatonal delay and transfer tme. The seek tme s for movng the head to the target track. It can be modeled wth a lnear functon of the seek dstance. The rotatonal delay s spent on watng for the frst sector of the data block on the track. On average t s a half rotaton. The maxmum rotatonal delay s a full rotaton. The transfer tme s for readng or wrtng the contguous sectors. It vares over the platter surface, because the number of sectors per track vares due to zonng. The performance vares for dfferent HDDs, e.g. wth dfferent meda densty, n dfferent operaton modes and n dfferent form factors. Reference [1] presents methods to characterze the HDD performance and to predct the nomnal command completon tme for gven dsk requests. Accessng scattered sectors costs sgnfcant dsk swtch overhead, whch ncludes seek tme and rotatonal delay. For a manstream HDD, a full rotaton s more than the tme requred for transferrng 1 Kbytes. The maxmum seek tme (between the nner- and the outer-most tracks) s often three to four tmes that of a full rotaton. Ths tme s equvalent to that of transferrng 5 Kbytes. A careless desgn could easly waste 9% of HDD tme on the swtch overhead: e.g. f the head moves after access of every few sectors. C. Data Fragmentaton on the Dsk Wthout a proper data fragmentaton lmt, a HDD vdeo recordng system cannot effectvely guarantee dsk throughput for A/V streams. The FAT fle systems, whch are standard n the PC world, cannot provde sutable fragmentaton lmts for vdeo applcatons, because they use small fle allocaton unts, such as 4-64 KB. Unless usng specal technques lke preallocated or pre-clustered fles, a vdeo fle can be scattered n small blocks on the dsk, especally when the system has been runnng wth an almost full dsk, whch s normal for a PVR or an HMS applcaton. Usng a large fle allocaton unt e.g. hundreds or thousands of sectors, can provde proper fragmentaton lmts for A/V fles. But such large allocaton unts waste valuable dsk capacty for small (e.g. a few klobytes) fles, snce a unt can only be used for one fle. IEEE Transactons on Consumer Electroncs, Vol. 49, No. 3, AUGUST 23 Usng dfferent allocaton unt szes can save capacty, but t ncreases the complexty of the fle system. A practcal soluton s to use multple dsk parttons wth dfferent fle systems, although end-users mght not lke the fxed partton sze. D. HDD Throughput Schedulng Suffcent dsk throughput can be guaranteed for each RT stream by usng a dsk scheduler. The scheduler repeatedly assgns dsk tme to each stream accordng to ts bt rate, so streams wll not run out of data durng playback or out of space durng recordng. Cycle-based schedulng methods, such as sngle sweep schedulng and dual sweep schedulng [2], optmze dsk swtch overhead by re-orderng the sequence of servng the streams. In a cycle perod these methods serve every stream once. The sequence of servng the streams s ordered so that the dsk head moves monotoncally n one or two sweeps every cycle. The swtch overhead s therefore mnmzed, no matter where the stream fles are allocated on the dsk. Because ths knd of scheduler s desgned wth worst-case boundary condtons, such as the maxmum bt rates, the maxmum swtch overhead and sustaned transfer speed, the dsk on average takes less tme than estmated for servng all the streams. The saved tme can be used for non-rt requests. If the desgner wants a certan non-rt throughput he can also reserve some tme for non-rt requests. E. HDD Error Recovery Most dsk commands take a predctable amount of tme. However, a very lmted number of dsk commands take much more tme due to dsk access errors, such as data error and seek error, etc. Current IDE HDDs use an unnterruptble Error Recovery Procedure (ERP) to do retres for error recovery, whch may take up to several seconds. The ERP tme s not predctable and cannot drectly be taken nto account n guaranteeng the streamng performance. If the HDD hts an error, all streams may be nterrupted. To make the ERP tme predctable, a Streamng Data Transfer Feature Set proposal has been defned n the ATA standardzaton commttee [3]. Ths feature set allows grantng a tme budget to every dsk streamng command. If the HDD cannot complete the command n tme, t wll store the status and return to the host n tme, but wth an error. It s the responsblty of the host (e.g. the schedulng algorthm) to determne whether t has tme to ssue a command to resolve the error. In such a way, one dsk access error only nfluences the stream that ssued the command. The other streams wll be unaffected. Because data ntegrty s mportant for non-rt requests, the scheduler should resolve errors of a non-rt request. The feature set allows the scheduler to nterleave the recovery wth streamng commands to guarantee the real-tme throughput. It s also useful to have an extra mechansm to dagnose real dsk

3 H. L et al.: A Scalable HDD Vdeo Recordng Soluton Usng A Real-tme Fle System 665 defects from the reported errors. The Streamng Data Transfer Feature Set could be approved n the comng ATA standard. III. SOLUTION To acheve a scalable HDD vdeo recordng soluton for advanced HDD vdeo recorders and home meda servers, we have developed a real-tme fle system (RTFS) to guarantee streamng performance n addton to arbtrary non-rt dsk requests. Fg. 1. Scalable HDD recordng soluton usng the RTFS. A. Archtecture Fg. 1 shows the structure of our soluton. Applcatons can access fles on the HDD n streamng mode, or n non-rt mode that s the same as normal HDD access on a PC. The RTFS s central to the soluton. Real-tme streamng s acheved usng the RTFS between the HDD and streamng devces, such as an encoder, a decoder, a dgtal tuner, a home network channel or other dgtal nput/output devces. A streamng buffer s used for each stream, wth optmzed sze determned by the RTFS. Non-RT dsk requests, whch are ssued va the RTFS or a legacy FS (embedded n the operatng system), are completed through the RTFS scheduler. Supportng the legacy fle system enables use and/or reuse of exstng non-rt applcatons. In ths archtecture, the RTFS fle system layer and the legacy FS manage fle allocatons (n ther own parttons) on the dsk. Only those fles n the RTFS partton can be streamed wth guaranteed throughput, because the RTFS fle system layer can provde proper fle fragmentaton lmts for guaranteeng throughput. The RTFS scheduler s a component on top of the HDD drver, whch guarantees throughput of regstered streams. Usng a dsk performance model [1] to estmate nomnal command completon tme, t schedules the pendng requests receved from the RTFS fle system layer and the legacy FS, and executes them n the scheduled sequence usng the HDD drver, so that the throughput of each stream s guaranteed. In our soluton, streams work as follows: An applcaton can dynamcally start a new stream wth a requred bt rate usng an admsson control negotaton mechansm of the RTFS. Durng the negotaton, the RTFS scheduler returns the streamng buffer sze to the applcaton. When a recordng stream has started, the streamng devce contnuously produces data n the streamng buffer. Such data producton events are sgnaled to the streamng thread around the RTFS, whch montors the avalable data n the streamng buffer. A streamng thread n the fle system layer ssues streamng requests to the scheduler. Usng a cycle-based schedulng method, the scheduler makes an executon sequence of all pendng requests (from all streams and non-rt applcatons) at the begnnng of a cycle perod. The sequence guarantees streamng throughput and mnmzes seek overhead. Non-RT requests are nserted nto the sequence f the total nomnal command completon tme s less than the cycle perod. Then the scheduler sends the sequence of requests one by one to the HDD. When a request s completed by the HDD, the scheduler returns an acknowledgement to the fle system layer or the legacy FS. If t s a RT request, the streamng thread wll receve the acknowledgement and wll then release the space n the streamng buffer. Immedately after the completon of the sequence, a new cycle starts f the scheduler has receved new requests. The streamng contnues so untl the applcaton stops the stream. The fnalzaton of the stream wll stop the streamng devce, delete the stream regstraton and ts allocated bandwdth n the scheduler, release the buffer and kll the stream thread tself. The same holds for a play back stream, where data s streamed from the dsk to the stream devce. The RTFS s applcaton ndependent. Ths enables us to use the RTFS for a varety of applcatons. The dsk scheduler and the HDD n combnaton behave as a streamng dsk. The addton of the fle system makes the RTFS a streamng fle system. B. Real-tme Fle System Some detals of the fle system layer and the dsk scheduler explan how streamng throughputs are guaranteed. 1) The fle system layer The FS layer uses a farly large dsk allocaton unt optmzed for vdeo to mnmze the negatve mpact of dsk head jumpng and fragmentaton whlst streamng. Small fles are expected n other parttons on the dsk, snce the legacy FS as embedded n the operatng system s used for bootng, applcaton loadng, etc. To mnmze swtch overhead, t s stll preferable to avod request splts at the boundary of allocaton unts n a fle. The RTFS uses a fracton of the allocaton unt as the data block sze for streamng access of the HDD. The data block sze can be derved from the requred stream bt rate and the allocaton unt sze.

4 666 It s mportant for a CE devce to prevent fle system corrupton due to a power falure. The FS layer uses a number of tables for fle system management nformaton on the dsk. The tables are atomcally updated n an alternatng way, ensurng that there s always a vald set of tables on the dsk and total system ntegrty s mantaned. However, a power falure may stll lead to loss of some of the latest content that has just been wrtten nto the fle, because the fle system management nformaton of the fle has not been saved to the dsk. In order to mnmze potental data loss after a power falure, system desgners can also choose to frequently update the fle nformaton on dsk. The FS layer has normal fle management tools, such as lstng the fles and drectores, openng and closng fles, etc. A brdge can be used to map these tools to the standard fle system nterface of the operatng system, so that any thrdparty applcaton can access the RTFS partton n normal non- RT mode va the legacy FS nterface. 2) The dsk scheduler The RTFS dsk scheduler uses cycle-based methods [2], whch schedules dsk requests n repeatng cycle perods. In each cycle perod, t serves one request per stream wth a request sze large enough for the stream to survve a whole perod. If the total command completon tme for all regstered streams s less than the cycle perod, the streams are schedulable, as shown n (1). B n P =1 B / r + SW ( n ) P r d where, P s the cycle perod, r s the requred bt rate and B s the data block sze transferred for stream n a cycle, r d s the sustaned transfer rate of the dsk, and SW(n) s an upper bound on the total swtch overhead for the n streams n the cycle. The sustaned transfer rate of a dsk s the rate of transferrng a contnuous data block on the nner most tracks, whch could be half of the transfer rate on the outermost tracks. Ths s because the outermost tracks have more sectors. The total swtch overhead ncludes all seek tme and the rotatonal delay for all the streamng requests n the cycle. Wthout seek optmzaton, e.g. Round Robn schedulng that serves streams n a fxed sequence every cycle, the SW(n) should count a full seek and a full rotaton for each stream. Ths becomes sgnfcant n the cycle perod, when the number of streams ncreases. For sngle sweep schedulng that orders all requests n a cycle n a monotonc sequence for seekng, the swtch overhead upper bound can be derved usng a lnear (along the seek dstance) seek tme model [4]. SW s s 2 s s n 1 ( n) = ( s + ) + ( n 1) ( s + ) + n R (1) (2) IEEE Transactons on Consumer Electroncs, Vol. 49, No. 3, AUGUST 23 In (2), s s the full-dstance seek tme, s s the offset (wth zero seek dstance) of the lnear seek tme model, n s the number of streams. The last part of (2) counts a full dsk rotaton R for each stream n the upper bound. The frst part s a half full-dstance seek, whch bounds the seek tme to the nearest nner/outer-most request n the sequence. The mddle part bounds the seek tme for other requests n the sequence whch, n worst case, equals the total seek tme when the requests are evenly dstrbuted over the dsk. The buffer sze s determned by the data block sze B and the schedulng method. For example, for the varable bt rate case t s twce the block sze for Round Robn schedulng: one block for the dsk request and the other for bufferng data used by the streamng devce n the cycle perod. The buffer requred for the sngle sweep schedulng s three tmes the block sze, the thrd block s requred due to request reorderng. The cycle perod s chosen durng the ntalzaton of the dsk scheduler. Usng a larger cycle perod reduces the relatve swtch overhead n a cycle, but requres more memory. It also nfluences the response tme of a user acton. Worst-case response tmes go up, but the effect on average response tme s much less clear and depends on several factors. 3) Dsk performance model The dsk performance model of the RTFS conssts of small tables of dsk parameters, such as capacty, rotaton speed, and zone nformaton. It uses a square-root model for short seeks, and a lnear model for long seeks. It also has nterface functons used by the scheduler. Durng streamng the dsk performance model s used to estmate the command completon tme of dsk requests. Durng the admsson control for startng new streams, t s also used to calculate the schedulablty and dsk streamng parameters, such as the block sze and the buffer sze. C. Non-RT Requests In our soluton, non-rt requests come from both the RTFS and the legacy FS. These requests are used to update the fle system management nformaton, to support non-rt applcatons lke content browsng, to manage a metadata database, and to support arbtrary thrd-party applcatons. The system desgner has no knowledge and no control of when and how many non-rt requests are ssued. 1) Usng slack tme Non-RT dsk requests are handled whenever the RTFS scheduler sees slack tme n a cycle. The slack tme s the free tme excludng the tme used for the streams. So non-rt requests have no nfluence on the streamng performance. The slack tme s there because the streamng requests usually spend less tme than the scheduled tme, whch s calculated wth the maxmum streamng bt rate and the overhead upper bound SW(n) durng the admsson control. In practce t s not necessary for the RTFS to reserve a certan

5 H. L et al.: A Scalable HDD Vdeo Recordng Soluton Usng A Real-tme Fle System 667 dsk throughput for non-rt requests. All dsk requests from the legacy FS are handled as non-rt requests by the scheduler. As a result, random legacy applcaton requests to the dsk are handled wthout breakng the real-tme guarantees for streamng. 2) Splttng a non-rt request The RTFS scheduler can splt and complete a non-rt request n several cycles, because the sze of the request can be too bg to ft n the free tme of one cycle. The request sze, e.g. of a thrd-party applcaton, can actually be too bg for the whole cycle, because the desgners never know the requrements of each other. 3) Reorderng non-rt requests For seek optmzaton, t s advantageous to reorder non-rt requests. Ths s not always allowed though, because reorderng can, for example, create nconsstences n case of a power falure. The RTFS does not do reorderng on the requests of the legacy fle system for ths reason. Requests related to dfferent fles on the RTFS can be reordered, because they are ndependent. Note that request reorderng s not a problem for tmeshftng of a stream, or playback durng the recordng. Before a recordng request s completed, the data block s not a part of the fle. So the playback cannot ssue a command to read the block. IV. SCALABILITY For whatever reasons, be t hgher performance, lower cost, new features and/or more functons, scalablty s becomng more mportant for HDD recorders and Home Meda Servers wth respect to dsk types, streamng requrements, non-rt throughput, etc. A. HDD Types and Modes The performance of dfferent types of dsk drves vares due to dfferent rotatonal speed, seek tme, meda geometry, and form factor, e.g. 1/1.8/2.5/3.5 nch. Usng a dsk performance model generated by measurements, the system can adapt to changes n dsk performance, both when a dfferent dsk s used and when dsk performance deterorates over tme. In our soluton, performance models for dfferent dsks can be extracted n the desgn phase or at run tme. The system software does not need to be changed when a dfferent dsk s connected. A CE devce s expected to keep ts operatonal nose level low enough to keep the devce unobtrusve n a bedroom or lvng room. Manstream HDDs usually have two operatonal modes: a normal mode that has the same performance as n a PC, and a slent mode that has a reduced seek performance but s much queter. Our performance model uses dfferent parameters for both modes. It can swtch to the correct set of parameters at run tme accordng to the preferred dsk confguraton. The dsk performance may deterorate over tme due to wear and be affected by envronmental changes (e.g. hgh temperature) [5]. Our soluton allows usng a performance montor to update the performance model. In such a way, the system can follow the envronmental change and the performance deteroraton, and stll provde best guaranteed streamng. B. Varous Streams Typcal HDD recordng solutons are mplemented for fxed stream requrements, such as a fxed number of streams wth fxed bt rate. It may requre complete re-engneerng to swtch to dfferent streamng requrements. 1) Varous streams Dfferent A/V streams are nterestng for a HMS, such as varous MPEG2 SDTV streams (<1Mbps), MPEG2 HDTV streams (~2 Mbps), and varous MPEG4 vdeo streams from very low bt rates (<1 Mbps) to hgh bt rate. Audo streams have even lower (~2 Kbps) bt rates and are usually handled n non-rt mode. 2) Admsson control The RTFS acheves applcaton flexblty by usng an admsson control mechansm. New streams wth varous bt rates can be admtted at run tme by an applcaton. The admsson control negotaton takes a few steps: 1. Check schedulablty: Frst, the applcaton asks the RTFS whether a new stream s schedulable wth a guaranteed bt rate. If schedulable, the RTFS scheduler wll calculate the streamng block sze and the buffer sze, and return them to the FS layer and the applcaton. 2. Prepare stream: When the applcaton receves those parameters, t creates a streamng buffer and lnks t to the streamng devce. 3. Start the stream: Then the applcaton asks the RTFS to start the stream. The RTFS checks agan the schedulablty, adds the stream to the scheduler. A new stream starts streamng. 3) Schedulablty of the soluton Under worst-case condtons, such as full fle system fragmentaton, our soluton can smultaneously handle, for example, four HDTV (2 Mbps) streams plus four SDTV ( 1 Mbps) streams on a 3.5-nch manstream IDE dsk. C. Non-RT Throughput Besdes guaranteeng streamng throughput, the soluton has no restrcton on HDD access for applcatons n the non-rt mode. Furthermore, t also optmzes the performance of the non-rt access. 1) Usng maxmum tme adaptvely In many streamng solutons, the assgned throughput for non-rt requests by the scheduler s fxed n the desgn. In our

6 668 soluton the scheduler can use all of the slack tme for the non- RT requests. The throughput of the non-rt requests s hgher than n the fxed case, under the same streamng load. The throughput can be even hgher when the stream load decreases. 2) Prortzaton of non-rt requests The RTFS scheduler has several prortes for non-rt requests. Requests wth hgher prorty are served earler. For example, updatng fle system management nformaton uses the hghest prorty to mnmze the probablty of data loss, whle background defect detecton may use the lowest to ncrease bandwdth for user operaton. Prortzaton helps to use lmted resources, such as the dsk bandwdth and the power n a moble case, for the most mportant thngs. 3) Legacy FS Dfferent approaches are possble n the way the RTFS handles dsk requests from legacy fle systems, e.g. n Lnux, n WnCE or n other operatng systems. A good soluton should allow the system to do bootng and vrtual memory on the HDD. One method s to redrect the HDD drver calls of the legacy FS to the RTFS scheduler. It s a smple approach, f clear and usable drver nterfaces can be found. A dsadvantage s that the throughput of such legacy FS requests could be reduced. Ths s because the request s handled synchronously at the HDD drver level and the scheduler can schedule only one request n a cycle. For sophstcated fle systems lke the one n Lnux, t s dffcult to redrect the drver nterface to RTFS, because the sophstcated memory management and devce management n Lnux kernel s complcated. We found a way to add a RTFS hook nto the kernel. The hook can send a snapshot of the pendng request lst from the kernel to the RTFS scheduler. The scheduler then determnes whch Lnux requests can be executed wthout mpact on streamng guarantees. Although ths s not a very clean soluton, t keeps the RTFS code hghly ndependent from the operatng system, and provdes good performance. Wth ths soluton we can run Lnux applcatons, such as Netscape Internet browser and complng the whole kernel, whle the same dsk s recordng and playng back 12 DVB streams. 4) Improvng non-rt performance Usually one applcaton synchronously ssues non-rt dsk requests: when one s fnshed, the next s ssued. It s also usual that the applcaton ssues non-rt requests only at certan moments. But when t needs dsk access, t wants the full throughput. The same holds for the users. It s a good dea to try to create a large tme slot for the non- RT requests, because of ths bursty behavor of non-rt requests. For nstance, after completng a scheduled request sequence, the scheduler uses the remanng tme of the cycle only for the non-rt requests. In such a way non-rt requests get the full HDD bandwdth, although n part-tme. IEEE Transactons on Consumer Electroncs, Vol. 49, No. 3, AUGUST 23 Creatng a large tme slot for non-rt requests does not conflct wth the dea of decreasng user response tme, whch s the reason for the scheduler to start a new cycle mmedately after the end of the prevous one. User actons are usually related to non-rt dsk requests, e.g. changng a menu or browsng content nformaton. These actons can typcally be handled faster n ths way. V. IMPLEMENTATION & RESULTS Our soluton s operatng system ndependent, except the legacy FS lnk. The mplementaton uses a small operatng system abstracton layer, ncludng memory allocaton, semaphores, message queues, etc. The frst RTFS verson was mplemented on the embedded operatng system psos. The later versons are bascally stll operatng system ndependent, but were developed n user space on Lnux. One demonstraton of the soluton s on a Lnux PC wth a sngle IDE hard dsk. The PC has a 35MHz Pentum II processor. The manstream dsk contans an RTFS partton for A/V streams and Lnux parttons for normal PC functons. Dedcated PCI cards are used for DVB nput, as well as for decodng vdeo. A 2.4x wrtng speed DVD+RW drve s connected to the second IDE controller as a DVD archver. The streamng applcatons we run on the demonstrator are multple tme-shfters, whch smultaneously records DVB broadcastng channels on the dsk and plays the recordngs back. Meanwhle, we run varous Lnux functons: from Internet browsng to software development. We also run a DVD archvng functon usng Open Source software, whch creates a DVD vdeo mage from a user selected recordng on the HDD, and then burns a DVD dsc wth the DVD+RW drve. Usng a manstream 3.5-nch IDE dsk and a sngle sweep scheduler wth 6 ms cycle perod, the soluton can smultaneously handle 6 ndependent tme-shfters, or 12 DVB streams. The DVB streams are typcal TV channels broadcast n Europe wth varable bt rates n the range of 4-1 Mbps. Each stream uses a 1.4 MB buffer. Wth 12 DVB streams accessng the dsk, all Lnux functons work well. The DVD archvng functon works roughly n real-tme. No matter what Lnux applcatons are runnng, the tme-shftng vdeo streams look perfect. Users can also do trck-play, such as pause, fast/back-forward and jump-to-lve, etc, although the fast/back-forward has no guaranteed performance. Usng a 1-nch IDE dsk, the soluton can smultaneously handle 3 DVB streams. We measured the throughput of the streams and Lnux applcatons wth dfferent stream settngs on a 3.5-nch manstream IDE dsk. The dsk has 4 GB capacty, 72 rpm rotatonal speed, and 18.8 MB/s sustaned bt rate. It works n slent mode wth 32 ms full-dstance seek tme, and the offset of the lnear seek tme model s 14 ms. The streams are for the tme-shfters. The fles are evenly dstrbuted over the RTFS partton, whch s 8% of the whole dsk. The throughput of

7 H. L et al.: A Scalable HDD Vdeo Recordng Soluton Usng A Real-tme Fle System 669 Lnux applcatons s measured usng a huge contnuous dsk copy applcaton. Note that Lnux tself also ssues some dsk requests, whch are not counted n the throughput. The streams have varable bt rates. Ths leads to large varatons n the measurements. Stll, the trade-off between real-tme and besteffort throughput s clearly vsble. As shown n Table I, the Lnux dsk copy applcaton stll has at least 1 MB/s throughput, n the case of 12 DVB streams. TABLE I MEASURED THROUGHPUT OF STREAMS AND LINUX APPLICATIONS # DVB streams Total stream (MB/s) Lnux (MB/s) The streams have varable bt rate The throughput ncreases when the number of streams decreases or when the total stream bt rate drops. Non-RT applcatons automatcally get ncreased throughput when less streamng throughput s needed. The total throughput of the streams and the non-rt requests should ncrease when the number of streams drops. Ths s because for the case of a large sequental Lnux dsk copy acton the swtch overhead drops. But n measurements t bascally remans constant. The total throughput s only about the half of the sustaned bt rate. Ths matches our calculaton only for 12-stream case, because the swtch overhead s more than 5% of the cycle perod. When the number of streams drops, the non-rt requests throughput dd not take full advantage of ths. The reason s that the scheduler receves at one tme only a small part (128 KB) of the large requests ssued by the Lnux dsk copy applcaton, and t takes some tme before the new request arrves at the scheduler. Ths results n a loss of non- RT throughput. The whole 12-stream applcatons cost approxmately 5% processor load for the Pentum II processor. Admttng fewer streams results n progressvely more bandwdth for PC functons, whch demonstrates scalablty. Smlar results are observed wth other manstream dsks from all the major HDD manufacturers. VI. CONCLUSION The RTFS uses a tuned combnaton of technques lke dsk schedulng and fle allocaton management. It s dsk ndependent, and supports multple real tme A/V streams n combnaton wth tradtonal PC functons. It enables scalable soluton for convergng CE functonalty and PC functonalty on advanced products lke Home Meda Servers. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank our colleagues: Ruud Wjnands, Özcan Mesut, Mscha Geldermans, Ronald van Neuwberg and Ad Denssen, for ther great contrbuton to ths project. REFERENCES [1] Ö. Mesut, N. Lambert, HDD Characterzaton for A/V Streamng Applcatons, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 48, no. 3, pp , Aug. 22. [2] J. Korst, V. Pronk, P. Coumans, G. van Doren, and E. Aarts, Comparng dsk schedulng algorthms for VBR data streams, Computer Communcatons, 21(1998) pp [3] Darren Bulk, Proposal for Streamng Data Transfer Feature Set, T13 ATA pro-posal d99128, [4] Y.-J. Oyang, A tght upper bound of the lumped dsk seek tme for the scan dsk schedulng polcy", Informaton Processng Letters, vol. 54, No. 6, pp , 1995 [5] R. Severt and S.E. Frankln, Degradaton of AV Streamng Performance of Hard Dsk Drves at Elevated temperature, ASME nformaton storage and processng sys-tems conference, Santa Clara, CA, 22 Hong L receved hs B.Sc. (1988) on Electroncs at TsngHua Unversty n Bejng, Chna. He worked on dynamcal ECG acquston and analyss for hs MSc (1992) and PhD (1995) degrees at the same unversty. Snce 1996, he worked on mage presentaton and recognton as a research fellow n Pattern Recognton Group at Delft Unversty of Technology, the Netherlands. He joned Phlps Research Laboratores n Endhoven (Netherlands) n December 1998, worked on HDD A/V storage systems, real-tme fle system and PVR. He s currently workng on home meda servers ncludng content management and dgtal rghts management. Stephen Cumpson (M' 92) receved BSc/MEng n Electrcal & Electronc Engneerng, Unversty of Manchester 1992; PhD, Unversty of Manchester He joned Phlps Research Laboratores n Endhoven (Netherlands) n He worked on dgtal magnetc recordng for DV, ADR, thermally asssted magnetc recordng, real-tme fle system, personal vdeo recordng and HDD usage n CE applcatons. He s currently workng on dstrbuted storage n the connected home. Robert Jochemsen receved hs MSc n Computng Scence at the Unversty of Gronngen, The Netherlands n He joned Phlps Research Laboratores n Endhoven n He has snce worked on robust real-tme fle system technology for sold state devces and hard dsk based vdeo recorders. Jan Korst receved hs MSc degree n mathematcs from Delft Unversty of Technology, and hs PhD degree from Endhoven Unversty of Technology, both n the Netherlands. Snce 1985, he has been wth the Phlps Research Laboratores n Endhoven. Over the years he has been workng manly on schedulng and resource management problems n the areas of IC desgn and multmeda systems. Nek Lambert receved Ir. degree n Physcs, Delft Unversty of Technology 1981; PhD, Delft Unversty of Technology 1986; Phlps Research Laboratores n Endhoven (Netherlands) and Brarclff Manor (USA) snce 1986; has worked on superconductors, cryocoolers, varous thn flat dsplays, reflectve lqud crystal projecton dsplays, real-tme fle system and personal vdeo recordng, and s now nvolved n sold state memory research.

QUICK START GUIDE v0.98

QUICK START GUIDE v0.98 QUICK START GUIDE v0.98 QUICK HELP Q A 1 STEP BY STEP 3 GLOSSARY 2 A B C 1 INSTALLATION 1. Make sure that the hardware nstallaton s performed by a certfed vendor 2. Install OTOTRAK app from Apple s App

More information

Hybrid Transcoding for QoS Adaptive Video-on-Demand Services

Hybrid Transcoding for QoS Adaptive Video-on-Demand Services 732 IEEE Transactons on Consumer Electroncs, Vol. 50, No. 2, MAY 2004 Hybrd Transcodng for QoS Adaptve Vdeo-on-Demand Servces Ilhoon Shn and Kern Koh Abstract Transcodng s a core technque that s used n

More information

Simon Sheu Computer Science National Tsing Hua Universtity Taiwan, ROC

Simon Sheu Computer Science National Tsing Hua Universtity Taiwan, ROC Mounr A. Tantaou School of Electrcal Engneerng and Computer Scence Unversty of Central Florda Orlando, FL 3286-407-823-393 tantaou@cs.ucf.edu Interacton wth Broadcast Vdeo Ken A. Hua School of Electrcal

More information

Simple VBR Harmonic Broadcasting (SVHB)

Simple VBR Harmonic Broadcasting (SVHB) mple VBR Harmonc Broadcastng (VHB) Hsang-Fu Yu ab, Hung-hang Yang a, Y-Mng hen c, -Mng Tseng a, and hen-y Kuo a a Dep. of omputer cence & Informaton Engneerng, atonal entral Unversty, Tawan b omputer enter,

More information

Instructions for Contributors to the International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies

Instructions for Contributors to the International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies Instructons for Contrbutors to the Internatonal Journal of Mcrowave and Wreless Technologes Frst A. Author 1, Second Author 1,2, Thrd Author 2 1 Cambrdge Unversty Press, Ednburgh Buldng, Shaftesbury Road,

More information

tj tj D... '4,... ::=~--lj c;;j _ ASPA: Automatic speech-pause analyzer* t> ,. "",. : : :::: :1'NTmAC' I

tj tj D... '4,... ::=~--lj c;;j _ ASPA: Automatic speech-pause analyzer* t> ,. ,. : : :::: :1'NTmAC' I ASPA: Automatc speech-pause analyzer* D. GERVERt and G. DNELEY Unversty of Durham, Durham, England ASPA: The Programs Snce the actual detals of nterface samplng, dsk storage routnes, etc., wll depend upon

More information

Error Concealment Aware Rate Shaping for Wireless Video Transport 1

Error Concealment Aware Rate Shaping for Wireless Video Transport 1 Error Concealment Aware Rate Shapng for Wreless Vdeo Transport 1 Trsta Pe-chun Chen and Tsuhan Chen 2 Abstract Streamng of vdeo, whch s both source- and channel- coded, over wreless networks faces the

More information

The UCD community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters!

The UCD community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters! Provded by the author(s) and Unversty College Dubln Lbrary n accordance wth publsher polces., Please cte the publshed verson when avalable. tle Dynamc Complexty Scalng for Real-me H.264/AVC Vdeo Encodng

More information

A Comparative Analysis of Disk Scheduling Policies

A Comparative Analysis of Disk Scheduling Policies A Comparatve Analyss of Dsk Schedulng Polces Toby J. Teorey and Tad B. Pnkerton Unversty of Wsconsn* Fve well-known schedulng polces for movable head dsks are compared usng the performance crtera of expected

More information

current activity shows on the top right corner in green. The steps appear in yellow

current activity shows on the top right corner in green. The steps appear in yellow Browzwear Tutorals Tutoral ntroducton Ths tutoral leads you through the best practces of color ways operatons usng an llustrated step by step approach. Each slde shows the actual applcaton at the stage

More information

Loewe bild 5.55 oled. Modular Design Flexible configuration with individual components. Set-up options. TV Monitor

Loewe bild 5.55 oled. Modular Design Flexible configuration with individual components. Set-up options. TV Monitor Product nformaton Loewe bld 5.55 oled Page of 3 Loewe bld 5.55 oled EU energy effcency class: B Screen dagonal (n cm) / Screen dagonal (n nch): 39 / 55 Power consumpton ON (n W): 50 Annual energy consumpton

More information

Color Monitor. L200p. English. User s Guide

Color Monitor. L200p. English. User s Guide Color Montor L200p User s Gude Englsh Frst Edton (February / 2003) Note : For mportant nformaton, refer to the Montor Safety and Warranty manual that comes wth ths montor. Contents ENGLISH Safety (Read

More information

Cost-Aware Fronthaul Rate Allocation to Maximize Benefit of Multi-User Reception in C-RAN

Cost-Aware Fronthaul Rate Allocation to Maximize Benefit of Multi-User Reception in C-RAN Cost-Aware Fronthaul Rate Allocaton to Maxmze Beneft of Mult-User Recepton n C-RAN Dora Bovz, Chung Shue Chen, Sheng Yang To cte ths verson: Dora Bovz, Chung Shue Chen, Sheng Yang. Cost-Aware Fronthaul

More information

Loewe bild 7.65 OLED. Set-up options. Loewe bild 7 cover Incl. Back cover. Loewe bild 7 cover kit Incl. Back cover and Speaker cover

Loewe bild 7.65 OLED. Set-up options. Loewe bild 7 cover Incl. Back cover. Loewe bild 7 cover kit Incl. Back cover and Speaker cover Product nformaton Loewe bld 7.65 Page of March 07 Loewe bld 7.65 OLED EU energy effcency class: B Screen dagonal (n cm) / Screen dagonal (n nch): 64 / 65 Power consumpton ON (n W): 80 Annual energy consumpton

More information

Conettix D6600/D6100IPv6 Communications Receiver/Gateway Quick Start

Conettix D6600/D6100IPv6 Communications Receiver/Gateway Quick Start Conettx / Communcatons Recever/Gateway Quck Start.0 Parts Lst able : Conettx System Components Qty. Descrpton Conettx Communcatons Recever/Gateway AC power cord Battery cable P660 I/O cable P660 Rack mount

More information

T541 Flat Panel Monitor User Guide ENGLISH

T541 Flat Panel Monitor User Guide ENGLISH T541 Flat Panel Montor User Gude ENGLISH Frst Edton (June / 2002) Note : For mportant nformaton, refer to the Montor Safety and Warranty manual that comes wth ths montor. Ths publcaton could contan techncal

More information

LOW-COMPLEXITY VIDEO ENCODER FOR SMART EYES BASED ON UNDERDETERMINED BLIND SIGNAL SEPARATION

LOW-COMPLEXITY VIDEO ENCODER FOR SMART EYES BASED ON UNDERDETERMINED BLIND SIGNAL SEPARATION LOW-COMPLEXITY VIDEO ENCODER FOR SMART EYES BASED ON UNDERDETERMINED BLIND SIGNAL SEPARATION Jng Lu, Fe Qao *, Zhjan Ou and Huazhong Yang Department of Electronc Engneerng, Tsnghua Unversty ABSTRACT Ths

More information

User s manual. Digital control relay SVA

User s manual. Digital control relay SVA User s manual Dgtal control relay DISIBEINT ELECTRONIC S.L, has been present n the feld of the manufacture of components for the ndustral automaton for more than years, and mantans n constant evoluton

More information

Product Information. Manual change system HWS

Product Information. Manual change system HWS Product Informaton HWS HWS Flexble. Compact. Productve. HWS manual change system Manual tool change system wth ntegrated ar feed-through and optonal electrc feed-through Feld of applcaton Excellently sutable

More information

Product Information. Manual change system HWS

Product Information. Manual change system HWS Product Informaton HWS HWS Flexble. Compact. Productve. HWS manual change system Manual tool change system wth ntegrated ar feed-through and optonal electrc feed-through Feld of applcaton Excellently sutable

More information

Optimized PMU placement by combining topological approach and system dynamics aspects

Optimized PMU placement by combining topological approach and system dynamics aspects Optmzed PU placement by combnng topologcal approach and system dynamcs aspects Jonas Prommetta, Jakob Schndler, Johann Jaeger Insttute of Electrcal Energy Systems Fredrch-Alexander-Unversty Erlangen-Nuremberg

More information

Technical Information

Technical Information CHEMCUT Techncal Informaton CORPORATION Introducton The Chemcut CC8000 etcher has many new features desgned to reduce the cost of manufacturng and, just as mportantly, the cost of ownershp. Keepng the

More information

A Quantization-Friendly Separable Convolution for MobileNets

A Quantization-Friendly Separable Convolution for MobileNets arxv:1803.08607v1 [cs.cv] 22 Mar 2018 A Quantzaton-Frendly Separable for MobleNets Abstract Tao Sheng tsheng@qt.qualcomm.com Xaopeng Zhang parker.zhang@gmal.com As deep learnng (DL) s beng rapdly pushed

More information

3 Part differentiation, 20 parameters, 3 histograms Up to patient results (including histograms) can be stored

3 Part differentiation, 20 parameters, 3 histograms Up to patient results (including histograms) can be stored st Techncal Specfcatons Desgned n France Wth a rch past and a professonal experence bult-up over 35 years, SFRI s a French nvatve company commtted to developng preon In Vtro Dst solutons. SFRI has bult

More information

Accepted Manuscript. An improved artificial bee colony algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problem with fuzzy processing time

Accepted Manuscript. An improved artificial bee colony algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problem with fuzzy processing time Accepted Manuscrpt An mproved artfcal bee colony algorthm for flexble ob-shop schedulng problem wth fuzzy processng tme Ka Zhou Gao, Ponnuthura Nagaratnam Suganthan, Quan Ke Pan, Tay Jn Chua, Chn Soon

More information

Improving Reliability and Energy Efficiency of Disk Systems via Utilization Control

Improving Reliability and Energy Efficiency of Disk Systems via Utilization Control Ths paper appeared n the Proceedngs of the 2th IEEE Symposum on Computers and Communcatons (ISCC'08, Marrakech, Morocco, July 2008. Improvng Relablty and Energy Effcency of Dsk Systems va Utlzaton Control

More information

MODELING AND ANALYZING THE VOCAL TRACT UNDER NORMAL AND STRESSFUL TALKING CONDITIONS

MODELING AND ANALYZING THE VOCAL TRACT UNDER NORMAL AND STRESSFUL TALKING CONDITIONS MODELING AND ANALYZING THE VOCAL TRACT UNDER NORMAL AND STRESSFUL TALING CONDITIONS Ismal Shahn and Naeh Botros 2 Electrcal/Electroncs and Comuter Engneerng Deartment Unversty of Sharjah, P. O. Box 27272,

More information

Craig Webre, Sheriff Personnel Division/Law Enforcement Complex 1300 Lynn Street Thibodaux, Louisiana 70301

Craig Webre, Sheriff Personnel Division/Law Enforcement Complex 1300 Lynn Street Thibodaux, Louisiana 70301 DATE OF APPLCATON: Craig Webre, Sheriff Personnel Division/Law Enforcement Complex 1300 Lynn Street Thibodaux, Louisiana 70301 N GENERAL EMAL ADDRESS: For Local Calls - (985) 532-4380 (985) 446-2255 (985)

More information

The Traffic Image Is Dehazed Based on the Multi Scale Retinex Algorithm and Implementation in FPGA Cui Zhe1, a, Chao Li2, b *, Jiaqi Meng3, c

The Traffic Image Is Dehazed Based on the Multi Scale Retinex Algorithm and Implementation in FPGA Cui Zhe1, a, Chao Li2, b *, Jiaqi Meng3, c 3rd Internatonal Conference on Mechatroncs and Industral Informatcs (ICMII 2015) The Traffc Image Is Dehazed Based on the Mult Scale Retnex Algorthm and Implementaton n FPGA Cu Zhe1, a, Chao L2, b *, Jaq

More information

Why Take Notes? Use the Whiteboard Capture System

Why Take Notes? Use the Whiteboard Capture System Why Take Notes? Use the Whteboard Capture System L-we He Zhengyou Zhang and Zcheng Lu September, 2002 Techncal Report MSR-TR-2002-89 Mcrosoft Research Mcrosoft Corporaton One Mcrosoft Way Redmond, WA 98052

More information

System of Automatic Chinese Webpage Summarization Based on The Random Walk Algorithm of Dynamic Programming

System of Automatic Chinese Webpage Summarization Based on The Random Walk Algorithm of Dynamic Programming Send Orders for Reprnts to reprnts@benthamscence.ae The Open Cybernetcs & Systemcs Journal, 205, 9, 35-322 35 Open Access System of Automatc Chnese Webpage Summarzaton Based on The Random Walk Algorthm

More information

INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR THE INSTALLATION, USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE REGULATOR GENIUS POWER COMBI

INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR THE INSTALLATION, USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE REGULATOR GENIUS POWER COMBI NSTRUCTON MANUAL FOR THE NSTALLATON, USE AND MANTENANCE OF THE REGULATOR GENUS POWER COMB (TRANSLATON OF THE ORGNAL NSTRUCTON MANUAL N TALAN) PRELMNARY VERSON WARRANTY The devce s guaranteed 24 months

More information

Following a musical performance from a partially specified score.

Following a musical performance from a partially specified score. Followng a muscal performance from a partally specfed score. Bryan Pardo and Wllam P. Brmngham Artfcal Intellgence Laboratory Electrcal Engneerng and Computer Scence Dept. and School of Musc The Unversty

More information

AMP-LATCH* Ultra Novo mm [.025 in.] Ribbon Cable 02 MAR 12 Rev C

AMP-LATCH* Ultra Novo mm [.025 in.] Ribbon Cable 02 MAR 12 Rev C AMP-LATCH* Ultra Novo Applcaton Specfcaton Receptacle Connectors for 114-40056 0.64 mm [.025 n.] Rbbon Cable 02 MAR 12 All numercal values are n metrc unts [wth U.S. customary unts n brackets]. Dmensons

More information

User Manual. AV Router. High quality VGA RGBHV matrix that distributes signals directly. Controlled via computer.

User Manual. AV Router. High quality VGA RGBHV matrix that distributes signals directly. Controlled via computer. User Manual AV Router Hgh qualty VGA RGBHV matrx that dstrbutes sgnals drectly. Controlled va computer. Notce: : The nmaton contaned n ths document s subject to change wthout notce. SmartAVI makes no warranty

More information

Integration of Internet of Thing Technology in Digital Energy Network with Dispersed Generation

Integration of Internet of Thing Technology in Digital Energy Network with Dispersed Generation Amercan Scentfc Research Journal for Engneerng, Technology, and Scences (ASRJETS) ISS (Prnt) 2313-4410, ISS (Onlne) 2313-4402 Global Socety of Scentfc Research and Researchers http://asrjetsjournal.org/

More information

Failure Rate Analysis of Power Circuit Breaker in High Voltage Substation

Failure Rate Analysis of Power Circuit Breaker in High Voltage Substation T. Suwanasr, M. T. Hlang and C. Suwanasr / GMSAR Internatonal Journal 8 (2014) 1-6 Falure Rate Analyss of Power Crcut Breaker n Hgh Voltage Substaton Thanapong Suwanasr, May Thandar Hlang and Cattareeya

More information

Statistics AGAIN? Descriptives

Statistics AGAIN? Descriptives Cal State Northrdge Ψ427 Andrew Answorth PhD Statstcs AGAIN? What do we want to do wth statstcs? Organze and Descrbe patterns n data Takng ncomprehensble data and convertng t to: Tables that summarze the

More information

Study on the location of building evacuation indicators based on eye tracking

Study on the location of building evacuation indicators based on eye tracking Study on the locaton of buldng evacuaton ndcators based on eye trackng Yue L Tsnghua Unversty yue-l5@malstsnghuaeducn Png hang Tsnghua Unversty zhangp@malstsnghuaeducn Hu hang Tsnghua Unversty, zhhu@tsnghuaeducn

More information

Quantization of Three-Bit Logic for LDPC Decoding

Quantization of Three-Bit Logic for LDPC Decoding Proceedngs of the World Congress on Engneerng and Computer Scence 2011 Vol II, October 19-21, 2011, San Francsco, USA Quantzaton of Three-Bt Logc for LDPC Decodng Raymond Moberly and Mchael E. O'Sullvan

More information

Reduce Distillation Column Cost by Hybrid Particle Swarm and Ant

Reduce Distillation Column Cost by Hybrid Particle Swarm and Ant From the SelectedWorks of Dr. Sandp Kumar Lahr Summer July 20, 2016 Reduce Dstllaton Column Cost by Hybrd Partcle Swarm and Ant Dr. Sandp k lahr chnmaya lenka Avalable at: https://works.bepress.com/sandp_lahr/33/

More information

Anchor Box Optimization for Object Detection

Anchor Box Optimization for Object Detection Anchor Box Optmzaton for Object Detecton Yuany Zhong 1, Janfeng Wang 2, Jan Peng 1, and Le Zhang 2 1 Unversty of Illnos at Urbana-Champagn 2 Mcrosoft Research 1 {yuanyz2, janpeng}@llnos.edu, 2 {janfw,

More information

RIAM Local Centre Woodwind, Brass & Percussion Syllabus

RIAM Local Centre Woodwind, Brass & Percussion Syllabus 8 RIAM Local Centre Woodwnd, Brass & Percusson Syllabus 2015-2018 AURAL REQUIREMENTS AND THEORETICAL QUESTIONS REVISED FOR ALL PRACTICAL SUBJECTS AURAL TESTS From Elementary to Grade V ths area s worth

More information

Clock Synchronization in Satellite, Terrestrial and IP Set-top Box for Digital Television

Clock Synchronization in Satellite, Terrestrial and IP Set-top Box for Digital Television Clock Synchronzaton n Satellte, Terrestral and IP Set-top Box for Dgtal Televson THESIS Submtted n partal fulflment of the requrements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by MONIKA JAIN Under the Supervson

More information

Scalable QoS-Aware Disk-Scheduling

Scalable QoS-Aware Disk-Scheduling Scalable QoS-Aware Dsk-Schedulng Wald G. Aref Khaled El-Bassyoun Ibrahm Kamel Mohamed F. Mokbel Department of Computer Scences, urdue Unversty, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1398 anasonc Informaton and Networkng

More information

Analysis of Subscription Demand for Pay-TV

Analysis of Subscription Demand for Pay-TV Analyss of Subscrpton Demand for Pay-TV Manabu Shshkura Researcher Insttute for Informaton and Communcatons Polcy 2-1-2 Kasumgasek, Chyoda-ku Tokyo 110-8926 Japan m-shshkura@soumu.go.jp Tel: 03-5253-5496

More information

Correcting Image Placement Errors Using Registration Control (RegC ) Technology In The Photomask Periphery

Correcting Image Placement Errors Using Registration Control (RegC ) Technology In The Photomask Periphery Correctng Image Placement Errors Usng Regstraton Control (RegC ) Technology In The Photomask Perphery Av Cohen 1, Falk Lange 2 Guy Ben-Zv 1, Erez Gratzer 1, Dmtrev Vladmr 1 1. Carl Zess SMS Ltd., Karmel

More information

Product Information. Miniature rotary unit ERD

Product Information. Miniature rotary unit ERD Product Informaton ERD ERD Fast. Compact. Flexble. ERD torque motor Powerful torque motor wth absolute encoder and electrc and pneumatc rotary feed-through Feld of applcaton For all applcatons wth exceptonal

More information

Product Information. Universal swivel units SRU-plus

Product Information. Universal swivel units SRU-plus Product Informaton Unversal swvel unts SRU-plus SRU-plus Unversal swvel unts Robust. Fast. Hgh Performance. SRU-plus unversal rotary actuator Unversal unt for pneumatc swvel and turnng movements. Feld

More information

SKEW DETECTION AND COMPENSATION FOR INTERNET AUDIO APPLICATIONS. Orion Hodson, Colin Perkins, and Vicky Hardman

SKEW DETECTION AND COMPENSATION FOR INTERNET AUDIO APPLICATIONS. Orion Hodson, Colin Perkins, and Vicky Hardman SKEW DETECTION AND COMPENSATION FOR INTERNET AUDIO APPLICATIONS Oron Hodson, Coln Perkns, and Vcky Hardman Department of Computer Scence Unversty College London Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. ABSTRACT

More information

Product Bulletin 40C 40C-10R 40C-20R 40C-114R. Product Description For Solvent, Eco-Solvent, UV and Latex Inkjet and Screen Printing 3-mil vinyl films

Product Bulletin 40C 40C-10R 40C-20R 40C-114R. Product Description For Solvent, Eco-Solvent, UV and Latex Inkjet and Screen Printing 3-mil vinyl films Product Bulletn 40C Revson D, Effectve February 2016 (Replaces C, Apr. 15) 40C-10R 40C-20R 40C-114R Product Descrpton For Solvent, Eco-Solvent, UV and Latex Inkjet and Screen Prntng 3-ml vnyl flms Quck

More information

A question of character. Loewe Connect ID.

A question of character. Loewe Connect ID. A queston of character. Loewe Connect ID. Modern. Etquette you can learn, character s nnate. You make a clear dstncton between good manners and genune style. Your s s lke yourself: unfussy, busnesslke

More information

A STUDY OF TRUMPET ENVELOPES

A STUDY OF TRUMPET ENVELOPES A STUDY OF TRUMPET ENVELOPES Roger B. Dannenberg, Hank Pellern, and Istvan Dereny School of Computer Scence, Carnege Mellon Unversty Pttsburgh, PA 15213 USA rbd@cs.cmu.edu, hank.pellern@andrew.cmu.edu,

More information

S Micro--Strip Tool in. S Combination Strip Tool ( ) S Cable Holder Assembly (Used only

S Micro--Strip Tool in. S Combination Strip Tool ( ) S Cable Holder Assembly (Used only Instructon Sheet LghtCrmp* Plus LC 408-10103 (for Jacketed Cable) Connectors 18 AUG 09 Rear Protectve Cap Termnaton CoverG Boot Connector Assembly Crmp Eyelet Duplex Clp G Connector kt s shpped wth these

More information

Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter

Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter Crtcal Path Reducton of strbuted rthmetc Based FIR Flter Sunta Badave epartment of Electrcal and Electroncs Engneerng.I.T, urangabad aharashtra, Inda njal Bhalchandra epartment of Electroncs and Telecommuncaton

More information

Modeling Form for On-line Following of Musical Performances

Modeling Form for On-line Following of Musical Performances Modelng Form for On-lne Followng of Muscal Performances Bryan Pardo 1 and Wllam Brmngham 2 1 Computer Scence Department, Northwestern Unversty, 1890 Maple Ave, Evanston, IL 60201 2 Department of Math and

More information

Sealed Circular LC Connector System Plug

Sealed Circular LC Connector System Plug Sealed Crcular LC Connector System Plug Instructon Sheet Kt 1828618- [ ], Receptacle Kt 1828619- [ ], 408-10079 and EMI Receptacle Kt 1985193- [ ] 07 APR 11 Plug Kt 1828618 -[ ] Cable Fttng Receptacle

More information

CONNECTIONS GUIDE. To Find Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1

CONNECTIONS GUIDE. To Find Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1 CONNECTIONS GUIDE To Fnd Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1 Connectng TV to Antenna (or Cable Wthout Cable Box) and No VCR (Hook-up 1A)... 2 Monaural VCR (Hook-up 1B)... 3 StereoVCR (Hook-up 1C)... 4 Cable Wth

More information

Production of Natural Penicillins by Strains of Penicillium chrysogenutn

Production of Natural Penicillins by Strains of Penicillium chrysogenutn Producton of Natural Pencllns by Strans of Pencllum chrysogenutn a J. FUSK and ЬЕ. WELWRDOVÁ ^Department of Mcrobology and Bochemstry, Slovak Techncal Unversty, Bratslava b Botka, Slovenská Ľupča Receved

More information

Small Area Co-Modeling of Point Estimates and Their Variances for Domains in the Current Employment Statistics Survey

Small Area Co-Modeling of Point Estimates and Their Variances for Domains in the Current Employment Statistics Survey Small Area Co-Modelng of Pont Estmates and Ther Varances for Domans n the Current Employment Statstcs Survey Jule Gershunskaya, Terrance D. Savtsky U.S. Bureau of Labor Statstcs FCSM, March 2018 Dsclamer:

More information

INTERCOM SMART VIDEO DOORBELL. Installation & Configuration Guide

INTERCOM SMART VIDEO DOORBELL. Installation & Configuration Guide INTERCOM SMART VIDEO DOORBELL Installaton & Confguraton Gude ! Important safety nformaton Read ths manual before attemptng to nstall the devce! Falure to observe recommendatons ncluded n ths manual may

More information

Modular Plug Connectors (Standard and Small Conductor)

Modular Plug Connectors (Standard and Small Conductor) Modular Plug Connectors (Standard and Small Conductor) Applcaton Specfcaton 114-6016 04 APR 11 All numercal values are n metrc unts [wth U.S. customary unts n brackets]. Dmensons are n mllmeters [and nches].

More information

SONG STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION OF JAVANESE GAMELAN MUSIC BASED ON ANALYSIS OF PERIODICITY DISTRIBUTION

SONG STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION OF JAVANESE GAMELAN MUSIC BASED ON ANALYSIS OF PERIODICITY DISTRIBUTION SOG STRUCTURE IDETIFICATIO OF JAVAESE GAMELA MUSIC BASED O AALYSIS OF PERIODICITY DISTRIBUTIO D. P. WULADARI, Y. K. SUPRAPTO, 3 M. H. PUROMO,,3 Insttut Teknolog Sepuluh opember, Department of Electrcal

More information

Novel Quantization Strategies for Linear Prediction with Guarantees

Novel Quantization Strategies for Linear Prediction with Guarantees Smon S. Du* Ychong Xu* Yuan L Hongyang Zhang Aart Sngh Pulkt Grover Carnege Mellon Unversty, Pttsburgh, PA 15213, USA *: Contrbute equally. SSDU@CS.CMU.EDU YICHONGX@CS.CMU.EDU LIYUANCHRISTY@GMAIL.COM HONGYANZ@CS.CMU.EDU

More information

(12) Ulllted States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 8,269,970 B2 P0lid0r et a]. (45) Date of Patent: Sep. 18, 2012

(12) Ulllted States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 8,269,970 B2 P0lid0r et a]. (45) Date of Patent: Sep. 18, 2012 US008269970B2 (12) Ulllted States Patent (10) Patent N0.: P0ld0r et a]. (45) Date of Patent: Sep. 18, 12 (54) OPTICAL COMPARATOR WITH DIGITAL 6,945,652 B2 9/05 sakqta et a1 GAGE 7,058,109 B2* 6/06 Davs.....

More information

CONNECTIONS GUIDE. To Find Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1

CONNECTIONS GUIDE. To Find Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1 CONNECTIONS GUIDE To Fnd Your Hook.up Turn To Page 1 Connectng TV to Antenna (or Cable Wthout Cable Box) and No VCR (Hook-up 1A)...2 Monaural VCR (Hook-up 1B)...3 Stereo VCR (Hook-up 1C)... 4 Cable Wth

More information

FPGA Implementation of Cellular Automata Based Stream Cipher: YUGAM-128

FPGA Implementation of Cellular Automata Based Stream Cipher: YUGAM-128 ISSN (Prnt) : 2320 3765 ISSN (Onlne): 2278 8875 Internatonal Journal of Advanced Research n Electrcal, Electroncs and Instrumentaton Engneerng An ISO 3297: 2007 Certfed Organzaton Vol. 3, Specal Issue

More information

Decision Support by Interval SMART/SWING Incorporating. Imprecision into SMART and SWING Methods

Decision Support by Interval SMART/SWING Incorporating. Imprecision into SMART and SWING Methods Decson Support by Interval SMART/SWING Incorporatng Imprecson nto SMART and SWING Methods Abstract: Interval judgments are a way of handlng preferental and nformatonal mprecson n multcrtera decson analyss.

More information

IN DESCRIBING the tape transport of

IN DESCRIBING the tape transport of Apparatus For Magnetc Storage on Three-Inch Wde Tapes R. B. LAWRANCE R. E. WILKINS R. A. PENDLETON IN DESCRIBING the tape transport of the DATAmatc 1, t s perhaps well to begn by revewng the nfluental

More information

TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS TOOL FOR INTERACTIVE NONLINEAR MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION Petri Eskelinen 1, Kaisa Miettinen 2

TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS TOOL FOR INTERACTIVE NONLINEAR MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION Petri Eskelinen 1, Kaisa Miettinen 2 Internatonal Conference 20th EURO Mn Conference Contnuous Optmaton and Knowledge-Based Technologes (EurOPT-2008) May 20 23, 2008, Nernga, LITHUANIA ISBN 978-9955-28-283-9 L. Saalausas, G.W. Weber and E.

More information

Turn it on. Your guide to getting the best out of BT Vision

Turn it on. Your guide to getting the best out of BT Vision Avalable n Bralle, large prnt and audo CD. Please call FREE on 8 8 15 for your copy. Turn t on Your gude to gettng the best out of www.bt.com/btvson V.2 28656 Enchantng flms to entertan all the famly Flms

More information

JTAG / Boundary Scan. Multidimensional JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentation

JTAG / Boundary Scan. Multidimensional JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentation JTAG / Boundary Scan Multdmensonal JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentaton 2 GOEPEL electronc & JTAG / Boundary Scan COMPANY GOEPEL electronc GmbH GOEPEL electronc s a global company that has been developng

More information

Multi-Line Acquisition With Minimum Variance Beamforming in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

Multi-Line Acquisition With Minimum Variance Beamforming in Medical Ultrasound Imaging IEEE Transactons on Ultrasoncs, Ferroelectrcs, and Frequency Control, vol. 60, no. 12, Decemer 2013 2521 Mult-Lne Acquston Wth Mnmum Varance Beamformng n Medcal Ultrasound Imagng Ad Ranovch, Zv Fredman,

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF ARM-SWING DURING FORWARD DIVE AND REVERSE DIVE ON SPRINGBOARD

THE IMPORTANCE OF ARM-SWING DURING FORWARD DIVE AND REVERSE DIVE ON SPRINGBOARD THE MPORTANCE OF ARM-SWNG DURNG FORWARD DVE AND REVERSE DVE ON SPRNGBOARD Ken Yokoyama Laboratory of Bomechancs Faculty ofeducaton Kanazawa Unversty Kanazawa, Japan J unjro Nagano Department of Physcal

More information

US Al (19) United States (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/ A1 ABE (43) Pub. Date: Jun.

US Al (19) United States (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/ A1 ABE (43) Pub. Date: Jun. . US 20140178045Al (19) United States (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/0178045 A1 ABE (43) Pub. Date: Jun. 26, 2014 (54) VDEO PLAYBACK DEVCE, VDEO Publication Classi?cation PLAYBACK

More information

Lost on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing?

Lost on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing? Lost on the Web: Does Web Dstrbuton Stmulate or Depress Televson Vewng? Joel Waldfogel The Wharton School Unversty of Pennsylvana August 10, 2007 Prelmnary comments welcome Abstract In the past few years,

More information

zenith Installation and Operating Guide HodelNumber I Z42PQ20 [ PLASHATV

zenith Installation and Operating Guide HodelNumber I Z42PQ20 [ PLASHATV Installaton and Operatng Gude HodelNumber I Z42PQ20 PLASHATV To vew the extended verson of owner's manual that contans the advanced features of ths TV set, vst our webste at http://www.enthservce.com Ths

More information

JTAG / Boundary Scan. Multidimensional JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentation. Get the total Coverage!

JTAG / Boundary Scan. Multidimensional JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentation. Get the total Coverage! JTAG / Boundary Scan Multdmensonal JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentaton IEEE 1149.6 IEEE 1149.1 IEEE 1149.7 Multdmensonal JTAG / Boundary Scan Instrumentaton IEEE 1149.4 IEEE 1532 Get the total Coverage!

More information

Printer Specifications

Printer Specifications : Characterfonts:! Fort Pont 7P 0.5 pl Ptch 5cpl, Ocpl, 2cpl Proptlonel Epson Draf!o 0 lo j Epson Cower 0 0 0 Epson Roman O O O 0 Epson San6 Sent 0 O O O Epson Presllge j0 0 ~Epson Scnpt O 0 Epson Sormt

More information

Loewe. Ultra HD. Loewe. Connect. Always on.

Loewe. Ultra HD. Loewe. Connect. Always on. Loewe Ultra HD Loewe Connect. Always on. Edtoral. Never Stop Begnnng. Contents. Loewe Connect. There has been a lot of talk about new begnnngs at Loewe recently. But n actual fact, the thrll of new begnnngs

More information

User Manual ANALOG/DIGITAL, POSTIONER RECEIVER WITH EMBEDDED VIACCESS AND COMMON INTERFACE

User Manual ANALOG/DIGITAL, POSTIONER RECEIVER WITH EMBEDDED VIACCESS AND COMMON INTERFACE User Manual ANALOG/DIGITAL, POSTIONER RECEIVER WITH EMBEDDED VIACCESS AND COMMON INTERACE CONTENTS. Safety nstructons -------------------------------------------------------------------. eatures -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

More information

Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme

Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme Chapter 2: Basics Chapter 3: Multimedia Systems Communication Aspects and Services Chapter 4: Multimedia Systems Storage Aspects Optical Storage Media Multimedia File Systems Multimedia Database Systems

More information

AIAA Optimal Sampling Techniques for Zone- Based Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction

AIAA Optimal Sampling Techniques for Zone- Based Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction AIAA 2002-383 Optmal Samplng Technques or Zone- Based Probablstc Fatgue Le Predcton M. P. Enrght Southwest Research Insttute San Antono, TX H. R. Mllwater Unversty o Texas at San Antono San Antono, TX

More information

User guide. Receiver-In-Ear hearing aids. resound.com

User guide. Receiver-In-Ear hearing aids. resound.com User gude Recever-In-Ear hearng ads resound.com 400786011US-17.07-Rev.A.ndd 1 20-07-2017 12:52:40 Left Hearng Ad Rght Hearng Ad Seral number Seral number Model number Model number Recever type Recever

More information

DT-500 OPERATION MANUAL MODE D'EMPLOI MANUAL DE MANEJO MANUAL DE OPERA(_._,O. H.-,lri-D PROJECTOR PROJECTEUR PROYECTOR PROJETOR

DT-500 OPERATION MANUAL MODE D'EMPLOI MANUAL DE MANEJO MANUAL DE OPERA(_._,O. H.-,lri-D PROJECTOR PROJECTEUR PROYECTOR PROJETOR TM PROJECTOR PROJECTEUR PROYECTOR PROJETOR DT-500 OPERATION MANUAL MODE D'EMPLOI MANUAL DE MANEJO MANUAL DE OPERA(_._,O 8 f f 8 H.-,lr-D _I_H DEFINmON_TIM_IA I_T_RFACE Before usng the projector, please

More information

Environmental Reviews. Cause-effect analysis for sustainable development policy

Environmental Reviews. Cause-effect analysis for sustainable development policy Envronmental Revews Cause-effect analyss for sustanable development polcy Journal: Envronmental Revews Manuscrpt ID er-2016-0109.r2 Manuscrpt Type: Revew Date Submtted by the Author: 24-Feb-2017 Complete

More information

Simple Solution for Designing the Piecewise Linear Scalar Companding Quantizer for Gaussian Source

Simple Solution for Designing the Piecewise Linear Scalar Companding Quantizer for Gaussian Source 94 J. NIKOIĆ, Z. PERIĆ,. VEIMIROVIĆ, SIMPE SOUTION FOR DESIGNING THE PIECEWISE INEAR SCAAR Smle Soluton for Desgnng the Pecewse near Scalar Comandng Quantzer for Gaussan Source Jelena NIKOIĆ, Zoran PERIĆ,

More information

Approved by OMS 1[f0R FCC USE ONLY I 15 (March 2008) ]1 1 FOR COMMISSION USE ONLY J FILE NO AKZ

Approved by OMS 1[f0R FCC USE ONLY I 15 (March 2008) ]1 1 FOR COMMISSION USE ONLY J FILE NO AKZ DTV Quarterly Activity Station Report http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/cdbs/cdbs_docs/388_1 0 l.cfm?printform=y &... Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 rllicensee Approved by OMS 1[f0R FCC

More information

Product Information. Universal swivel units SRU-plus 25

Product Information. Universal swivel units SRU-plus 25 Product Informaton SRU-plus Robust. Fast. Hgh Performance. SRU-plus unversal rotary actuator Unversal unt for pneumatc swvel and turnng movements. Feld of applcaton Can be used n ether clean or contamnated

More information

IEEE802.11a Based Wireless AV Module(WAVM) with Digital AV Interface. Outline

IEEE802.11a Based Wireless AV Module(WAVM) with Digital AV Interface. Outline IEEE802.11a Based Wireless AV Module() with Digital AV Interface TOSHIBA Corp. T.Wakutsu, N.Shibuya, E.Kamagata, T.Matsumoto, Y.Nagahori, T.Sakamoto, Y.Unekawa, K.Tagami, M.Serizawa Outline Background

More information

Detecting Errors in Blood-Gas Measurement by Analysiswith Two Instruments

Detecting Errors in Blood-Gas Measurement by Analysiswith Two Instruments CLIN. CHEM. 33/4, 512-517 (1987) Detectng Errors n Blood-Gas Measurement by Analysswth Two Instruments LouIs F. Metzger, Wllam B. Stauffer, Ann V. Kruplnskl, Rchard P. MIIlman,3 George S. Cembrowskl,2

More information

Operating Instructions. TV. Television HomeMultiMedia DVD/Video Audio Telekommunikation. Calida 5784 ZP Planus 4663 Z Planus 4670 ZW Planus 4672 ZP

Operating Instructions. TV. Television HomeMultiMedia DVD/Video Audio Telekommunikation. Calida 5784 ZP Planus 4663 Z Planus 4670 ZW Planus 4672 ZP Operatng Instructons. Calda 5784 ZP Planus 4663 Z Planus 4670 ZW Planus 4672 ZP TV. Planus 4872 Z 233 29374.020 Prnted n Germany Televson Homeulteda DVD/Vdeo Audo Telekommunkaton 1 Contents Remote control

More information

include a comment explaining the reason and the portions of the pending application that are being

include a comment explaining the reason and the portions of the pending application that are being Page 1 of8 Federal Communications Commission Approved by OMB Washington, D.C. 20554 3060-1115 (February 2009) FCC 388 DTV Quarterly Activity Station Report FOR FCC USE ONLY 1 FOR COMMSSON USE ONLY "LE

More information

KW11-P program.m~ble real-time clock Illtlior user's manual LPA b (~ (Etch Rev F and up)

KW11-P program.m~ble real-time clock Illtlior user's manual LPA b (~ (Etch Rev F and up) (,, " KW11-P program.m~ble real-time clock lltlior user's manual LPA b (~ (Etch Rev F and up.. EK-KW1 PF-OP-001 KW11-P programl.tl~ble real-time clock jjbior user's manual,lpa b

More information

MC6845P I 1.5. ]Vs ,.~

MC6845P I 1.5. ]Vs ,.~ MC6845 - CRT CONTROLLER (CRTC) The MCW5 CRT controller performs the nterface between an MPU and a raster-scan CRT dsplay. t s ntended for use n MPU-based controllers for CRT termnals n stand-alone or cluster

More information

GENERAL AGREEMENT ON MMra

GENERAL AGREEMENT ON MMra RESTRICTED GENERAL AGREEMENT ON MMra TARIFFS AND TRADE Speeal Dstrbuton Agrculture Commttee A. Remarks IMPORT MEASURES Varable Leves and Other Specal Charges Addendum SWITZERLAND Imports of the products

More information

User guide. Receiver-In-The-Ear hearing aids, rechargeable Hearing aid charger. resound.com

User guide. Receiver-In-The-Ear hearing aids, rechargeable Hearing aid charger. resound.com User gude Recever-In-The-Ear hearng ads, rechargeable Hearng ad charger resound.com Seral number Model number Recever type Left Hearng Ad Low Power Medum Power Hgh Power Ultra Power Seral number Model

More information

User guide. Receiver-In-The-Ear hearing aids, rechargeable Hearing aid charger. resound.com

User guide. Receiver-In-The-Ear hearing aids, rechargeable Hearing aid charger. resound.com User gude Recever-In-The-Ear hearng ads, rechargeable Hearng ad charger resound.com 400973011US-18.08-Rev.A.ndd 1 01-08-2018 14:18:12 Left Hearng Ad Rght Hearng Ad Seral number Seral number Model number

More information

AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH FOR MULTI-CRITERIA SORTING PROBLEMS

AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH FOR MULTI-CRITERIA SORTING PROBLEMS AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH FOR MULTI-CRITERIA SORTING PROBLEMS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY BURAK KESER IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

More information

AE16 DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS

AE16 DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS AE16 DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS 1. Storage Requirements In a conventional linear PCM system without data compression the data rate (bits/sec) from one channel of digital audio will depend on the sampling

More information