40/100 Gb ETHERNET CABLING - A PERFECT STORM?

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1 40/100 Gb ETHERNET CABLING - A PERFECT STORM? Mike Gilmore

2 Mike Gilmore Mike Gilmore, Fellow IET Managing Director e-ready Building Standards Activities Member JTC1 SC25 WG3: Generic Cabling Convenor JTC1 SC25 WG3 CITG: Cabling Implementation Task Group (past) JTC1 SC25 WG3 IPTG: Industrial Premises (Cabling) Task Group Convenor TC215 WG1: IT Cabling Secretary TC215 WG2 Leader - Special Task Force 362 Energy Efficiency and Broadband Deployment Chairman TCT7: Telecommunications - Requirements TCT7/-/1: Cabling infrastructure design, planning and commissioning Meeting Secretary TCT7/-/2: Cabling installation and UK implementation TCT7/-/3: Facilities and infrastructures Mobile: +44 (0) FIA Technical and Standards Director Fibreoptic Industry Association Director Telecommunications Infrastructure Advisory Board

3 The Application Options Application Areas User Demand Application Development Cabled OF Categories 1 GbE Solutions 10 GbE Solutions 40 GbE Solutions The Imminent 40 GbE Future 40 GbE Application Profile 100 GbE Solutions A Probable 100 GbE Future 100 GbE Application Profile

4 Application Areas - I THE HIGH BIT RATE WORLD Operator site Core network CORE AND ACCESS NETWORK Access network Operator Subscriber data centre data centre DATA CENTRE NETWORK Infrastructure cost dominates Singlemode technologies Equipment cost dominates Multimode technologies Singlemode technologies

5 Application Areas - II THE HIGH BIT RATE WORLD 10 GbE 10 GbE 10 GbE Subscriber data centre CAMPUS or BUILDING BACKBONE Equipment-infrastructure cost balances Lengths unlimited m, m or m Singlemode technologies for longer lengths DATA CENTRE Equipment cost dominates Multimode technologies Singlemode technologies

6 User Demand THE HIGH BIT RATE WORLD Bit rate (Mbit.s -1 ) Core/Access Server Bit rate (Gbit.s -1 ) Gb 40 Gb 100 Gb 10 Gb 40 Gb 100 Gb Gb 1 Gb HISTORIC TRENDS core/access network demand doubles every 18 months server demand doubles every 24 months OUTCOME OF IMPORTANCE the drive behind 100 GbE comes from the operator: THE CORE/ACCESS NETWORK the drive behind 40 GbE comes from the subscriber/operator: THE DATA CENTRE AND BACKBONE OUTCOME OF INTEREST the lag between the core/access network and data centre/backbone increases over time OUTCOME OF IMPORTANCE should 40 Gb and 100 GB be considered separately

7 Application Development THE HIGH BIT RATE WORLD Bit rate (Mbit.s -1 ) Bit rate (Gbit.s -1 ) Core/Access Gb 39.8 Gb 10 GbE 100 GbE 40 GbE Server HISTORIC TRENDS core/access network data rates increase 80% per year subscriber network data rates increase 200% per year CORE AND ACCESS NETWORK DESIGNATION Mbits -1 OC-1 51,84 OC-3/STM-1x 155, OC-12/STM-4x 622,08 OC-48/STM-16x 2 488,32 OC-192/STM-64x 9 953,28 OC-768/STM-256x ,12 DATA CENTRE NETWORK DESIGNATION Mbits -1 IEEE 802.3u: IEEE 802.3z: IEEE 802.3ae: IEEE 802.3ba:

8 Cabled Optical Fibre Categories EN A.2 BS EN A.2 Optical fibre IEC Category B1.3 Category B6_a G.652c G.652d G.657 A1 G.657 A2 Attenuation (db/km max) Wavelength (nm) Singlemode OS1 OS1 OS2 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 0,4 1,0 0,4 1,0 0,4 Modal Bandwidth (MHz.km min) Attenuation (db/km max) Over-filled launch Effective Wavelength (nm) Multimode 62.5/125 or 50/125 50/125 OM1 OM2 OM ,5 1, /125 OM ISO/IEC Ed.2.2 EN A.2 BS EN A.2 Optical fibre A1b or A1a.1 A1a.2 A1a.3 IEC : 2010 EN : 2010 BS EN : 2010

9 1 GbE Solutions Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category 1000BASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) /125 50/125 OM1 OM2 -SX >550 2,60 3, MMF OM1 OM SMF OS2 -LX ** 2,35 4,56 ** channel length is lower on OS1

10 10 GbE Solutions Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category /125 50/125 50/125 OM1 OM2 OM3 10GBASE -SR/SW (nm) 830 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,62 1, , nm MMF OM1 OM2 OM3 OS SMF OS2 -LX4 -LX4 -LR/LW ** ** 1,96 6,20 6, OS2 -ER/EW ** 10,9 ** channel length is lower on OS1

11 40 GbE Solutions Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) 850 nm 50/125 OM3 50/125 OM nm SMF Cabled optical fibre Category 40GBASE -SR4 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 1,53 OS2 -LR ** 6,70 CWDM ITU-T G Tx: 4 x OF Rx: 4 x OF 40 GbE: Tx/Rx: 4 x 10 Gb ** channel length is lower on OS1

12 The Imminent 40 GbE Future Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) 850 nm 50/125 OM3 50/125 OM nm SMF 1550 SMF Cabled optical fibre Category 40GBASE -SR4 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) OS2 -LR ** 6.70 OS2 -FR ** 3,00 ** channel length is lower on OS1

13 40 GbE Application Profile AVAILABILITY Now 2011 APPLICATION 40GBASE-SR4 40GBASE-LR4 40GBASE-FR TECHNOLOGY Transmission equipment Multimode 4 x 10 Gb VCSELs Array technology forces wider tolerances cf. 10 GbE devices 4 x 10 Gb LASERs Singlemode 1 x 40 Gb LASER Channel length Channel insertion loss Optics 150 metres Restricted Parallel metres Unrestricted Simplex metres Reasonable Simplex Connecting hardware Comparative cost MPO technology Low LC technology High LC technology Medium

14 100 GbE Solutions Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category /125 OM3 100GBASE -SR10 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 1, /125 SMF SMF OM4 DWDM OS2 -LR ** 8,30 OS2 -ER ** 18,0 DWDM Tx: 10 OF Rx: 10 OF 40 GbE: Tx/Rx: 4 x 10 Gb 100 GbE: Tx/Rx: 4 x 25 Gb ** channel length is lower on OS1

15 A Possible 100 GbE Future Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Wavelength (nm) (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category /125 OM3 100GBASE -SR10 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) /125 50/125 SMF SMF SMF OM4 OM4 -SR ?? OS2 -LR ** 8.30 OS2 -LR4 WDM ** OS2 -FR **?? Tx: 4 OF Rx: 4 OF Tx/Rx: 4 x 25Gb ** channel length is lower on OS1

16 100 GbE Application Profile AVAILABILITY Now APPLICATION 100GBASE-SR10 100GBASE-LR4 100GBASE-ER4 TECHNOLOGY Transmission equipment Multimode 10 x 10 Gb VCSELs Array technology forces wider tolerances cf. 10 GbE devices 4 x 25 Gb LASERs Singlemode 4 x 25 Gb LASERs Channel length Channel insertion loss Optics 150 metres Restricted Parallel metres Unrestricted Simplex metres Unrestricted Simplex Connecting hardware Comparative cost MPO technology Medium LC technology High LC technology Very high APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY Transmission equipment 100GBASE-SR4 Multimode 4 x 25 Gb VCSELs Tolerance demand for 25 Gb devices risks final channel length 100GBASE-FR4 Singlemode 4 x 25 Gb LASERs Comparative cost Low Medium-High

17 The Cabling Options 40GBASE-SR4 40GBASE-LR4 40GBASE-FR 100GBASE-SR10 100GBASE-LR4 100GBASE-ER4 Domain Segregation Implementation Roadmaps

18 40GBASE-SR4 MULTIMODE (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category 62.5/125 OM /125 50/125 OM2 OM3 50/125 OM4 40GBASE -SR4 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 1,53

19 40GBASE-LR4 SINGLEMODE 40GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) -LR ,70

20 40GBASE-FR SINGLEMODE 40GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) -LR ,00

21 100GBASE-SR10 MULTIMODE EQUIPMENT OPTION A EQUIPMENT OPTION B (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category 62.5/125 OM /125 50/125 OM2 OM3 50/125 OM4 100GBASE -SR10 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 1,53

22 100GBASE-LR4 SINGLEMODE 100GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) -LR ,30

23 100GBASE-ER4 SINGLEMODE 100GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) -ER ,0

24 Domain Segregation OPERATOR DOMAIN SUBSCRIBER DOMAIN Channel lengths exceed 150 metres Singlemode solutions dominate exclusively Most data centre links Many backbone links 150 metres 150 metres Substantial expereince of singlemode operation User trends indicate 100G required User trends indicate initial 40G demand User trends indicate future 100G demand NETWORKING INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE Apply operators SM experience CABLING INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE Promote simpler SM solutions Develop lower cost SM solutions BATTLEGROUND Push MM to its limits Parallel optics Array connectivity Restricted channel insertion loss A PERFECT STORM!!

25 Implementation Roadmaps 12-way MM infrastructure MULTIMODE 40GBASE-SR4 Simplex infrastructure 40GBASE-LR4 40GBASE-FR 100GBASE-SR10 LOWER COST SINGLEMODE 100GBASE-LR m backbone channels long DC channels short access channels 100GBASE-SR4 LOWER COST lower power 100GBASE-FR4 LOWER COST 2000 m backbone channels long DC channels short access channels

26 Break 40/100 GbE CABLING - A PERFECT STORM?

27 Insertion Loss Multimode Application CIL 1000BASE-SX 10GBASE-SR/SW 40/100GBASE-SR* Multimode Application Summary Circular CH Insertion Loss Circular CH Statistics Singlemode Application CIL Return Loss Cablling Return Loss Application Return Loss Return Loss: A Balance Return Loss and Connectivity Summary

28 Multimode Application CIL (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category 1000BASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 62.5/125 OM1 -SX >550 2,60 3,56 10GBASE -SR/SW (nm) 830 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,62 1, /125 50/125 OM2 OM ,59 40GBASE -SR4 (nm) 850 Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 1,53 100GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) 100 Channel loss (db, max.) 1,90 -SR /125 OM ,53

29 1000BASE-SX BASE-SX OPB 7 Channel attenuation (db, max.) MHz 62.5/125 OM1 62.5/ MHz 50/125 OM2 50/ dBkm -1 (corrected to 830nm) db m 300m 220m 240m 500m 510m >550m 575m Channel length (m)

30 10GBASE-SR/SW GBASE-SR/SW OPB Channel attenuation (db, max.) OM1 62.5/ m 37m OM2 50/125 82m 93m OM Channel length (m) 300m 335m 3.5dBkm -1 (corrected to 830nm) db

31 40/100GBASE-SR* 8 40G/100GBASE-SRn 7 6 Attenuation (db, max.) OM3 OM4 3.5 db/km db CH 3.5 db/km db CH Channel length (m) PLEASE NOTE THAT CURVE SHAPES ARE GUESSTIMATED AND ARE USED FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY

32 Multimode Application Summary 1 GbE 10 GbE 40 GbE 100 GbE Channels much shorter than specified maxima offered opportunities for multiple connections (subject to theoretical limits for return loss) Maximum specified channel lengths based on 1,5 db total CH insertion loss Maximum specified channel lengths offered offer little opportunity (actual models are being retained as proprietary) Maximum specified channel lengths based on 1,5 db total CH insertion loss for OM3 based on 1,0 db total CH insertion loss for OM4 OPTICAL FIBRE CONNECTING HARDWARE - ISO/IEC and EN Wavelength Mated connection Attenuation (db max) All 95%<0,5, 100%<0,75

33 Circular CH Insertion Loss MONTE CARLO MODELLING Forecast: One Connection 1,000 Trials Frequency Chart 0 Outliers <99.8%< P in P out P in Forecast: Two Connections 1,000 Trials Frequency Chart 0 Outliers <100%< P out

34 Circular CH Statistics Worst case average attenuation per connection (db) No. of connections 0.75dB per connection Connecting hardware attenuation (db) No. of connections

35 Singlemode Application CIL (nm) Cabled optical fibre Category 1000BASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 10GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 40GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 100GBASE (nm) Channel length (m, max.) Channel loss (db, max.) 1 GbE 10 GbE 40 GbE 100 GbE OS OS1 OS2 -LX ,56 OS1 OS1 OS2 -LR/LW -ER/EW , ,9 -LR ,70 -LR4 -ER ,30 18,0 Channels provide much greater flexibility for multiple connections (subject to theoretical limits for return loss)

36 Return Loss RETURN LOSS PRIMER Every glass -air interface reflects Cabling standards define mated connection performance Independent of connector selection MULTIMODE P in P reflected SINGLEMODE 20 db, 1 % 35 db, 0,03% ISO/IEC etc EN X ISO/IEC etc EN X

37 Cabling Return Loss RETURN LOSS: CABLING Cabling standards do not specify cabling return loss RETURN LOSS: CABLING IEEE standards do not specify cabling return loss IEEE standards do specify conditions under which trasmit shall function P in P in P reflected P reflected 12 db, 6,3 %

38 Application Return Loss RETURN LOSS IMPLICATIONS 12 db, 6,3 % MULTIMODE MULTIMODE 12 db, 6,3 % 20 db, 1 % SINGLEMODE 20 db, 1 % SINGLEMODE 35 db, 0,03% 35 db, 0,03% ISO/IEC etc EN X ISO/IEC etc EN X Cable insertion loss Connection insertion loss Connection insertion loss INSERTION LOSS DEFINITIONS ** assuming cords are short

39 Return Loss: A Balance RETURN LOSS IMPLICATIONS P in KEY PARAMETER MULTIMODE 12 db, 6,3 % 5,3 % of P in 12 db, 6,3 % SINGLEMODE 5,97% of P in IN THEORY LOSS OF FIXED CABLE** PLUS MATED CONNECTIONS (PERMANENT LINK/CHANNEL**) MUST ATTENUATE REFLECTIONS FROM REMOTE DEVICE AND REMOTE MATED CONNECTIONS ** assuming cords are short

40 Return Loss and Connectivity RETURN LOSS IMPLICATIONS PL Return Loss (db) GRAPH SHOWS THE REQUIRED PL/CHANNEL RETURN LOSS FOR A GIVEN PL/CHANNEL INSERTION LOSS -35 PL/Channel Insertion Loss (db) For example, a PL/channel insertion loss of 1,5 db requires RL of 15,0dB 3 x 20 db mated connections 15.2 db 10 x 25 db mated connectons 15 db 10 x 35 db mated connections 25 db

41 Summary MULTIMODE SINGLEMODE MbE High connectivity implementations supported by high optical power budget GbE Higher bandwidth optical fibres have higher CIL max for a given channel length Return loss theory suggests limited options for high connectivity implementations 1-10 GbE GbE Higher bandwidth optical fibres provide option for high connectivity implementations Little opportunity for high connectivity implementations CH IL requirements may be unrealistic at maxiumum channel length GbE CIL max values are far is excess of those of multimode solutions These enable high connectivity implementations Return loss theory does not restrict implementations

42 Testing Issues Testing Trends RGTs and Test Methods RGT Standards and the FIA Multimode Test Limits - 1 Cord Multimode Test Limits - 3 Cord Testing and Accuracy Validity of RGTs Testing Array CH Summary

43 Testing Trends MMF APPLICATION SUPPORTED CHANNEL LENGTHS REQUIRED CHANNEL INSERTION LOSS 10BASE-F 100BASE-F metres 2000 metres 6,8-12,5 db 11,0 db 1000BASE-S 10GBASE-S 40/100GBASE-S metres metres metres 2,6-3,6 db 1,6-2,6 db 1,5-1,9 db As data rates increase using multimode optical fibre BS EN ISO/IEC reduction in maximum CIL reduction in typical channel length increased risk of litigation need for accuracy need for repeatability Fibre optic communication subsystem test procedures: Installed cable plant - Multimode attenuation measurement Information technology: Implementation and operation of customer premises cabling - Testing of optical fibre cabling DEFINED LAUNCH CONDITIONS FOR MMF TESTING MODIFIED TEST METHODS (in some cases) REFERENCE GRADE TERMINATIONS PLAY A KEY ROLE IN THIS PROCESS

44 RGTs and Test Methods ONE CORD REFERENCE METHOD LS S D PM Launch cord PREFERRED FOR PANEL-TO-PANEL CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN NOT USED BY ISO/IEC TWO CORD REFERENCE METHOD LS S D PM Launch cord Tail cord USED FOR PANEL-TO-PLUG CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN NOT USED BY ISO/IEC THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD LS S D PM Launch cord Dummy cord Tail cord USED FOR PLUG-TO-PLUG (CHANNEL) CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN OPTIONAL FOR PANEL-TO-PANEL CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN USED FOR ALL CONFIGURATIONS BY ISO/IEC

45 RGT Standards and the FIA BS EN defines the performance does not define the component mechanical tolerances mentions possibility of tighter tolerance OF ISO/IEC defines the performance references some specific connector standards as a basis for definition provides a loose definition for others no mention of tighter tolerance OF Insertion loss 0,1 db FIA PROJECT TEAM RGT the real requirements for a RGT starting with MM circular ferrules Interim Report has been issued 0,1 db is not guaranteed by mechanical tolerances within the plug the use of single mode plugs is mandatory the use of SM termination specification is mandatory MM or SM adaptors may be used ceramic alignment sleeves are considered valuable no justification to control core-ferrule OD eccentricity no justification to control optical fibre core diameter no justification to control end-face geometry beyond SM standard MM rectangular ferrules in the too hard category at this time SM work is partially underway elsewhere how to produce RGTs (if product selection is required) how to procure RGTs (if complex measurement is required) how to use RGTs to maintain performance

46 Multimode Test Limits - 1 Cord Population Insertion loss Normal-normal RGT-normal RGT-RGT 0,1 db 0,3 db 0,75 db ONE CORD REFERENCE METHOD LS S D PM Launch cord ONE CORD REFERENCE TEST METHOD LS S Launch cord Installed cable Tail cord D PM LIMIT = 0,6 db + installed cable PREFERRED FOR PANEL-TO-PANEL CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN NOT USED BY ISO/IEC

47 Multimode Test Limits - 3 Cord Population Insertion loss Normal-normal RGT-normal RGT-RGT 0,1 db 0,3 db 0,75 db THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD LS S D PM Launch cord Dummy cord Tail cord THREE CORD REFERENCE TEST METHOD LS S Launch cord Installed cable Tail cord D PM LIMIT = 0,4 db + installed cable USED FOR PLUG-TO-PLUG (CHANNEL) CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN OPTIONAL FOR PANEL-TO-PANEL CONFIGURATIONS IN BS EN USED FOR ALL CONFIGURATIONS BY ISO/IEC

48 Testing and Accuracy Population Insertion loss Normal-normal RGT-normal 0,1 db 0,3 db 0,75 db RGT-RGT SINGLE CORD REFERENCE METHOD THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD 0.0 db Installed cable 0.6 db BS EN PREFERS 1-CORD REFERENCE AS MOST ACCURATE ISO/IEC MANDATES 3-CORD REFERENCE AS MOST GENERIC -0.2 db 0.0 db 0.4 db 0.6 db

49 Validity of RGTs Insertion loss Population Normal-normal THE USE OF REFERENCE GRADE TERMINATIONS RGT-normal FORCES THE MODIFICATION OF THE NORMAL TEST LIMITS RGT-RGT If RGT are assumed, but not present, the application of the modified limits can 0,1 result db in increased 0,3 db probability of 0,75 failure db SINGLE CORD REFERENCE METHOD THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD 0.0 db Installed cable 0.6 db -0.2 db 0.0 db 0.4 db

50 Testing Array Connecting Hardware ONE CORD REFERENCE METHOD - SPECIAL TEST EQUIPMENT LS S D PM LS S PM D Launch cord Launch cord CORRECT LAUNCH CONDITIONS FOR ALL PORTS

51 Testing Array Connecting Hardware THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD - STANDARD TEST EQUIPMENT LS S D Dummy cord PM Launch cord Tail cord THREE CORD REFERENCE METHOD - SPECIAL TEST EQUIPMENT LS S D PM Launch cord Dummy cable Tail cord CORRECT LAUNCH CONDITIONS FOR ALL PORTS

52 Summary REFERENCE GRADE TERMINATIONS Latest standardised test methods adopt RGTs The use of RGTs modifies the applicable test limits If RGTs are not used, false fails will be recorded The FIA has identified procurement routes for MM circular ferrules A procurement route for SM circular ferrules is underway A procurement route for MM rectangular ferrules is unclear True position of the fibre core Exit angle Attenuation between 2 reference connectors ARRAY CONNECTING HARDWARE Rectangular connector styles MMF SMF < 1,0 m < 0,3 m 0,20 0,20 0,10 db 0,20 db Specialist field test equipment is not commonly available Testing using standard test equipment will be time consuming Testing using standard test equipment will adopt 3 Cord Reference Method (least accurate) Maintenance of launch conditions is an additional complexity

53 Maintenance of Performance Component Performance Array Connecting Hardware Contamination

54 Component Performance CABLES CONNECTING HARDWARE CABLING SINGLEMODE SINGLEMODE SINGLEMODE Cable construction tight buffer Category OS1 loose tube Category OS2 blown fibre Category OS2 Optical fibre Category B1.3 Category B6_a Mixing of B1.3 and B6_a Not recommended MULTIMODE Cable construction Category OM3 or OM4 (tight buffer or ribbon) Simplex transmission places no contraints on panel connectivity LC, SC, FC/PC etc. Interoperability well defined (circular ferrules) MULTIMODE Parallel optics transmission forces rectangular ferrule technologies MPO selected performance is a challenge (increasing with row count) Contamination (small core) Long experience in the core/access networks suggest that this is managable with appropriate procedures MULTIMODE Contamination (multiple ports) requires implementation of appropriate procedures or resilient infrastructure Interoperability is an aspiration basic components polarity maintenance Polarity maintenance indicates single source solutions for multimode implementation

55 Array Connecting Hardware No interoperatibility From PTMF rapid install factory checked don t touch don t clean no direct test To patch panel mating demating cord procurement user involvement

56 Contamination 40/100 GbE CHANNELS ARE ASSUMED TO BE MISSION CRITICAL MULTIMODE SINGLEMODE AVAILABILITY IS KEY Expensive infrastructure Expensive equipment Low cost infrastructure Very expensive equipment OPERATIONAL PROCESSES TO DETECT AND REMOVE CONTAMINATION ARE VITAL SINGLEMODE MULTIMODE 7-10 m 50 m Each port is susceptible Channel margin available of typical installs Each port is less susceptible Little or no channel margin available One out - all out risk

57 Inspect? Inspection Equipment Clean?

58 Inspect? LOOSE BONDED MATED CONTAMINATION OUTCOMES Insertion loss failures Return loss failures Equipment damage CONTAMINATION CATEGORIES (from JDSU) Dry particles fallen onto the ferrule/optical fibre end-face or placed when handling Particles held in place with grease, oils or dried residue from a wet cleaning process Particles embedded into the optical fibre end-face if mated with another connector IF CONTAMINATED CONNECTIONS ARE MATED Particles around the core are displaced, migrate and spread across the optical fibre surface Particles larger than 5μm usually explode and multiply upon mating Large particles can create barriers ( air gaps ) that prevent physical contact Particles less than 5μm may embed into the optical fibre surface Mated contamination FAILURE TO INSPECT UNTIL PROBLEMS OCCUR CAN CAUSE PERMANENT DAMAGE After mated contaminated is removed, pits and chips may remain in the optical fibre rendering the contamination outcomes permanent

59 Inspection Equipment CCD PROBE (from JDSU) MULTIMODE SINGLEMODE

60 Clean? OPERATIONAL PROCESSES TO DETECT AND REMOVE CONTAMINATION ARE VITAL SINGLEMODE CIRCULAR MULTIMODE RECTANGULAR D B A B A C Scratches Defects Zone Scratches Defects A No limit 3 m 4 5 m None None Core 0 5 m 0 5 m No limit 3 m 0 3 m No limit No limit No limit 2 m 2 m 5 5 m 0 5 m No limit 0 10 m B Cladding C Adhesive D Contact No limit 5 m 0 5 m No limit 2 m 2 m 5 5 m 0 5 m BS EN :2010 Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components - Basic test and measurement procedures - Part 3-35: Examinations and measurements - Fibre optic connector endface visual and automated inspection

61 Lunch 40/100 GbE CABLING - A PERFECT STORM?

62 MM-SM Cost Comparison MM-SM Cost Comparison Apples with Apples Basic Infrastructure Migration or New Build The Impact of Resilience Summary

63 MM-SM Cost Comparison Apples with Apples MULTIMODE 12-way MM infrastructure 40GBASE-SR4 SINGLEMODE Simplex infrastructure 40GBASE-LR4 40GBASE-FR LOWER COST 2000 m backbone channels long DC channels short access channels

64 MM-SM Cost Comparison Basic Infrastructure Total installed cost (normalised) Link length (m) OM3 OM4 OS1 INSTALLED COST PER OPTICAL FIBRE Basic cost analysis suggests that: 100 m 12 off OM4: 2 off OS1 7:1 cost

65 MM-SM Cost Comparison Migration or New Build - SMF THE HIGH BIT RATE WORLD 10 GbE 10 GbE 10 GbE Subscriber data centre THE VAST MAJORITY OF CAMPUS BACKBONES HAVE SINGLEMODE CONTENT MOST PROFESSIONALLY DESIGNED DATA CENTRES AND BUILDING BACKBONES HAVE SINGELMODE CONTENT NO MIGRATION COSTS APPLY

66 MM-SM Cost Comparison Migration or New Build - MMF WASTE MIGRATION TO BE PARALLEL OPTICS -READY REQUIRES SUBSTANTIAL INVESTMENT MUCH OF WHICH IS THROWN AWAY WHEN PARALLEL OPTICS ARE APPLIED AT THE PATCH PANEL

67 MM-SM Cost Comparison The Impact of Resilience MULTI-PORT SOLUTION OFTEN ENABLE ALTERNATIVE PATHS FOLLOWING DAMAGE/CONTAMINATION EQUIVALENT MPO IS A SINGLE POINT OF FAILURE RESILIENCE REQUIRES MULTIPLE PARALLEL OPTIC ROUTES

68 MM-SM Cost Comparison Summary FOR CHANNELS LENGTHS 150 METRES IT WILL BE MORE EXPENSIVE TO IMPLEMENT 40/100 GbE OVER SINGLEMODE INFRASTRUCTURES THAN MULTIMODE INFRASTRUCTURES HOW MUCH MORE DEPENDS OF THE NATURE OF COMPARISON MADE AT WHAT POINT WILL BE INFRASTRUCTURE BE INSTALLED? BEWARE OF MIGRATION PATHS HISTORICAL PRECEDENT SHOWS THAT MM-SM EQUIPMENT COST DIFFERENTIALS NARROW THE IMMINENT RELEASE OF 40GBASE-FR INDICATES A DESIRE BY EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE WHAT IS THE EXACT COMPARISON MODEL? CONSIDER RESILIENCE

69 Risk Analysis Risk Analysis Calculated Risks Technical Risks al Constraints MMF Polarity Maintenance Interoperability SMF 3rd Window : Cords

70 Risk Analysis Calculated Risks 40/100 GbE CHANNELS ARE ASSUMED TO BE MISSION CRITICAL MULTIMODE SINGLEMODE AVAILABILITY IS KEY FOR CHANNELS LENGTHS Expensive infrastructure Expensive equipment Low cost infrastructure Very expensive equipment 150 METRES IT WILL BE MORE EXPENSIVE TO IMPLEMENT 40/100 GbE OVER SINGLEMODE INFRASTRUCTURES THAN MULTIMODE INFRASTRUCTURES RISK ANALYSIS IS CRITICAL DEMANDS FOR AVAILABILITY COST SAVINGS TECHNICAL RISK OPERATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

71 Risk Analysis Technical Risk MULTIMODE SINGLEMODE 40GBASE-SR4 Parallel optics MPO performance in patching environment One out all out failure mode Short channel length (max) Low CIL max Low total CH insertion loss(max) 40GBASE-LR4 CWDM suggests B1.3 or B6_a OF Legacy cabling should be assessed 40GBASE-FR 1550 nm transmission Microbend losses more aggressive

72 Risk Analysis Technical Risk: 40GBASE-SR 3 2 Loss (db) m MMF Total contamination radius (microns) 6 5 PLEASE NOTE THAT CURVE SHAPES ARE GUESSTIMATED AND ARE USED FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY 40G/100GBASE-SRn Attenuation (db, max.) OM3 OM4 Fixed point Fixed point 3.5 db/km db CH db/km db CH Channel length (m)

73 Risk Analysis Technical Risk: 40GBASE-LR (nm) GBASE-LR Tx/Rx: 4 x 10 Gb Actual wavelengths (CWDM ITU-T G.694-2) , , , ,5 Attenuation coefficient (dbkm -1 ) Category B1.1 G.652a G.652b Category B1.3 G.652c G.652d Category B6_a G.657 A1 G.657 A Wavelength (nm) BS EN A2:2010 Information technology - Generic cabling - general requirements OS1 OS2 Category B1.3 Category B6_a ISO/IEC Ed.2.2 Information technology - Generic cabling for customer premises Category B1.1 OS1 OS2 Category B1.3 Category B6_a

74 Risk Analysis Technical Risk Outcomes MULTIMODE 40GBASE-SR4 Parallel optics MPO performance in patching environment One out all out failure mode Short channel length (max) Low CIL max Low total CH insertion loss(max) Should the operational channel length (max) be restricted? If so, to what length? SINGLEMODE 40GBASE-LR4 CWDM suggests B1.3 or B6_a OF Legacy cabling should be assessed 40GBASE-FR 1550 nm transmission Microbend losses more aggressive History has proven IEEE limits to be be conservative But OM4 limits were last minute fixes OM4 was to be 125 m (1, 5 db CH loss) of optical fibres in closures requires more careful treatment Perhaps consider B6_a OF solutions

75 Risk Analysis al Constraints MULTIMODE 40GBASE-SR4 Parallel optics Polarity maintenance Interoperability Contamination SINGLEMODE 40GBASE-LR4 Contamination 40GBASE-FR Contamination Microbend losses more aggressive

76 Risk Analysis Polarity Maintenance - Single Row MULTIMODE 40GBASE-SR4, 100GBASE-SR10 EQUIPMENT OPTION B (2 SINGLE ROWS) SINGLE ROW POLARITY MAINTENANCE APPROACHES TIA-568-C shows two examples EN /ISO/IEC * show one example only METHOD A ADAPTERS FIXED CABLE KEY UP/DOWN TYPE A 1-1, METHOD B CORDS ADAPTERS FIXED CABLE TYPE A TYPE B KEY UP/UP TYPE B 1-12, 12-1 CORDS TYPE B TYPE B

77 Risk Analysis Method B Fibre Key up Position 1 Position 12 Key up Position 12 Position 1 Key up Position 12 Position 1 Key up Position 1 Position 12 Fibre

78 Risk Analysis Polarity Maintenance - Double Row MULTIMODE 100GBASE-SR10 EQUIPMENT OPTION A (1 DOUBLE ROW) FIXED CABLING ADOPTS SINGLE ROW AT PANEL EQUIPMENT CORDS TO PROVIDE DOUBLE ROW CONNECTION EXAMPLE SOLUTION** METHOD B ADAPTERS FIXED CABLE CORDS KEY UP/UP TYPE B 1-12, 12-1?? Top row: position 1 Bottom row: position 13 PULL PUSH PUSH PULL Position 12 Position 1 Top row: position 12 Bottom row: position 24 PUSH PULL Position 12 Position 1 Courtesy of Commscope ** in development

79 Risk Analysis Interoperability - I BS EN A2:2010 ISO/IEC MULTIMODE Information technology - Generic cabling - general requirements Information technology - Generic cabling for data centres (front view of fixed or free connector) No interoperatibility

80 Risk Analysis Interoperability - II IEC :2008 MULTIMODE Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components - Fibre optic connector interfaces - Part 7: Type MPO connector family IEC ** IEC ** Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components - Fibre optic connector interfaces - Part 7-1: Type MPO connector family - Single fibre row Fibre optic interconnecting devices and passive components - Fibre optic connector interfaces - Part 7-2: Type MPO connector family - Double fibre row SINGLEMODE FERRULE MATERIALS IEC ** IEC ** thermoset and thermoplastic (polyphenylene sulphide) Optical interface, 8 degrees angled PC, polyphenylene sulphide rectangular ferrule, single mode fibres Optical interface, 8 degrees angled PC, thermoset epoxy rectangular ferrule, single mode fibre ** in development

81 Risk Analysis 3rd Window : Cords SINGLEMODE Optical fibres - Product specifications IEC , EN , BS EN Sectional specification for category B singlemode fibres (Ed.3: 2008) Category B6_a G.657 A1 G.657 A2 Annex G Category B6_b G.657 B2 G.657 B3 No automatic compatibility with G.652 Less bend sensitive optical fibres Radius (mm) Turns 1550 nm att 1625 nm G.657 A1 G.657 A , ,25 0,75 0,03 0,1 0,5 1,0 1,5 0,1 0,2 1,0

82 Break 40/100 GbE CABLING - A PERFECT STORM?

83 Avoidance of Pitfalls SENT TO KEY SUPPLIERS - 29TH SEPTEMBER 2010 As you may be aware I am in the final stages of preparing a series of seminars on the above subject (the mailer for the initial two open events is attached there are also some closed events for specific clients). It is not the objective of the seminars to direct users and installers in one particular technological direction - but to make them aware of the key issues that they face and must address when selecting a system solution. I am writing to you as a first port of call within your organisation to ensure that I have the best picture possible of what is being proposed in relation to design rules, installation practice, testing and maintenance procedures for the cabling solutions you (will) provide. RECIPIENTS COMMSCOPE CORNING NEXANS PANDUIT TYCO ELECTRONICS FLUKE NETWORKS JDSU The majority have not replied Possible reasons: IPR; idleness; inability. SHOULD WE BE WORRIED?

84 Data centre cabling Evolving simplex applications Generic cabling design Plug-and-play pitfall analysis

85 Data Centre Cabling ENI MD EXTERNAL NETWORK INTERFACE MAIN DISTRIBUTOR ZD LDP ZONE DISTRIBUTOR LOCAL DISTRIBUTION POINT EO EQUIPMENT OUTLET Network access cabling subsystem Main distribution cabling subsystem ZD MD ENI ENI ZD Zone distribution cabling subsystem LDP LDP LDP LDP EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO

86 Evolving Simplex Applications 8 1G Fibre Channel 2G Fibre Channel 4G Fibre Channel 8G Fibre Channel 16G Fibre Channel 32G Fibre Channel 850nm OM3 800 m 500 m 380 m 150 m 100 m 50 m 850nm OM4 400 m 190 m 125 m 75 m 150 m 16G FC Attenuation (db, max.) OM3 OM4 3.5 db/km db CH db/km db CH Channel length (m)

87 Generic Standards - I Main distribution area ANSI/TIA-942:2005 MC Main distribution cabling subsystem ISO/IEC 24764:2010 EN : A1 :2010 MD HC HC ZD ZD Horizontal distribution area Zone distribution cabling subsystem LDP Equipment distribution area EO EO EO EO EO EO

88 Generic Standards - II Main distribution area Intermediate distribution area Horizontal distribution area Zone distribution area Equipment distribution area ANSI/TIA-942-A:2011 EO HC MC IC HC ISO/IEC A1:2011 EN : A1 : A2:2011 Main distribution cabling subsystem Intermediate distribution cabling subsystem Zone distribution cabling subsystem ZD LDP EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO MD ID ZD

89 Plug-and-Play (P-and-P) LDP ZD LDP MD ZD LDP LDP ID ZD LDP LDP ZD LDP LDP MD ID ZD LDP LDP LDP ZD LDP

90 P-and-P Technology Boundaries LDP ZD LDP MD ZD LDP LDP ID ZD LDP LDP ZD LDP LDP MD ID ZD LDP LDP LDP ZD LDP

91 Plug-and-Play Rules Channel Length (m., max) No. of connections No. of splices Channel Length (m.) L Connections Splices

92 Analysis PRIMARY CHOICE SIMPLEX OPTICS PARALLEL OPTICS MM LEGACY APPLICATIONS FUTURE APPLICATIONS SM MM LENGTH LIMIT SM BACKUP SM BACKUP LENGTH LIMIT OM3 OM4 B1.3 B6_a MIGRATION NEW BUILD STANDARDISED OPTICAL FIBRE STANDARDISED CABLE STANDARDISED CONNECTORS OPEN SYSTEM SUPPLIER SELECTION PLUG AND PLAY RULES SUPPLIER SELECTION DESIGN RULES SYSTEM GUARANTEES POLARITY SOLUTIONS PLUG AND PLAY RULES

93 analysis

94 Analysis PRIMARY CHOICE SIMPLEX OPTICS PARALLEL OPTICS MM SM MM CONVENETIONAL COMPONENTS SUPPLIER SELECTION PIGTAILS NORMAL CABLE LAYING NORMAL TERMINATION DIRECT PIGTAILS INSPECTION INSTALLATION RULES CABLE LAYING PRE-TERMINATED CABLES IN-CLOSURE ASSEMBLY INSPECTION RULES SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT CLEANING CLEANING RULES SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT TESTING RULES NORMAL TESTING TEST EQUIPMENT /1550 LSPM CORDS

95 al analysis

96 al Analysis PRIMARY CHOICE SIMPLEX OPTICS PARALLEL OPTICS MM SM MM SUPPLIER SELECTION STANDARDISED CORDS INSPECTION CLEANING PROCUREMENT RULES INSPECTION RULES SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT CLEANING RULES SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT

97 Close 40/100 GbE CABLING - A PERFECT STORM?