Appendix A: Non-Executive Directors of Channel

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1 Appendix A: Non-Executive Directors of Channel The Rt. Hon. Edmund Dell (Chairman ) Sir Richard Attenborough (Deputy Chairman ) (Director 1987) (Chairman ) George Russell (Deputy Chairman 1 Jan ) Sir Brian Bailey (1 July ) (Deputy Chairman 1990) Sir Michael Bishop CBE (Deputy Chairman 1991) (Chairman 1992 ) David Plowright (Deputy Chairman 1992 ) Lord Blake (1 Sept ) William Brown ( ) Carmen Callil (1 July ) Jennifer d Abo (1 April ) Richard Dunn (1 Jan ) Greg Dyke (11 April ) Paul Fox (1 July ) James Gatward (1 July ) John Gau (1 July ) Roger Graef ( ) Bert Hardy (1992 ) Dr Glyn Tegai Hughes ( ) Eleri Wynne Jones (22 Jan ) Anne Lapping (1 Jan 1989 ) Mary McAleese (1992 ) David McCall ( ) John McGrath (1990 ) The Hon. Mrs Sara Morrison ( ) Sir David Nicholas CBE (1992 ) Anthony Pragnell (1 July ) Usha Prashar (1991 ) Peter Rogers ( ) Michael Scott (1 July ) Anthony Smith ( ) Anne Sofer ( ) Brian Tesler ( ) Professor David Vines (1 Jan ) Joy Whitby ( ) 435

2 Appendix B: Channel 4 Major Programme Awards British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) 1983: The Snowman Best Children s Programme Drama 1984: Another Audience With Dame Edna Best Light Entertainment 1987: Channel 4 News Best News or Outside Broadcast Coverage 1987: The Lowest of the Low Special Award for Foreign Documentary 1987: Network 7 Special Award for Originality 1987: The Sacrifice Best Foreign Language Film 1987: Wish You Were Here Best Original Screenplay 1988: The Storyteller: Hans my Hedgehog Best Children s Programme, Entertainment and Drama 1988: Tanner 88 Best Foreign TV Programme 1988: A Very British Coup Best Drama Series 1989: Channel 4 News Best News or Outside Broadcast Coverage 1989: Traffik Best Drama Series 1991: Channel 4 News Best News or Outside Broadcast Coverage 1991: Whose Line Is It Anyway? Best Light Entertainment Programme 1992: J Accuse Citizen Kane Huw Wheldon Award For Best Arts Progrmme 1992: Jim Henson s Greek Myths Best Children s Programme, Fiction 1992: Vic Reeves Big Night Out Special Award for Originality Royal Television Society (RTS) 1984: The Skin Horse Original Programme Award 1986: Maids and Madams Current Affairs, Journalism International 1986: Brookside Judges Award 1986: Max Headroom Original Programme Award 1987: Channel 4 News King s Cross Fire Home News Award 1987: Channel 4 News Zeebrugge Disaster Best News and Outside Broadcast Coverage 1987: Dispatches Aids: The Unheard Voices Current Affairs, Journalism International 1988: Aids Now: The Quest for Control Adult Continuing Education Award 1988: Channel 4 News The Bush Tapes News, Topical Feature Award 1988: Shoah Special Commendation 1988: V Original Programme Award 1989: The Carers: Moving Out Adult Continuing Education Award 1989: The Comic Strip Presents The Strike Best Situation Comedy 1989: Hard News Journalism, Topical Feature Award 1989: The Secret Life Of The Washing Machine Education Awards, Special Commendation 1989: A Very British Coup Best Drama Serial 1990: Nobody Here But Us Chickens Best Single Drama 436

3 Appendix B : Whose Line Is It Anyway? Best Light Entertainment 1991: Channel 4 News: Iraqi Weapons Link Journalism, Topical Feature Award 1991: Cutting Edge: Island of Outcasts Journalism, Best International Current Affairs 1991: Hello, Do You Hear Us? Best Documentary Series 1991: Poetry In Motion: John Betjeman Adult Education, Continuing Studies Award 1992: As It Happens Moscow New Year Best Outside Broadcast 1992: Channel 4 News Orkney Satanic Abuse Home News Award 1992: Channel 4 News The Secret City News Topical Feature Award 1992: Secret History Best Documentary Series 1992: Vic Reeves Big Night Out Best Entertainment Programme 1992: True Stories The Leader, His Driver And The Driver s Wife Best Single Documentary The Golden Rose of Montreux (Light Entertainment) 1988: The Comic Strip Presents The Strike Golden Rose and The Press Prize 1990: Norbert Smith A Life Silver Rose 1992: Whose Line Is It Anyway? Bronze Rose 1992: S&M Special Mention Prix Italia 1984: The Tragedy of Carmen Music Award 1986: Maids and Madams Documentary 1987: Behind the Mask: Perspectives on the Music of Harrison Birtwistle Regione Veneto Prize 1988: The Good Father Fiction 1989: Arctic Tragedy Ecology Prize 1990: Una Stravaganza Dei Medici Arts, Special Prize 1991: A TV Dante: Cantos 3 & 4 Special Prize Film Festivals 1984: Almonds and Raisins Berlin Certificate of Merit 1984: Laughterhouse Venice Joint Winner TV 1984: Voyage to Cythera Cannes International Critics Prize 1985: Vagabonde Venice Golden Lion 1986: Caravaggio Berlin Silver Bear 1986: The Sacrifice Cannes International Critics Prize 1987: Wish You Were Here Cannes International Critics Prize 1987: Channel 4 Television Cannes Roberto Rossellini Award for contribution to the progress of cinema in the past year 1988: The Debt Berlin Silver Bear 1988: Distant Voices, Still Lives Cannes International Critics Prize 1988: High Hopes Venice Critics Award (shared) 1991: Riff Raff Cannes Critics Prize 1991: Riff Raff Berlin European Film of the Year 1992: The Best Intentions Cannes Palme d Or [Source: Channel 4 Annual Reports]

4 Appendix C: Channel 4 The Commissioning Structure 438

5 Bibliography 1. Government and Parliamentary publications (a) Acts of Parliament (b) Government White Papers (c) Government Committee of Inquiry and Working Party Reports (d) Parliamentary Select Committee Reports (e) Advisory Committee Reports (f) Government Departmental Reports and Studies (g) Licences to broadcast granted to the IBA/ITC (h) European Directives and Convention 2. Independent Broadcasting Authority/Independent Television Commission 3. Channel 4 (a) Fourth television channel (b) Channel 4 4. Breakfast-time television (a) General breakfast-time television (b) TV-am 5. Cable television 6. Satellite television (a) General satellite broadcasting (b) British Satellite Broadcasting BSB (c) British Sky Broadcasting BSkyB 7. Personalities: Biographies, autobiographies and memoirs 8. Additions to Volume 5 bibliography This bibliography for Volume 6 of Independent Television in Britain contains a list of publications published in (or covering) the period 1981 to However, due to pressure of space, this will only cover selected government and parliamentary publications, together with books specifically on those topics covered by this volume IBA/ITC, Channel 4, breakfast-time television, cable television, satellite television, biographical works on the broadcasters and politicians involved, and a few important works related to the coverage of Volume 5 that have been published since its publication. Readers are otherwise recommended to refer back to the full bibliography in Volume 5 for books on broadcasting and society, the television industry, the political background, regulation, ITV and its companies, advertising, broadcasting research, and programmes. Books specifically and solely about the BBC are not included. They can be found listed in British broadcasting : a selected bibliography (London: BBC Data Publications, 1983), and The history of broadcasting in the United Kingdom, by Asa Briggs (Vols 1 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ). 439

6 440 New Developments in Independent Television Government and Parliamentary Publications (Listed in chronological order in each section) (a) Acts of Parliament Broadcasting Act Broadcasting Act (Consolidating Act) Cable and Broadcasting Act Telecommunications Act Video Recordings Act Broadcasting Act Copyright, Designs and Patents Act Broadcasting Act (b) Government White Papers HOME OFFICE. Broadcasting. (Cmnd 7294) London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE and WELSH OFFICE. Second report from the Committee on Welsh Affairs, Session Broadcasting in the Welsh language and the implications for Welsh and non-welsh language speaking viewers and listeners. Observations by the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Secretary of State for Wales (Cmnd 8649) London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE and DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY. The development of cable systems and services. (Cmnd 8866) London: HMSO, DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY. Film policy. (Cmnd 9319) London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE. Broadcasting in the 90s: competition, choice and quality. The Government s plans for broadcasting legislation. (Cm 517) London: HMSO, DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY. Competition and choice: telecommunications policy for the 1990s. (Cm 1461) London: HMSO, (c) Government Committee of Inquiry and Working Party Reports Report of the Committee on Broadcasting, (Chairman: Sir Harry Pilkington) (Cmnd 1753) London: HMSO, Report of the Committee on Broadcasting Coverage. (Chairman: Sir Stewart Crawford) (Cmnd 5774) London: HMSO, Report of the Working Party on a Fourth Television Service in Wales. (Chairman: J.W.N. Siberry) (Cmnd 6209) London: HMSO, Report of the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting. (Chairman: Lord Annan) (Cmnd 6753) London: HMSO, Report of the Working Party on the Welsh Television Fourth Channel Project. (Chairman: D.J. Trevelyan, later Mrs S. Littler) London: HMSO, Report of the Inquiry into Cable Expansion and Broadcasting Policy. (Chairman: Lord Hunt of Tanworth) (Cmnd 8679) London: HMSO, Report of the Committee on Financing the BBC. (Chairman: Professor Alan Peacock) (Cmnd 9824) London: HMSO, Enquiry into Standards of Cross Media Promotion. Report to the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. (Chairman: John Sadler) (Cm 1436) London: HMSO, 1991.

7 Bibliography 441 (d) Parliamentary Select Committee Reports HOUSE OF COMMONS. Second report from the Committee on Welsh Affairs, together with proceedings of the Committee thereon, the minutes of evidence and appendices. Broadcasting in the Welsh language and the implications for Welsh and non-welsh speaking viewers and listeners. (Session : HC 448-I-II) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Fourth report from the Select Committee on European Legislation, together with the proceedings of the Committee. (EC Green Paper: Television without frontiers) (Session : HC 5-iv) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Thirtieth report from the Select Committee on European Legislation, together with the proceedings of the Committee. (Session : HC 5-xxx) (Transmission standards for Direct Broadcasting via Satellite) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF LORDS. Select Committee on the European Communities. Fourth report. Television without frontiers. With evidence. (Session : HL 43) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Fifteenth report from the Select Committee on European Legislation, together with the proceedings of the Committee. (Transmission standards for Direct Broadcasting via Satellite) (Sessions : HC 21-xv) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF LORDS. Select Committee on the European Communities. Fourth Report. European broadcasting. (EC draft Directive on broadcasting (6739/86 COR 1 COM (86) 146) (Session : HL 67) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Home Affairs Committee. Third report. The future of broadcasting. (Session : HC 262-I, HC 262-II) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Select Committee on European Legislation. Seventeenth report, together with the proceedings of the Committee on 5 April (Draft EC Directive on broadcasting (5574/88 COM (88) 554)) (Session : HC 15-xvii) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Select Committee on European Legislation. Twenty-first report, together with proceedings of the Committee on 10 May (Session : HC 15 xxi) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Select Committee on European Legislation. Twenty-fourth report, together with the proceedings of the Committee on 7 June (Session : HC 15 - xxiv) London: HMSO, HOUSE OF COMMONS. Home Affairs Committee. Second Report. The financing of Channel 4. (Session : HC 185) London: HMSO, (e) Advisory Committee Reports CABINET OFFICE: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADVISORY PANEL. Report on cable systems. London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE. Independent Review of the Radio Spectrum ( MHz). Interim report. The future use of the television bands I and III. (Chairman: Dr J.H.H. Merriman) (Cmnd 8666) London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE and DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY. Direct Broadcasting by Satellite. Report of the Advisory Panel on Technical Transmission Standards. (Chairman: Sir Antony Part) (Cmnd 8751) London: HMSO, (f) Government Departmental Reports and Studies HOME OFFICE. Direct Broadcasting by Satellite. London: HMSO, DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY. Deregulation of the radio spectrum in the UK. (CSP International) London: HMSO, 1987.

8 442 New Developments in Independent Television HOME OFFICE. Subscription television: a study for the Home Office. London: HMSO, HOME OFFICE and DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY. Options for privatising the terrestrial television and radio transmission networks. (Price Waterhouse) London: HMSO, DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY. Competition and choice: telecommunications policy for the 1990 s: a consultative document. (Cm 133) London: HMSO, (g) Licences to broadcast granted to the IBA/ITC Terms Licence Broadcasting. (Cmnd 7616) London: HMSO, Broadcasting. (Cmnd 8467) London: HMSO, (h) European Directives and Convention COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. Television without frontiers. Green paper on the establishment of the Common Market for broadcasting, especially by satellite and cable. (COM (84) 300 Final). Brussels: The Commission, COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. Council Directive of 3 October 1989 on the co-ordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities. (89/552/EEC). Official Journal. L298, 17 October COUNCIL OF EUROPE. European Convention on transfrontier television. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. Directive on the co-ordination of certain rules concerning copyright and rights related to copyright applicable to satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission. (93/ 83/ EEC) Brussels: The Commission, Independent Broadcasting Authority/Independent Television Commission BONNER, Paul, with ASTON, Lesley. Independent Television in Britain. Volume 5: ITV and IBA, : The old relationship changes. London: Macmillan, xviii, 542pp. BRIGGS, Asa, and SPICER, Joanna. The franchise affair: creating fortunes and failures in Independent Television. London: Century Hutchinson, pp. COOPERS & LYBRAND. Licensing approach to broadcasting regulation in the 1990s. London: Coopers & Lybrand, pp. COOPERS & LYBRAND. Regulatory functions of an Independent Television Commission. London: Coopers & Lybrand, n.d. 23pp. DAVIDSON, Andrew. Under the hammer: the inside story of the 1991 ITV franchise battle. London: Heinemann, xvi, 318pp. INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. A portrait of the IBA, by J. Mallory Wober. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Audience Research Department special report) POTTER, Jeremy. Independent Television in Britain. Volume 3: Politics and control, London: Macmillan, ix, 352pp. POTTER, Jeremy. Independent Television in Britain. Volume 4: Companies and programmes, London: Macmillan, xi, 428pp. SENDALL, Bernard. Independent Television in Britain. Volume 1: Origin and foundation, London: Macmillan, xviii, 418pp.

9 Bibliography 443 SENDALL, Bernard. Independent Television in Britain. Volume 2: Expansion and change, London: Macmillan, xvii, 429pp. VELJANOVSKI, Cento, ed. Regulators and the market: an assessment of the growth of regulation in the UK. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, xi, 243pp. A full account of the activities and finances of the IBA, then the ITC appears each year in the IBA annual report and accounts ( ), and the ITC annual report and accounts (1991 ). Summaries of the Annual Performance Reviews of the Channel 3, Channel 4, Channel 5 and Teletext services conducted by the ITC appear in the ITC annual report and accounts. Publications of the IBA were listed in the IBA annual report and accounts, the IBA s yearbook Television and radio ( ), and IBA factfile ( , ); those of the ITC are listed in ITC factfile (1991 ). A selection of IBA and ITC publications for the period are listed below. (a) Independent Broadcasting Authority Additional payments by programme contractors: statement of principles under the Broadcasting Act London: IBA, various editions. Airwaves. Quarterly. London: IBA, Attitudes to broadcasting London: ITA/IBA, (formerly Attitudes to television) Attitudes to broadcasting over the years, by Barrie Gunter and Michael Svennevig. London: John Libbey, pp. (Television research monograph) Broadcasting in the 90s: competition, choice and quality. The IBA s response to the White Paper. London: IBA, pp. Deregulation of TV in the UK: the public s view, by Michael Svennevig. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research) Evidence to the Inquiry into Cable Expansion and Broadcasting. London: IBA, pp. IBA code of advertising standards and practice. London: ITA/IBA, (Regular revisions and reprints) IBA code of teletext transmissions. London: IBA, IBA evidence to the Committee on Financing the BBC. London: IBA, pp. IBA Technical Review. Issues Crawley Court, Hampshire: IBA, Independent Broadcasting. Quarterly. London: IBA, Independent Television in the 1990s. London: IBA, pp. Independent Television now and in the 90s. London: IBA, pp. Television and radio. (formerly ITV) Annual. London: IBA, Television programme guidelines. London: IBA, (Regular revisions and reprints) TV Take-up. London: IBA. (Regular booklets giving advance information on learning resources for adults on ITV and Channel 4) (b) Independent Television Commission Factfile. Annual. London: Invitation to apply for the national Channel 3 breakfast-time licence. London: ITC, pp. Invitation to apply for regional Channel 3 licences. London: ITC, pp. The ITC code of advertising standards and practice. London: ITC, (Regular revisions and reprints) The ITC code of programme sponsorship. London: ITC, (Regular revisions and reprints) The ITC programme code. London: ITC, (Regular revisions and reprints)

10 444 New Developments in Independent Television ITC rules on advertising breaks. London: ITC, (Regular revisions and reprints) Memorandum to the National Heritage Select Committee on the operation of the Broadcasting Act London: ITC, Qualifying revenue: statement of principles under the Broadcasting Act st edition. London: ITC, Spectrum. Quarterly. London: ITC, Television: the public s view. Annual. London: John Libbey, ; London: ITC, 1995 (formerly Attitudes to television, then Attitudes to broadcasting London: IBA, ) Television across the years: the public s view, by Michael Svennevig. London: University of Luton Press, Channel 4 (a) Fourth television channel ASSOCIATION OF CINEMATOGRAPH, TELEVISION AND ALLIED TECHNICIANS. Television in Wales: the fifth channel solution: a policy document on the future of television in Wales. Cardiff: ACTT HTV Shop, pp. HENRY, Harry. The commercial implications of a second (and complementary) Independent Television channel. London: Admap Publications, pp. INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. The fourth channel: production facilities: an edited summary of a Consultation held at the IBA, 20th May London: IBA, pp. INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. The fourth channel: the Authority s proposals. in INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. Annual report and accounts, London: IBA, INDEPENDENT TELEVISION AUTHORITY. ITV2: a submission to the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications by the Independent Television Authority. London: ITA, pp. INDEPENDENT TELEVISION COMPANIES ASSOCIATION. A fair deal for broadcasting: the case for ITV2. London: ITCA, n.p. TV4 CAMPAIGN. Opportunities for the fourth channel: a memorandum on TV4. London: TV4 Campaign, pp. WILLIAMS, Gwyn Alfred. When was Wales? London: BBC, pp. (Annual radio lectures, British Broadcasting Corporation, Welsh Region) (b) Channel 4 BIRMINGHAM FILM WORKSHOP. Four on 4: transcriptions from Four Open Forums on the new television channel. Birmingham: West Midlands Arts, pp. BLANCHARD, Simon, and MORLEY, David, (eds). What s this Channel Fo(u)r?: an alternative report. London: Comedia, pp. BOW GROUP. Safety net or stranglehold? The impact of Channel 4 s funding formula. London: Bow Publications, pp. BROADCAST. Ten years of Channel 4. London: International Thomson, pp. CATTERELL, Peter, (ed.). The making of Channel 4. London: Frank Cass, pp. CHANNEL FOUR TELEVISION. Annual report and accounts, London: Channel Four Television, CHANNEL FOUR TELEVISION. A review of educational programming London: Channel Four, 1990.

11 Bibliography 445 CHANNEL FOUR TELEVISION. The Channel Four funding formula the case for abolition. London: Channel Four, pp. DOCHERTY, David, MORRISON, David M., and TRACEY, Michael. Keeping faith?: Channel Four and its audience. London: John Libbey, pp. INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. Channel 4: the audience s response, by Jacob Wakshlag. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research Department) INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. Why we broadcast V : a case study on how the IBA made its decision, and how the public responded. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research Department) ISAACS, Jeremy. Storm over 4: a personal account. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, viii, 215pp. KUSTOW, Michael. One in Four: a year in the life of a Channel Four Commissioning Editor. London: Chatto & Windus, viii, 248pp. LAMBERT, Stephen. Channel Four: television with a difference. London: British Film Institute, vi, 178pp. LAMBIE-NAIRN, Martin. Brand Identity for Television, with knobs on. London: Phaidon, pp. McPHILEMY, Sean. The Committee, political assassination in Northern Ireland. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart, pp. NATIONAL ECONOMIC RESEARCH ASSOCIATES. The options for Channel 4: a report prepared by NERA for Channel 4. London: NERA, pp. PYM, John. Film on Four : a survey. London: British Film Institute, pp. REDMOND, Phil. Brookside: the official companion. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pp. SARGANT, Naomi. Learners and television: the next ten years. London: Royal Society of Arts, SARGANT, Naomi. Adult learners, broadcasting and Channel 4. London: BBS for Channel Four, TIBBALLS, Geoff. Brookside: the first ten years. London: Boxtree, pp. VELJANOVSKI, Cento. Privatisation of Channel 4. London: European Media Forum-Case Associates, pp. 4. Breakfast-time television (a) General breakfast-time television INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. An audience for daytime television, by Barrie Gunter. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research Department research paper) INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. The audience and breakfast television, by Barrie Gunter. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research Department research paper) INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. Viewers reactions to breakfast television, by Barrie Gunter. London: IBA, pp. (IBA Research Department research paper) (b) TV-am INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. The audience for TV-am, by Barrie Gunter. London: IBA, iii, 51pp. (IBA Research Department) LEAPMAN, Michael. Treachery?: the power struggle at TV-am. London: Allen & Unwin, xi, 211pp.

12 446 New Developments in Independent Television Cable television BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION. The cable debate: the BBC s response to the Hunt report. London: BBC, pp. BURKITT, Alan. Cable and satellite TV. London: W.H. Allen, pp. CABLE AUTHORITY. Annual report and accounts, London: Cable Authority, CABLE TELEVISION ASSOCIATION. The guide to UK cable television. London: CTA, CABLE TELEVISION ASSOCIATION. The case for cable. London: CTA, pp. CHANNEL 40. Channel 40: community access cable television in Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes: Channel 40, CROLL, Paul, and HUSBAND, Charles. Communication and community: a study of the Swindon community television experiment. Leicester: Centre for Mass Communication Research, University of Leicester pp. CSE COMMUNICATIONS GROUP. Hunt on cable: chaos or coherence? London: Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom, pp. DUNN, Richard. Swindon Viewpoint: a community television service. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, pp. GOODHART, Philip. Pay cable: the television revolution that is coming to Great Britain. London: Bow Publications, pp. (A Bow Group paper) GREATER LONDON COUNCIL ECONOMIC POLICY GROUP. Cabling in Britain. London: GLC, pp. HALLORAN, James D. The development of cable television in the United Kingdom: problems and possibilities. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, HOLLINS, Timothy. Beyond broadcasting: into the cable age. London: British Film Institute, pp. HOWKINS, John. New technologies, new policies? London: British Film Institute, pp. HUNT OF TANWORTH, Lord. Cable and the individual menace or opportunity? in The Granada Guildhall Lectures: 1982: The liberty of the citizen. London: Granada, pp. HUTCHINSON, Robert. Cable, DBS and the arts. London: Policy Studies Institute, pp. INDEPENDENT BROADCASTING AUTHORITY. The cable broadcasting debate: more channels more choice? Implications of the proposals of the Hunt Inquiry: the views of the Independent Broadcasting Authority. London: IBA, pp. LEWIS, Peter M. Knowle West and Bristol Channel TV: a study in community programming on a cable television network. (CCC/DC (75) 35) Strasbourg: Council of Europe, pp. LEWIS, Peter M. Bristol Channel and community television. London: Independent Broadcasting Authority, (IBA Fellowship report) LEWIS, Peter M. Community television and cable in Britain. London: British Film Institute, pp. LEWIS, Peter M., (ed.). Media for people in cities: a study of community media in the urban context. (COM.84/ WS-7) Paris: Unesco, vii, 239pp. NATIONAL ECONOMIC RESEARCH ASSOCIATES. Can cabling Britain be profitable? London: NERA, pp. NIGG, Heinz, and WADE, Graham. Community media. Community communication in the UK: video, local TV, film and photography. Zurich: Regenbogen-Verlag, pp. PROGRAMME ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (PICT). Cable systems and the geography of UK telecommunications, by James Cornford and Andrew Gillespie. London: Economic and Social Research Centre, pp. (PICT policy research paper, 21)

13 Bibliography 447 RAVAT, Raymond. Cable: political options and socio-cultural implications in France, Great Britain, Belgium and the Netherlands. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, (CCC/DC (75)27) 53pp. REDIFFUSION CABLEVISION. Cablevision: the Bristol experiment. London: Rediffusion, pp. RUSHTON, Dave. Noisy channels: a local government report on cable, the local economy and local television. Edinburgh: Institute of Local Television, RUSHTON, Dave (ed.). Citizen television: a local dimension to public service broadcasting. London: John Libbey, xviii, 232pp. (ILT Research Monograph ) RUSHTON, Dave. Local television reviewed: essays on local television Edinburgh: Institute of Local Television, pp. STANDING CONFERENCE ON BROADCASTING (SCOB). Cable: an examination of the social and political implications of cable TV. Report of a conference held at the Festival Hall, London November London: SCOB, SWINDON VIEWPOINT/ EMI. Swindon Viewpoint: an experiment in community television. Swindon: Swindon Viewpoint, THOMPSON, Vincent (ed.). Education and social action programming for cable: papers from a Seminar held at the Polytechnic of the South Bank, 8 December London: Council For Educational Technology, pp. VELJANOVSKI, Cento. Regulatory options for cable TV in the UK. London: Butterworth, VELJANOVSKI, Cento. Cable and satellite the market for programmes. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research, pp. (Discussion paper series: 176) VELJANOVSKI, Cento, and BISHOP, W.D. Choice by cable: the economics of a new era in television. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, pp. (Hobart Paper: 96) WILSON, Roger. Local television: finding a voice. Church Stretton, Shropshire: Dragonflair, pp. WILSON, Roger. Our TV: the local alternative. Church Stretton, Shropshire: Dragonflair, YOUNG, Ian. Local access television in Milton Keynes Channel 40. London: Communications Studies & Planning, pp. 6. Satellite television (a) General satellite broadcasting BLUMLER, Jay G., and NOSSITER, T.J. Broadcasting finance in transition. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, vi, 443pp. CLARKE, Neville, and RIDDELL, Edwin. The sky barons. London: Methuen, pp. COLLINS, Richard. Satellite television in Western Europe. Rev. edn. London: John Libbey, pp. (Academia Research Monograph: 1) EUROPEAN INSTITUTE FOR THE MEDIA. Events and issues relevant competition in satellite television between British Satellite Broadcasting and News International. Manchester: EIM, pp. (Research programme on multi-media concentration and the free flow of information: case study No. 1) HOLDEN, Windsor. The history of the development of British satellite broadcasting policy, pp. (Thesis for a PhD at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, July 1998) NEGRINE, Ralph (ed.). Satellite broadcasting: the politics and implications of the new media. London: Routledge, pp.

14 448 New Developments in Independent Television POWELL, Jon. International broadcasting by satellite: issues of regulation, barriers to communication. London: Quorum Books, WOOD, James. Satellite communications and DBS systems. Oxford: Focal Press, pp. (b) British Satellite Broadcasting BSB CHIPPINDALE, Peter, and FRANKS, Suzanne. Dished!: the rise and fall of British Satellite Broadcasting. London: Simon & Schuster, xviii, 329pp. (c) British Sky Broadcasting BSkyB HORSMAN, Mathew. Sky high: the inside story of BSkyB. London: Orion, xvi, 240pp. NEIL, Andrew. Full disclosure. London: Macmillan, pp. 7. Personalities: biographies, autobiographies and memoirs BAKER, Kenneth. The turbulent years: my life in politics. London: Faber & Faber, pp. BOSE, Mihir. Michael Grade: screening the image. London: Virgin Publishing, viii, 296pp. COOK, John R. Dennis Potter: a life on screen. Manchester: Manchester University Press, x, 368pp. DAVIES, Hunter. The Grades: the first family of British entertainment. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, xv, 268pp. FROST, David. An autobiography: Part One From congregations to audiences. London: HarperCollins, xiii, 542pp. GRADE, Michael. It seemed like a good idea at the time. London: Macmillan, xii, 432pp. HOWE, Geoffrey. Conflict of loyalty. London: Macmillan, xxii, 736pp. HUSSEY, Marmaduke. Chance governs all. London: Macmillan, pp. LAWSON, Nigel. The view from No 11: the memoirs of a Tory radical. London: Bantam Press, xxxi, 1119pp. MACDONALD, Trevor. Fortunate circumstances. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, MILNE, Alasdair. DG: the memoirs of a British broadcaster. London: Hodder & Stoughton, xi, 237pp. POTTER, Dennis. Potter on Potter, edited by Graham Fuller. London: Faber & Faber, xviii, 171pp. SHAWCROSS, William. Rupert Murdoch: ringmaster of the information circus. London: Chatto & Windus, xiv, 616pp. SNODDY, Raymond. Greenfinger: the rise of Michael Green and Carlton Communications. London: Faber & Faber, xiv, 239pp. THATCHER, Margaret. The Downing Street years. London: HarperCollins, xiv, 914pp. TUCCILLE, Jerome. Murdoch: a biography. London: Piatkus, xvi, 284pp. WHITEHOUSE, Mary. Quite contrary: an autobiography by Mary Whitehouse. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, vii, 239pp. WHITELAW, William. The Whitelaw memoirs. London: Aurum Press, vii, 280pp. YOUNG, Lord. The enterprise years: a businessman in the Cabinet. London: Headline, pp.

15 Bibliography Additions to the volume 5 bibliography BIGNELL, Jonathan (ed.) et al. British television drama: past, present and future. Basingstoke: Palgrave, xi, 200pp. BUCKINGHAM, David, and others. Children s television in Britain: history, discourse and policy. London: British Film Institute, pp. COX, Geoffrey. Pioneering television news. London: John Libbey, x, 236pp. HOGAN, James. From demi-gods to democrats? the television revolution. London: LSE, PHILLIPS, Geoff. Memories of Tyne Tees Television. Durham: G.P. Electronic Services, SHAW, Colin. Deciding what we watch: taste, decency and media ethics in the UK and the USA. Oxford: Clarendon Press, xii, 184pp. STANLEY, David. News at Ten: a celebration of 32 years of television news. London: Boxtree, pp. TRACEY, Michael. The decline and fall of public service broadcasting. Oxford: Oxford University Press, xvii, 295pp.

16 Index Compiled by Barrie MacDonald ABC (US television network), 299, 424 ACAS, see Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service ACTT, see Association of Cinematograph,Television, and Allied Technicians AGB, see Audits of Great Britain AM Television, 305, 340 AMTV, 302 ATV, see Associated Television Aberdeen Cable, 389 Aberdeen Investments, 333 access programmes, 402 Accounts, 105 Ace (Asian Channel for Entertainment), 425 Acts of Parliament, 440 (list) see also individual Acts, eg. Broadcasting Act 1980 additional payments, see Exchequer Levy The Adult Channel, 425 adult films on television, 94, 425 Adult Literacy Broadcasts Support Unit, 178 Adult Literacy Services Fund, 178 advertisers, and Channel 4, 86, 100; TV-am, 358 advertising, advertisements: food, 358; medical products, 358; religious, 172; toys, 358 controls: Code of advertising standards and practice, IBA/ ITC, 172, 443 industry: IPA-Equity dispute, 103, 107, 116, 121, 133, 193, 320, 323, 339, 357 Peacock Committee proposals: advertising on the BBC, 416; Channel 4 to sell own airtime, 149, 231 revenue from, 116, 234, 284, 357; Channel 4, 100, 116, 149, 237, 239, 241 2, ; sales, 239; Net Advertising Revenue (NAR), 59, 80, 236, 241, 242, 243, 291, 357; sponsorship, 52, 55, 211, 240, 424; TV-am, 116, 265, , 322 3, 356, 357, 358 White Paper, 1988, proposals, advertising agencies, 54, 74, 81 2, 323 Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), 320, 363 advisory councils and committees, educational broadcasting, 56 religious broadcasting, 100, 169, 173 Africa, 181 Africar, 183 After Image, 260 Agland, Phil, 180 1, 256 Agran, Linda, 137 Aida, 123 Aids Now, 436 airtime sales, 81, 116, 149, 231, Aitken, Jonathan, x, 303, 307, 322, 323, 326, 334 as Chief Executive, (acting), TV-am, 328, , 337 8, 339, 341; appointment, 328; and Kerry Packer, 346 7; and Peter Jay, 327; as an MP, 330, 371; Saudi connections, , Aitken, Timothy, 302, 303, 322 as Director, TV-am, 323, 330, 332 3; and financial crisis, 327, 332 3; and ITN negotiations, 306, 355 as Chief Executive, TV-am, 333, 339, 341, 342, 347; and the Famous Five presenters, as Chairman, TV-am, 348, 351, 353, 359, 370, 373; and Saudi connections, ; and ownership, 366 7, 367 9; and trade union dispute, 360 Aitken English Co Ltd, 322, 331, 333, 367, 369 Aitken Hume, 322, 330, 333, 347, 370 Aitken International SA, 367 Aitken Telecommunications Holdings, 331, 339, 357, 366 7, 369, 370, Al-Bilad (UK), 368 9, 370, Alderton, John, 130 Alexander Hughes and Associates, 102 Ali, Tariq, 206, 254 Ali, Waheed, 261 Allaun, Frank, 331 Allen, Keith,

17 Index 451 Allen, Ronald, 114 Allen & Overy, 157, 341 Almonds and Raisons, 437 Alter Image, 123 Alva Investment Trust, 323, 339 Alvarez, Al, 118 Amber Films, 216 American football on television, 53, 70, 94, 210 Amnesty International, 31 Amstrad Consumer Electronics, 431 Angel, 56, 94, 198 Angelopoulos, Theo, 201 Anglesey, Marchioness of, 305 Anglia Television, company: and BSB, 431; and Super Channel, 429 programmes: natural history, 181; sports, 213, 214; supply to Channel 4, 174, 213, 214 The Animals Film, 105 6, 116 Annan, Noel (Lord Annan), 8, 186, 402 Annan Committee on the Future of Broadcasting, 1974, 3 4, 389, 390, 394 membership, 6 evidence to, 4, 8, Report (Cmnd 6753), 1977, 11, 402, 440 recommendations: cable television, 402; fourth television channel, 3 4, 8, parliamentary debates, 9 responses to, 391 Another Audience with Dame Edna, 436 Ansorge, Peter, 193, 254, 278, 279, 438 Antelope Films, 170 Antenne 2, 211 Apted, Michael, 197 archery on television, 210 Arctic Tragedy, 437 Arms and the Man, 117, 123, 192 Armstrong, Alun, 52 Armstrong, Karen, Arthur Andersen, 303, 323 Artifax, 205 The Arts Channel, 416, 424 arts programmes, 68, 70, 82, 94, 110, , 117 8, 123, 182, 207 9, 265 As It Happens, 437 Ashforth, Peter, 382 Ashton, Paul, 258, 438 Asian Channel for Entertainment (Ace), 425 Associated Newspapers, 381 Associated Rediffusion (later Rediffusion Television), 391, 392 Associated Television (ATV), 28, 346 Association of Broadcasting Staffs (ABS), 4, 70, 71 2, 83 Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians (ACTT), 62, 101, 155 and Channel 4, 60, 63, 70, 71 2, 80, 83, 85, 93, 97, 101, 103 4, 215, and TV-am, 337, 345, 360 1, 363 Association of Directors and Producers (ADP), 10 Association of Independent Producers, 4 Aston, Lesley, vii, 27, 33 Astra satellite, 432 At the Edge of the Union, 228 athletics on television, 209, 211 Attenborough, Sir Richard, as Deputy Chairman, Channel Four Television Company, , 27, 41, 50, 80, 86, 151, 217; appointment, 23 4; and ITN negotiations, 70, 142 as Chairman, Channel Four Television Company, : appointment, 220, 237; and appointment of Michael Grade, 220 4, 230; and Broadcasting Bill, 246; character, 217, 220; end of term, 282 3; and golden handcuffs controversy, 293; and the ITC, 272; and Jeremy Isaacs, 219 Attwell, Michael, 165, 255, 438 audience research, findings, 117, 124, 132, 147, 180, 212, 263, 325 6, 332, 337, 359 methods, 56 organisations: AGB/ BARB, 117, 132, 141; Channel 4, 47, 94, 141, 147, 212, 296; IBA/ITC, 124, 355 audiences, 10, BBC, 296, 325 6, 337, 355 breakfast-time television, 299 Channel 4, 100, 144, 147, 180, 192, 263, 279, 296 TV-am, 325 6, 332, 337, 355, 359, 362, 382 Audits of Great Britain (AGB), 132 Aukin, David, 201, 277, 438 Austin, Robert, 205 Australia, 113, 210, 346, 377 Australian Broadcasting Tribunal, 346 Australian Rugby League, 210 Australian Rules Football, 210 award-winning programmes, 102, 114, 127, 165 6, 180 1, 201, 207, 254, (lists) Aylett, Holly, 154

18 452 New Developments in Independent Television BAFTA, see British Academy of Film and Television Arts BARB, see Broadcasters Audience Research Board BBC, see British Broadcasting Corporation BBC Enterprises, 392, 428 BBC Scotland, 316 BCCI, 294 BET, see British ElectricTraction BFI, see British Film Institute BSB, see British Satellite Broadcasting BSkyB, see British Sky Broadcasting Bad Hats, 198 bad language on television, 68, badminton on television, 210 Baerentz, Lars, 191 Bailey, Sir Brian, 231, 435 Bain, Nick, 214 Baka People of the Rain Forest, Baker, Kenneth, 95, 393, 394, 426, 448 Balfour, Jane, 200 Ballantyne, Ali, 134 Ballard, Anne, 406 ballet on television, 94, 123, Bamborough, Karin, 193, 250, 254 Bandit Queen, 254 Bandung File, 206 Banks-Smith, Nancy, 117 Banned (Channel 4 season), banned programmes, 31 2, Barclay, Humphrey, 206 Barclays Merchant Bank, 303, 322, 323, 328, 339, 378 Baring Brothers, 431 Barlow, David, 166 Barlow, Patrick, 205 Barnes, Andy, 291 Barnett, Steven, 209 Barr, Andrew, 171 Barrett, Michael, 389 Barrymore, Michael, 202 Barwise, Patrick, 88 baseball on television, 210 basketball on television, 86, 212 Batman, 361, 362 Bausch, Pina, 205, 209 Bean, 199 Beaton, Norman, 206 Beaverbrook, Lord, 322, 366 Beaverbrook Investments, 367, 370, 371, 372, 373 The Beer Hunter, 180 The Beggar s Opera, 192 Behind the Mask: Perspectives on the Music of Harrison Birtwistle, 437 Beighton, Richard, 182 Bell, Tim, 82, 323 The Belly of the Architect, 201 Beloff, Michael, 277 Benedictus, David, 131, 193 Benn, Tony, 22 Bennett, Cyril, 226, 252 Berger, John, 118 Berlin Film Festival, 437 Bernstein, David (The Creative Business), 81 Bernstein, David (Levitt Bernstein Associates), 63 Bertish, Suzanne, 52 The Best Intentions, 437 Beta TV, 429 Bevan, Tim, Beveridge, William (Lord Beveridge), 388 Beveridge Broadcasting Committee, 388 Bewitched, 133 bias against understanding, 28 9, 300 The Big Breakfast, The Big Lebowski, 199 billiards on television, 210 Billington, Kevin, 197 Billy Elliott, 199 Bingham, Bill, 134 Birchall, Andy, 425 Bird, Isabel, 289 Birt, John, 11, a bias against understanding, 28 9, 300 applicant for Chief Executive, Channel 4, 28 9, 32 3 as Director of Programmes, LWT, 227, and Jesus the evidence, 169; and news analysis, 28 9, 313, 314 as Deputy Director General, BBC, , ; and Michael Grade, Birtwistle, Harrison, 207 8, 437 Bishop, Sir Michael, as Deputy Chairman, Channel Four Television Company, , 272, 282 3, 435; background, 283 as Chairman, Channel Four Television Corporation, 1992-, 289, 295

19 Index 453 Bishop, W. D., 403, 447 black box switches for commercials transmission, 62, 101, Black Entertainment Network, 207 Black Theatre Co-operative, 131 Blackeyes, 279 Blake, Howard, 118 Blake, Lord, 231, 435 Blakeway, Roger, x, 412 Blakstad, Michael, 163 Bland, Mrs J., 328 blasphemy in programmes, 208, 269 Bleasdale, Alan, Blood Wedding, 117, 123 Bluebeard s Castle, 209 Bluff, Peter, 138 Blyth, Kenneth, 13, 24 5, 34, 41, 55, 57, 58 Blyton, Enid, 114, 116 Bo Goehring Aviation, 103 Bodnarec, Veronyka, 111 The Body Show, 110, 111, 179 Boff, Clodovis, and Leonardo, 170 Boland, Murray, 260 Bolland, Mike, x, 65, 66, 114, 131, 136, 201 2, 204 5, 215, 250, 253, 254, 255, 438 Bolton, Roger, 137 Bond, Alan, 365, 368, 372, 377 Bond Corporation Holdings Ltd, 365 6, 437 Bond Media UK Ltd, 365, 368 9, 372 Bonner, Paul, 28, 30, 33, 397 as author, vii, 26, 27 as Channel Controller, Channel 4, 26, 34, 36, 40 2, 46, 53, 54, 69, 93; appointment, 33 4, 41, 42; appointment of commissioning editors, 39, 54, 56 7, 65, 66 7, 131 2, 151; and Channel 4 onscreen identity, 73 5, 84, 102 3, 133 4; devising internal structure, 36; and independent producers, 40, 73; and Opening Day, 107; and programme finance, 82, 84; and programme policy, 47, 53, 85, 120, 124, 125, 126, 133 4, 135, 136, 144, 201, 204; and scheduling, 89, 94, 97, 132, 134 5, 180, 256 and selection: of advertising agency, 81; of headquarters, 42, 48 50, 51 2; of playout system, 60, 61, 62 3 as Programme Controller, Channel 4, appointment, 151 2; and Broadcasting Support Services, 178; and Budd Report, 233, 234; and community programming, 215; science programmes, 161 5; and sports programmes, 211, 212; and 20/20 Vision: MI5 s Official Secrets, 156, Book Four, 110, , 117 Boorman, John, 56 Border Television, company, 62; and Channel 4, 105 finance, 105 programmes: religious, 167, 170; supply to Channel 4, 167, 170 staff: industrial relations, 105 Boston, Sarah, 111, 154 Bough, Frank, 317, 326 Boulton, Jeremy, x Bovis Construction, 288 bowls on television, 210 Box Office, 265, 266 Box Productions, 272, 273 4, 275, 276 boxing on television, 209, 210 Boyce, Max, 53 Boyd, Alan, 73 Boyd, William, 122 Boyle, Danny, 278 Boys From the Blackstuff, 278 Bradbury, Malcolm, 192 Bradford, Barbara Taylor, 192 Bragard, Jean-Claude, 168, 170 Bragg, Melvyn, 123, Braithwaite-Exley, Gillian, 180, 253, 257 Branagh, Kenneth, 278 Brandon, Derek, 210 Branson, Richard, 429 Brassed Off, 277 Bravo, 420, 425 Breakfast Time, , 325 6, 337, 351, 355 breakfast-time television, 63, 299, 358 audiences, 325 6, 332, 337, 355, 359, 362 BBC service, 92, 309, 315, , 325 6, 337 Channel 4 service, ITV/Channel 3 service: 63, 93, ; contract, , 304, 305, 312, 315, 354, 376, 382; licence, 1993, see also TV-am; GMTV Bredin, James, 105 Brideshead Revisited, 428 Bridget Jones Diary, 199 Briggs, Raymond, 118 Bristol cable service, 389, 390, 447

20 454 New Developments in Independent Television British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), 12, awards, 127, 260, (list) British Actors Equity Association, 101, 103, 105, 107, 116, 121, 133, 193, 320, 323, 339, 428 British Aerospace, 430 British Board of Film Classification, 270, 271, 400, British Broadcasting Corporation, advertising on, 416, advisory councils and committees, 100, 169, 173 audiences, 11, 296, 309, 315, 325 6, 337, 355 Corporation: and cable relay distribution, 388; competition with Channel 4, 134 5; competition with ITV, 226, 227, 288, 317; duopoly with Independent Broadcasting, 8; and Hunt Inquiry Report, 401, 446; on Tripartite Working Party on satellite television, finance: revenue from the Licence Fee, 416 Peacock Committee: Report recommendations, 416 Pilkington Committee: Report recommendations, 3 programmes: arts, 134 5; banned, 269; breakfast-time, 92, 309, 315, , 325 6, 337; children s, 26, 181; community, 66, 177, 215, 389; documentaries, 34, 269; drama, 37; educational, 412; natural history, 181; news and current affairs, 31, 51, 112, 229; religious, 171; science, 163; sports, ; on Super Channel, 428, 429 radio services, 134, 139, television services, 3, 135; BBC1, 92; BBC2, 26, 108, 110, 112, 117, 134 5, 296; breakfast-time, 92, 309, 315, , 325 6, 337; competition with ITV, 226, 227, 228, 317; Radiovision proposal, ; satellite, 401, 405, 428, 438 British Cycling Federation, 211 British Electric Traction (BET), 21 British Film and Television Producers Association (BFTPA), 101, 105 British Film Fund Agency, 194 British Film Institute (BFI), 4, 45, 66, 97 8, 127, 194, 200 1, 215, 224, 269 British Insulated Callender Cables (BICC), 396 British Oxygen: Computer Services Division, 394 British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB), 250, 257, 267, 392, 401, British Screen (Finance Ltd), 196, 198, 277 British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB), 258, 381, programme channels, 425, British Telecom, 63, 392, 396, 398, 405, 415, 417, 418, 424, 430 British Videogram, 196 Brittan, Leon, 203 4, 431 broadband cable television, 390, 395, 408, Broadcast, 86, 90, 299, 317 Broadcasters Audience Research Board (BARB), 117, 132, 141 Broadcasting Act 1980, 151, 440 Bill, 13, 16 17, 26 7 provisions: fourth television channel, 16 17, 18, 27, 41, 76: due impartiality, 145; educational programmes, 37, 174; IBA regulation, 16, 41, 59, 324; independent production, 17, 18, 213; innovation in programmes, 87, 129; interests not catered for by ITV, 87, 109, 154; news, 306; programme remit, 87, 109, 129, 154; religious advertising, 172; Welsh language channel, 18, 27 Broadcasting Act 1981, 106, 118, 124, 145, 151, 154, 172, 241, 242, 324, , 344, 365, 369, 440 Broadcasting Act 1987, 440 Broadcasting Act 1990, 248, 268, 440 Bill, 236, 238, 241, 243, 245 6, 246 8, 376; IBA briefings and input, 242; Standing Committee, 246, 289 debates: House of Commons, 248; House of Lords, provisions: advertising, 249; cable television, 417; Channel 4, 244 5, 245 6, 248 9, 266, 282, 283, 289; educational programmes, 258; ITC, 245; impartiality, 246 8; licensing selection process, 240, 376, 377 8; Obscene Publications Act, 246; ownership, 344; police access to broadcasters records, 246; quality threshold, 377 reactions to the Act, 380 Broadcasting Act 1996, 380 Broadcasting Ban on terrorist interviews, 269

21 Index 455 Broadcasting in the 90s: competition, choice and quality, 1988, , 376, 422, 440 Broadcasting Press Guild, 9 Broadcasting Support Services, Broadside, 89, 154, 184 Brook, Peter, 208 Brook Productions, Brookside, 83, 86, 87, 94, 106, 110, , 115, 117, 122, 124, 192, 258, 436 Broomfield, Nick, 256, 269 Brown, Cecilie, 115 Brown, Karen, 252, 259, 276, 438 Brown, Maggie, 383 Brown, Sir William (Bill), 17, 25, 33 4, 65, 79, 96, 435 Brynford-Jones, John, 82 Budd, Professor Alan, Budd Report on Peacock Committee recommendations for Channel 4, 232 3, 234 Burgess, Anthony, 171 Burke, Syd, 111 Burnet, Alastair, 138 9, 304 Burton, Richard H., 406, 410 Business Daily, 265, 266 The Business Programe, 132 Business Television Productions, 266 Butterfield, Stewart, x, Buxton, Lord, 69, 141, 306, 355 Buzz, 168 By the Seaside, CBS, 299, 307 CRAC, see Central Religious Advisory Committee Cabinet, 268, 269 Cabinet Committee, 269 Cabinet Office: Information Technology Unit, 393, 394 9, 400, 441 Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984, 395, 405, 406, 408, 410, 417, 431, 440 Cable Authority, 232, 402, 404, 405, , , 418, 421 3, 424, 446 Cable Jukebox, 425 Cable News Network (CNN), 307, 393, 416, 425 cable television, 95, advertising, 391, 423; sponsorship, 424 finance, 400, 403, 404, licensing, 400, 404, 407 8, 422, 424; franchise areas, 407, 409, , 422 manufacturers, 396, 397, 412 origins, 387 8; relay services, 387 8, 390 operators, 397, 399, 400, 407, 412; ownership, 410; US interest, 418 regulation, 398, 402, 404, 406 7, 418, 421 4; must carry rules, 395, 397, 400 services: broadband multi-channel services, 390, 395, 408, 424 6; community, ; data, 395, 396, 426; interactive, 403, 414; pay television, 389, 390, 391, 392 3, 399, 400, 404, 408, 424; programme channels, 392 3, 416, 420 1; telephony, 405, 414, 426 technology: broadband, 390, 395, 408, 424 6; cable laying, 411, 414, 415; digital, 395; fibre optics, 396, ; satellite distribution, 416; switched-star operations, , ; Cable Television Association, 390 1, 394, 403, 446 Cablevision, 392 Cain, John, 178 Caine, Sir Michael, 263 Caird, Rod, 176 Calendar, 110, 335 Callaghan, James, 21, 174, 327, 394 Callender, Colin, 52 Callil, Carmen, 221, 232, 295, 435 Cambridge University: Computing Service, 394 Camden Council, 52, 57 Camoys, Lord, 303, 323, Campaign, 319, 325, 331 Cannes Film Festival, 102, 201, 277, 437 canoeing on television, 210 Capital Corporation, viii Capital Radio, 23, 24, 86, 89 Caplan, Jonathan, 157, 275, 282 Capon, Susanna, 181 Captain Corelli s Mandolin, 199 A Car for Africa, 183 The Carers: Moving Out, 436 Caring Christmas, 361 Carla s Song, 277 Carr, Robert (Lord Carr), 21, 22 Caravaggio, 437 Carlton Television, company: membership of Daybreak Television, 378 see also Green, Michael licence, Channel 3, London Weekday, 1993, 257, 294 Carrott, Jasper, 202

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