Description of Methodology

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1 Description of Methodology November 10 th, 2017

2 Contents CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW... 1 METHODOLOGY OUTLINE... 1 HOUSEHOLD MEASUREMENTS... 4 DEMOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS... 6 CHAPTER 2 IMPORTING DATA... 9 TUNE INFORMATION... 9 DVR ACTIV ITY TV SCHEDULES SUBSCRIBER INFORMATION DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION CHAPTER 3 TURNING STB TUNING EVENTS INTO VIEWING OVERLAYING SCHEDULES ON TUNE INFORMATION MAPPING TUNES TO NATIONAL AND LOCAL SCHEDULES IGNORING TUNES OF LESS THAN ONE MINUTE MINIMUM SUMMARIZATION THRESHOLDS OVERLAYING SUBSCRIBER INFORMATION SUMMARIZING THE DATA CHAPTER 4 PROJECTING VIEWERSHIP OVERV IEW PROJECTING TO A MARKET PROJECTING TO THE NATION QUANTIFICATION OF DATA ADJUSTMENTS CHAPTER 5 ADJUSTING FOR LIMITATIONS AND BIASES BUILDING TV OFF/STB ON LOGIC APPLYING TV OFF/STB ON LOGIC INCOMPLETE TV VIEWING COLLECTION DEMOGRAPHIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION (D CALIBRATION) OTA VIEWING BEHAV IOR Description of Methodology i

3 CABLE VIEWING BEHAV IOR (C CALIBRATION) NON-REPORTING STBS (H CALIBRATION) STRATUM NETWORK COVERAGE DATA STABILIZATION ADJUSTMENTS CHAPTER 6 APPENDICES APPENDIX A - CABLE TV MARKET LIST APPENDIX B - TELCO MARKET LIST APPENDIX C - DATA ADJUSTMENT/PROJECTION CALIBRATION UPDATES APPENDIX D - ADDING AND REMOVING STATIONS/NETWORKS TO/FROM SVE/TVE APPENDIX E- SET TOP BOX / MVPD REPORTING LIMITATIONS APPENDIX F - OTHER MEASUREMENT LIMITATIONS APPENDIX G DEMOGRAPHIC MAPPING OF EXPERIAN CODING Description of Methodology ii

4 Chapter 1 Overview CHAPTER 1 Overview last update: 06/30/2017 comscore's TV Essentials and StationView Essentials precisely measure and report TV viewership, using second-by-second intelligence from more than 52 million televisions in over 22 million households. TV Essentials provides national measurements across all U.S. television households, while StationView Essentials measures television stations and selected cable networks in all 210 U.S. television markets. Our projection system takes the viewership from over 22 million households and uses the data to make estimates for TV viewership in the US. This means we receive tuning data from approximately one household out of every five households at the national level (this ratio varies by market). As a result of the large number of our households contributing tuning data, users are able to make inferences of viewership for substantially smaller population groups than is possible with other current methodologies. This depth of comscore s reporting provides the marketplace with a level of granularity and stability that is absent from other traditional television measurement services. By integrating TV viewing information with consumer segmentation systems, syndicated consumer behavioral information, and other transactional sources, comscore empowers stakeholders agencies, advertisers, and television networks and stations to direct the right message at the right audience, providing buyers and sellers with a deeper understanding of the true value of their television viewing audience. Methodology Outline last update: 10/24/2016 TV Essentials and StationView Essentials follow this methodology: 1. Import data. tune data With event-level tune data imported from our MVPD partners, we know which channels were viewed live and when they were viewed. DVR activity With DVR activity from the MVPDs (DISH Network and DIRECTV), we know which programs were recorded, when they were recorded, and when they were viewed on playback. We count only normal speed playback. Things like paused viewing, fast forwarding, and rewinding are not credited as viewing. Description of Methodology 1

5 Chapter 1 Overview Subscriber Information The MVPDs provide subscriber information, including the ZIP codes where STBs and households (HHs) are located. By matching viewing information with subscriber information, we can derive measurements for specific television markets. Note: The subscriber information is completely anonymous. It does not include any personally identifiable information (PII) of the MVPD subscribers. Demographic Information We use demographic information for these two purposes: - To report household measurements, the projection system takes reported tuning information in a market and estimates viewership for the entire market. It uses demographic information to make the reporting households representative of the demographic makeup of the entire market. - To report demographic measurements, we match our TV viewing information with demographic information from Experian Targeting. TV schedules comscore gathers TV schedules by network feed and by local affiliate. By matching tune information with schedules, we know which live programs were viewed or recorded, and when they were viewed (either live or DVR). 2. Format STB tune data. Each MVPD s data comes to us in a different format. Our import process parses each MVPD s data for tuning information such as channel IDs, timestamps, and other relevant information. Our process then stores the data in a consistent format. The import process also applies our patented TV Off / STB On logic (US Patent Nos. 8,863,166 and 9,009,749) to account for instances where the TV is turned off, but the set-top box (STB) stays on. 3. Summarize data. Summarizers blend all the imported data to generate pre-defined aggregations of TV viewing information. The information is summarized to report on individual telecasts, markets, and networks for specific days, weeks, and months. 4. Project viewership to full market. For each of the 210 TV markets, the projection system uses the tuning information that we do have to model the viewing we don t have in the households that are not included in the MVPD data we collect. The market-based estimates are then rolled up to produce national measurement estimates for the entire United States household universe. The projection process is discussed in more detail in Chapter 4: Projecting Viewership. Specific adjustments are explained in Chapter 5: Adjusting for Limitations and Biases. The projection system does the following: It projects to the market population in each of the 210 television markets. For each market, it projects to four types of television household strata: - Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) - Cable Television - Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) also referred to as telco Description of Methodology 2

6 Chapter 1 Overview - Over-The-Air (OTA) households (antenna only no DBS, cable, or telco as primary viewing in the household) For each market, it aggregates the four strata into measurements for the entire market. It rolls up the market projections to national measurements. 5. Load the reporting database. The summarized and projected information is loaded into the reporting database. 6. Calculate and display specific reports. When a client requests a report, calculations specific to the report are executed and displayed in the client s Web browser. The following diagram illustrates this data flow: Description of Methodology 3

7 Chapter 1 Overview Household Measurements last update: 06/30/2017 Household measurements are based on tune data reported by STBs. Tunes are based on the STB ID, channel viewed, time, and date. Basically, a tune occurs when an STB remains tuned to a single telecast for one minute or longer. For all such tunes, the entire tuning duration is included in comscore s household measurements. Tunes of less than one minute are considered insignificant channel surfing and ignored during the summarization process. Suppose that an STB tunes to the same channel for 10 minutes, with the following results: # Channel Telecast Tune Start Tune End Time Duration 1 40 A.M. Show 9:50:30 10:00:00 9: Later Show 10:00:00 10:00:30 :30 Note: Tune data from an STB does not contain the name of a telecast until after schedule information has been applied. The telecast name has been added here to help illustrate how tune data is credited to a network or station. In the example above: By convention, a tune or telecast ends one second before the next tune or telecast begins. The single tune of 10 minutes became two tunes because the first telecast ended and the second began. The second tune is ignored during the summarization process because it lasts less than one minute. Since tunes are based on telecasts, the network (TV Essentials) or station (StationView Essentials) is credited with 9 minutes and 30 seconds instead of the full 10 minutes. Once tune data has been collected and schedule data has been overlaid, audience measurements are aggregated and projected for various entities (telecasts, series, networks) across various time frames (hour, day, daypart during a given month, and so forth). Our key projected measurements include the following: Set-Top Boxes Households Total Hours Viewed Average Audience Rating HUT Share Average % Viewed Set-Top Boxes This is the number of unique STBs reporting at least one tune of the entity during the selected time frame. Households This is the number of unique households (HHs) reporting at least one tune of the entity during the selected time frame. Description of Methodology 4

8 Chapter 1 Overview Total Hours Viewed Total Hours Viewed is the total number of hours the entity was viewed. It is aggregated from all tunes of the entity during the selected time frame. For a household with multiple STBs, we capture all hours viewed within the household, including STBs that watch the same programs and STBs that watch different programs. Average Audience Average Audience is the average number of TVs tuned to an entity throughout the selected time frame. It is calculated by dividing the Total Hours Viewed by the length of the time frame (in hours). Average Audience = Total Hours Viewed / Time Frame in Hours With broadcast networks, a telecast run time can vary across markets due to local sporting events and other events that run longer or shorter than originally scheduled. To account for this, the national Average Audience (TVE) is calculated using a weighted average run time for all markets. The weighted average run time is calculated by weighting the telecasts run time by the market s average audience then averaging the weighted telecast run times for all markets. Rating Rating is the percentage of all TV households in a selected market (or the nation) that viewed an entity. It is calculated by dividing Average Audience for the entity by the Household Universe Estimate (HH UE) for the selected market (or nation) and multiplying the result by 100. Rating = (Average Audience [entity] / HH UE) * 100 Households Using Television (HUT) HUT represents the gross percentage of households in the selected market (or the nation) watching TV during the selected time frame. It is calculated by summing the Live Ratings of all programming during the time frame. HUT = Ʃ (Live Ratings from All Stations) TVE and SVE include viewing from all stations reported by comscore s MVPD partners including those that are not reportable in those products in order to most accurately account for all households that are using television. comscore is unable to account in HUT calculations for stations that are unavailable through the reporting MVPD partners. Share Share is the Average Audience of an entity, relative to Average Audience across all entities, during the selected time frame. It is calculated by dividing the entity s Rating by the HUT during the same time frame and multiplying the result by 100. Share = (Rating / HUT) * 100 An equivalent calculation of Share is: Share = (Average Audience [entity] / Average Audience [all programming]) * 100 Because Share is derived from HUT and comscore is unable to account for stations that are unavailable through the reporting MVPD partners, viewing to these unavailable stations also cannot be accounted for in the Share calculations for reportable stations and networks. Description of Methodology 5

9 Chapter 1 Overview Average % Viewed Average % Viewed is the percentage of a telecast or series run time that an average viewer watched. It is calculated by dividing the actual Average Audience by the number of actual STBs tuned into a telecast or series and multiplying the result by 100. Average % Viewed = (actual Average Audience / actual STBs) * 100 Demographic Measurements last update: 06/30/2017 To report specific demographic segments, comscore uses a third-party (Experian) to append demographic detail to its MVPD partner subscriber files through a direct match process. To ensure anonymity, our MVPD partners send Experian their subscriber files directly prior to comscore receiving enhanced demographic detail files. In this process, comscore does not handle any personally identifiable information. The MVPD partners participating in the Experian demographic match process include Cox Communications, DISH Network, and DIRECTV. These partners represent a sub-set of comscore s overall MVPD footprint. The Experian match process enables comscore to link the demographic detail to its TV viewing information at a household level in order to report the following metrics: Demographic Index Demographic Average Audience Demographic Rating Demographic Share (Demo Rating Grid only) The specific demographic variables matched by Experian include: Education Level Household Income # of Adults in Household Ethnicity/Race (a mapping from Experian Race/Ethnicity coding to comscore categories is provided in Appendix G Demographic Mapping of Experian Coding). Gender Age Presence of Children The Experian match process is conducted annually with the updated demographic information reported in broadcast September each year. The match process takes place several months in advance to provide the lead-time required to prepare the data for release in September. As some matched households stop reporting to comscore due to normal subscriber churn from our MVPD partners, the number of matched households contributing to comscore s demographic reporting will experience declines over time. These matched household counts are brought back to prior levels, or greater levels if additional households become available, during the next refresh. The average monthly decline of matched households is approximately 2% per month. Description of Methodology 6

10 Chapter 1 Overview A household is considered matched if Experian is able to append all three of the following variables: education level, household income, and number of adults in household. That is, a matched household will have education level, household income and number of adults in household 100% populated. If Experian was unable to append all three of these characteristics, comscore considers these households as unmatched and therefore, eligible for imputation in order to assign the missing demographic information. On a national level, 68.5% of households are matched. On a market level, the percentage of matched homes varies between 57.3% and 77.0%. In addition, due to attrition, the number of reporting households is variable throughout the year. This may impact the percentage of reporting households with demographic information appended compared to the total number of reporting households at any given time. The following table shows the percentage of reporting households with demographic information appended compared to the total number of reporting households for the most current months available. Future updates to this section will include the same comparison for subsequent months until the next demographic update. Current Year (Starting with Homes in Homes in Demographic Percent September 2017 Refresh) Demographic Process Process Reporting September ,335,606 14,877, % Prior Year (Starting with Homes in Homes in Demographic Percent September 2016 Refresh) Demographic Process Process Reporting September ,674,560 9,300, % October ,674,560 9,080, % November ,674,560 8,836, % December ,674,560 8,646, % January ,674,560 8,573, % February ,674,560 8,248, % March ,674,560 8,085, % April ,674,560 7,915, % May ,674,560 7,629, % June ,674,560 7,430, % July ,674,560 7,256, % August ,674,560 6,863, % For matched households that have one or more missing attributes, comscore performs characteristic-level item nonresponse (INR) imputation to assign all missing variables. Once the INR imputation process is completed, comscore donormatches the full set of variables to the remaining set of unmatched households unit non-response (UNR) according to the match definition. The item non-response imputation rates for each variable are below: Assignment Rate for Missing Variables Ethnicity/Race 1.8% Gender 15.1% Age 11.6% Description of Methodology 7

11 Chapter 1 Overview In the case of presence of children in household, Experian reports presence of children in the home. In this reporting, there is confounding between "No children in household" and "Unknown". To address this circumstance, comscore developed a statistical model to identify homes among this set that are likely to have children. Of the 3,869,674 households, 12.4% were modeled to have presence of children. Note: Demographic measurements are not available for networks and stations in markets if they are not carried by DISH Network or DIRECTV. This is explained in more detail in Non-DBS Networks and Stations. Demographic Index The Demographic Index measures the relative viewership of the demographic segment households compared to the viewership in all market households (StationView Essentials) or national households (TV Essentials). Reporting from households with Experian matching are weighted such that key demographic features of the reporting households are consistent with known population levels of the market (StationView Essentials) and the nation (TV Essentials). This process is described further in Demographic Information. Demographic Index = (Demo Weighted Hours Viewed) / Demo Weighted HHs) / (All Demo Weighted Hours Viewed / All Demo Weighted HHs) If the index is greater than 100, the segment watched the programming at a higher rate than the market or the nation. For example, an index of 120 means that the average segment household watched 20% more of the programming than the average household. If the index is less than 100, the segment watched at a lesser rate. Demographic Average Audience The Demographic Average Audience is the Average Audience among only the segment households in the market or nation. Demographic Average Audience = (Household Rating * Demographic Index * Demographic HH UE) / 100 For segment groups where a household can belong to one and only one segment, the Demographic Average Audience numbers are normalized, such that they add up to the household Average Audience. These segment groups include: Race/Ethnicity Household Income Within the Household Composition group, two sets of segments are normalized: [Children Present in HH Children Not Present in HH] [One Child in HH Two Children in HH Three Children in HH Four or More Children in HH] Demographic Rating The Demographic Rating is the Rating among only the segment households in the selected market or nation. Demographic Rating = (Demographic Average Audience / Demographic HH UE) * 100 Demographic Share One StationView Essentials report, Demo Rating Grid, also reports a Demographic Share measurement. Demographic Share is the station s share among only the segment households in the market for a given 15-minute interval. Demographic Share = (Average Segment Audience [Station] / Average Segment Audience [All Programming]) * 100 Description of Methodology 8

12 Chapter 2 Importing Data CHAPTER 2 Importing Data last update: 10/24/2016 comscore imports the following data: tune information DVR activity TV schedules subscriber information STB information demographic information The following sections provide additional details. Tune Information last update: 10/24/2016 With event-level tune information imported from MVPD partners, we know which channels were viewed and when they were viewed. comscore gathers tune information from MVPD partners in each of the 210 U.S. television markets. comscore s current MVPD partners are: Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS): DISH Network markets DIRECTV markets Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) / Telco: AT&T's U-verse Digital TV 63 markets (listed in Appendix B - Telco Market List) Cable: Charter Communications, Inc markets (listed in Appendix A - Cable TV Market List) Cox Communications - 25 markets (listed in Appendix A - Cable TV Market List) Note: Due to reporting limitations in Cox STB data, comscore excludes all reporting from Cox DVR-capable STBs. Complete tune information for a given day may take up to 12 days to accumulate. We adjust the information for days with incomplete TV viewing and provide guidance within the system for when information is complete. For more information, see Incomplete TV Viewing Collection. Tune information comprises events that occur on set-top boxes (STBs). The most basic tune information includes: a unique STB identifier the channel, stream, or other unique identifiers for content that the viewer selects the date and time that the viewer tunes to the channel (tune start) the date and time that the viewer tunes away from the channel (tune end) Description of Methodology 9

13 Chapter 2 Importing Data Below is an example of basic tune information for 30 minutes on STB This example merely illustrates basic tune information, and it is not intended to identify every facet of tune information that comscore collects. # STB ID Household ID Tune Start Tune End Channel :50: :14: :15: :15: :15: :20:00 10 Note: STB and household IDs are completely anonymous and do not provide any means to specifically identify MVPD subscribers. Notice that line 2 shows a tune of 30 seconds. Tunes of less than one minute are ignored, when the information is summarized into the reporting database (explained in Ignoring Tunes of Less Than One Minute ). DVR Activity last update: 10/24/2016 With DVR activity, we know which programs were recorded, when they were recorded, and when they were viewed on playback. We collect the DVR activity along with the live tune information that our MVPD partners supply. We use DISH Network and DIRECTV DVR data to estimate DVR activity for all households. DVR activity includes elements such as: time when a program was recorded time when the recorded program was viewed identification of content that was recorded play, fast-forward, pause, rewind, and so forth With DVR activity, TV Essentials and StationView Essentials can report measurements such as DVR ratings and Live plus DVR ratings. The measurements are available for the following DVR playback time shifts: Same Day 1 Day 2 Days 3 Days 7 Days 15 Days The following rules apply to DVR activity: Only normal-speed playback counts as viewing. Fast-forward, pause, and rewind are not counted towards viewing (these elements are used to determine the end of each playback event). As with live tune information, playback of less than one minute is ignored. Playback that occurs within 25 seconds of the live airing counts as live viewing. Playback occurring more than 25 seconds after live counts as DVR. Description of Methodology 10

14 Chapter 2 Importing Data DVR playback more than 14 days after the record date is ignored. DVR playback is capped at six hours of continuous, uninterrupted DVR viewing at normal speed. (Due to DVR playback being interrupted by pause, fast-forward, and rewind events, most playback events are much shorter than six hours.) TV Schedules last update: 10/24/2016 comscore gathers TV schedules by network feed and by local affiliate. By matching tune information with TV schedules, we know which live programs were viewed and when they were viewed. comscore's initial source of programming schedules is FYI Television, Inc. We receive FYI schedules one week in advance of telecast airings. (Each night, we receive a schedule batch for the next seven days.) A team of comscore Schedule Coordinators validate affiliate-provided schedules, as well as schedules obtained from other third-party sources against the FYI data to ensure accuracy. Although FYI does not provide schedule adjustments after telecasts air, comscore can update schedules for up to five days after the air date. For example, schedules are often changed for program preemptions or live programming, such as sporting events, award shows, and other special telecasts that overrun their originally scheduled time. Schedule information includes: the telecasts that run on the various channels (including program titles, telecast IDs, and series IDs) start and end times for the telecasts meta-data for the telecasts, such as genre, original air date, and so forth The following shows an example of schedule information for channel 40 we would receive from FYI: # Market Channel Program Telecast Start Telecast End 1 Metropolis 40 A.M. Show :00: :59:59 2 Metropolis 40 Later Show :00: :59:59 Subscriber Information last update: 10/24/2016 Our MVPD partners provide anonymous subscriber information, including the ZIP codes where STBs and households (HHs) are located. By matching tune information with subscriber information, we can derive measurements for specific television markets. MVPDs deliver a minimum of the following subscriber information: # STB ID Household ID ZIP Code Note: Subscriber information such as STB IDs and Household IDs is completely anonymous and does not provide any personally identifiable information for the MVPDs individual subscribers. Description of Methodology 11

15 Chapter 2 Importing Data Demographic Information last update: 10/24/2016 comscore collects demographic information for two purposes: to project household ratings to project demographic ratings Household Ratings The system uses reported viewing information in a market to estimate viewership for the entire market (and ultimately for the entire U.S. TV household universe). Estimating viewership from reported information is explained in Chapter 4: Projecting Viewership. comscore uses demographic information to make the projections from households that report viewing information representative of the demographic makeup of the entire market. We obtain the demographic household universe estimates from Devonshire Associates, Ltd. and from the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample. These Devonshire universe estimates are normalized to the market-level universe estimates used by TV Essentials and StationView Essentials. The projection system weights the reporting households for these demographic characteristics to project for total audience: African-American heads of households Hispanic heads of households presence of children household income Demographic Ratings To measure viewing among households with specific demographic segments, we match our TV viewing information with Experian demographic characteristics. We anonymously match the households in Experian to the comscore reporting households. We use data from Cox Communications, DISH Network, and DIRECTV for demographic matching. To make the reporting household demographics representative of the national demographics, TV Essentials weights by: ethnicity income number in household / presence of children region To make the comscore reporting household demographics representative of the market demographics, StationView Essentials weights them by these key demographic characteristics: ethnicity income number in household / presence of children For standard demographic segments (such as Race/Ethnicity) where we are able to estimate the universe, the system provides the following measurements by demographic segment: Index, Average Audience, and Rating. For lifestyle segments (such as Interests) where we are not able to estimate the universe, the system provides only an Index. Description of Methodology 12

16 Chapter 3 Turning STB Tuning Events into Viewing CHAPTER 3 Turning STB Tuning Events into Viewing last update: 04/15/2016 We use a process called summarization to blend repository data into pre-defined collections of viewing information that is summarized by telecast, market, network, and so forth. The example in the following sections shows how this summarization process produces a telecast-based report. Overlaying Schedules on Tune Information last update: 11/24/2015 Suppose that you have the following tune information, which shows the channels that the STB viewed. # STB ID Tune Start Tune End Channel :50: :14: :15: :15: :15: :20:00 10 Next, suppose that you have the following schedules for channels 40, 41, and 10: # Market Channel Program Telecast Start Telecast End 1 Metropolis 40 A.M. Show :00: :59:59 2 Metropolis 40 Later Show :00: :59:59 3 Metropolis 41 Rose City :00: :59:59 4 Metropolis 10 Big Apple :00: :59:59 With the schedule overlaid on the tunes, the channel can be replaced with the telecast that the MVPD aired: # STB ID Tune Start Tune End Telecast :50: :59:59 A.M. Show :00: :14:59 Later Show :15: :15:29 Rose City :15: :20:00 Big Apple Notice channel view 1 becomes telecast views 1 and 2, because the channel view spans two separate telecasts. Note: MVPDs report High Definition (HD) and Standard Definition (SD) programming as separate feeds. Beginning in September 2015, comscore began combining these feeds and reporting HD and SD viewing as a single channel. The individual HD and SD feeds for these networks are still reported separately for months prior to September Description of Methodology 13

17 Chapter 3 Turning STB Tuning Events into Viewing Mapping Tunes to National and Local Schedules The system maps tune events to schedule data using the following rules: For national programs on cable networks, the system maps each tune to the national air time for the Eastern time zone for East feeds and the Pacific time zone for West feeds. We also assume programming on the West feed is the same as the East feed shifted by three hours. For national broadcasts on network affiliates (such as prime time shows), the system uses the local time. For local broadcasts on network affiliates (such as local news), the system uses the air time in that station s time zone. For syndicated airings (such as a nationally syndicated soap opera), the system uses the most prevalent air time listed for the show. For example, suppose a soap opera has a national air time of 12:30 PM. At the various affiliates, it aired at: 4:00 PM on 152 stations at 4:30 PM on 164 stations. at various other times on 97 other stations The system would assign an air time of 4:30 PM for the program. Ignoring Tunes of Less Than One Minute last update: 12/05/2012 The following version of the telecast view adds a calculated column, Tune Duration, which equals the duration the telecast was viewed. # STB ID Tune Start Tune End Tune Duration Telecast :50: :59:59 1:10:00 A.M. Show :00: :14:59 15:00 Later Show :15: :15:29 :30 Rose City :15: :20:00 4:31 Big Apple Notice row 3. Tunes of less than one minute are considered insignificant channel surfing, and the summarizer ignores them, as the following table shows: # STB ID Tune Duration Telecast :10:00 A.M. Show :00 Later Show :31 Big Apple Minimum Summarization Thresholds last update: 04/15/2016 For market-level reporting in StationView Essentials, all tunes of one minute or longer are summarized. At a national level, a telecast must have viewing from a minimum of five households before it will be summarized and reported in TV Essentials. Description of Methodology 14

18 Chapter 3 Turning STB Tuning Events into Viewing Overlaying Subscriber Information last update: 12/05/2012 MVPDs deliver a minimum of the following subscriber information: # STB ID Household ID ZIP Code Note: STB IDs and Household IDs are completely anonymous and do not provide any identifiable information of the MVPD subscribers. Now the tune information example includes household and ZIP code information: # STB ID Household ID ZIP Code Tune Duration Telecast :10:00 A.M. Show :00 Later Show :31 Big Apple :15:00 A.M. Show :45 Rose City :00 A.M. Show :00 A.M. Show :50:00 A.M. Show Notice rows 7 and 8. In one household, two separate STBs watched the same telecast, the A.M. Show. For a household with multiple STBs, we capture all hours viewed within the household, including STBs that watch the same telecast at the same time and STBs that watch different telecasts at the same time. Description of Methodology 15

19 Chapter 3 Turning STB Tuning Events into Viewing Summarizing the Data last update: 10/24/2016 A summarizer can take the information in the previous table and calculate some basic telecast viewing information within a ZIP code. Hours viewed, number of viewing households, and number of viewing STBs are some of the basic building blocks in the comscore measurements: # ZIP Code Telecast Date Hours Viewed Viewing Households Viewing STBs A.M. Show :15: Later Show : Big Apple : A.M. Show :50: Rose City : In row 4, notice 3 STBs viewing the A.M Show, but only 2 HHs viewing. This happened because household 5030 had two STBs tuned to the same telecast. Finally, the telecast viewing information is summarized by market: # Market Telecast Date Hours Viewed Viewing Households Viewing STBs 1 Metropolis A.M. Show :05: Metropolis Later Show : Metropolis Big Apple : Metropolis Rose City : Extending this example, you see how the summarizers can build many valuable perspectives of the information by: summarizing the information for various time frames: hours, dayparts, days, weeks, and months aggregating telecast viewership for all episodes of a series to generate series-level measurements integrating the TV viewing information with Experian demographic information to measure viewing among specific demographic targets. Description of Methodology 16

20 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership CHAPTER 4 Projecting Viewership Overview last update: 10/24/2016 This chapter explains how comscore takes reported tuning from MVPD partners in each television market, projects total viewing for all households in each market, and projects viewing for the entire United States. comscore gathers tuning information from MVPD partners in each of the 210 U.S. television market areas. comscore s current MVPD partners are: DISH Network DIRECTV AT&T's U-verse Digital TV Charter Communications, Inc. Cox Communications We collect tuning information from reporting households in three of the four television strata: cable television direct broadcast satellite (DBS) Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), also referred to as telco Note: By definition, comscore considers the telco stratum to consist solely of AT&T. The fourth stratum is over-the-air (OTA) households. comscore considers the OTA stratum to consist solely of households that use an antenna as their only means of viewing live television and do not report any viewing by an STB. comscore s system does not account for the OTA viewing that may occur in cable, DBS, and telco households. For each of the 210 TV markets, the projection system uses the information that we do have to model the viewing households that we do not have, while correcting for potential differences between the reporting households and the rest of the market. StationView Essentials projects viewing to each of the national markets. TV Essentials then rolls up the 210 markets to produce national measurements. Description of Methodology 17

21 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership Projecting to a Market last update: 06/30/2017 comscore uses live and DVR viewing metrics to project to the market population in each of the 210 television markets. For each market, the projection system: Calculates a market s television households Projects DBS viewing Projects cable viewing Projects OTA viewing Projects telco viewing Aggregates projections across the four strata The various projections made to each stratum are illustrated below: Each calibration is explained in more detail in Chapter 5: Adjusting for Limitations and Biases. Description of Methodology 18

22 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership Calculating a Market s Television Households Before we can project tune information for the four household strata to the market population in each of the 210 television markets, we must first estimate the strata universes. We begin with the television market household population as reported by the Nielsen Company. By combining this information with subscriber populations from our MVPD partners and third-party estimates (described below), we estimate the number of television households that fall into each stratum (DBS, cable, OTA, and telco), including the related DVR market share. The number of television households that fall into each stratum is updated annually. comscore obtains the number of DBS, cable, telco, and OTA television households in a given market from various sources for this purpose. The number of DBS households in a market is based on the subscriber populations we receive from DISH Network and DIRECTV. The number of telco households in a market (if a market has telco households) is based on the subscriber populations we receive from AT&T. The number of OTA households in a market is obtained from SNL Kagan. The number of cable households in a market is determined by subtracting the total number of households for the other three strata from the market s total television household population reported by Nielsen. That is, a market s cable HHs = total market HHs (Nielsen) - DBS HHs - telco HHs - OTA HHs. This ensures the sum of all four strata equals the television market household universe as defined by Nielsen. To estimate DVR market share, we combine other industry-reported estimates with the data from our MVPD partners, SNL Kagan, and the Leichtman Research Group to arrive at an overall estimate for each market. Projecting DBS To project DBS, the system uses tuning reported by DBS households (DISH Network and DIRECTV): Description of Methodology 19

23 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership To project the DBS viewing for a market, the system makes the following adjustments to the reported tuning data: Adjustment Calibration Description Demographic and geographic distribution D Used to account for the variance between the demographic and geographic distribution of reporting households and market households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Demographic and Geographic Distribution (D Calibration). Non-reporting STBs H Used to account for viewership in households with multiple STBs where not all STBs report viewing data. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Nonreporting STBs (H Calibration). Network coverage Used to account for the difference between a reporting MVPD partner s network coverage and the projected stratum s network coverage. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Stratum Network Coverage. Projecting Cable For cable households, the projection system uses household tuning from all MVPD partners present in the market. For markets where we collect cable tuning, the system uses the available cable viewing information, as well as reporting DBS and (if available) telco viewing, modeled as cable viewing, to maximize the available viewing data. The model must account for reporting DBS and telco households watching networks at different rates than reporting cable households. To do this, the system reapportions the reported viewing of each network to match viewing levels of the cable households in the market. For markets where we do not collect cable tuning, the system models it from reporting DBS and (if available) telco viewing. The model must account for reporting DBS and telco households watching networks at different rates than reporting cable households. To do this, the system reapportions the reported viewing of each network to match the viewing levels of the cable households from which we collect viewing in other markets. In both cases, the result is scaled to reflect the number of cable households in the market. Description of Methodology 20

24 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership To project cable viewing for a market, the system makes the following adjustments to the reported viewing data: Adjustment Calibration Description Demographic and geographic distribution D Used to account for the variance between the demographic and geographic distribution of reporting households and market households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Demographic and Geographic Distribution (D Calibration). Cable viewing behavior C Used to account for network viewership by cable subscribers compared to other reporting households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Cable Viewing Behavior (C Calibration). Non-reporting STBs H Used to account for viewership in households with multiple STBs where not all STBs report viewing data. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Nonreporting STBs (H Calibration). Network coverage Used to account for the difference between a reporting MVPD partner s network coverage and the projected stratum s network coverage. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Stratum Network Coverage. Projecting OTA comscore considers the OTA stratum to consist solely of households that use an antenna as their only means of viewing live television and do not report any viewing by a STB. For instance, if a cable household has a TV connected to an antenna in addition to TVs connected to STBs, comscore s system does not account for the OTA viewing that may occur in that household. For OTA, the projection system uses household viewing from all MVPD partners present in the market: Description of Methodology 21

25 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership To project OTA viewing for a market, the system makes the following adjustments to the reported viewing data: Adjustment Calibration Description Demographic and geographic distribution D Used to account for the variance between the demographic and geographic distribution of reporting households and market households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Demographic and Geographic Distribution (D Calibration). OTA household viewing levels F1 Used to account for differences in total household-level viewership by OTA households compared to reporting MVPD households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see OTA Household Viewing Levels (F1 Calibration). Only broadcast network viewing F2 Used to ascribe all reported viewing - for both cable and broadcast - to broadcast stations only. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Access Only to Broadcast Networks (F2 Calibration). Broadcast network viewing proportion adjustments G Used to account for differences in broadcast network viewership by OTA households compared to reporting households. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Differences in Broadcast Network Viewing Share (G Calibration). Non-reporting STBs H Used to account for viewership in households with multiple STBs where not all STBs report viewing data. For a more detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Non-reporting STBs (H Calibration). To estimate the size of the OTA stratum on a market-level basis, comscore blends two data sources: 1. comscore directly calculates the number of market-level OTA households based on (a) SNL Kagan s estimates of OTA household percentages for each market applied to (b) the market-level universe estimates provided by the Nielsen Company. 2. comscore directly identifies the number of DBS and telco households in each market from our MVPD partners, and subtracts these counts from the market-level universe estimates provided by the Nielsen Company. comscore then calculates the number of market-level cable households based on Kagan s estimates of each market s Cable household percentages applied to Nielsen s market-level universe estimates. comscore then calculates the number of OTA households in each market by subtracting the DBS, telco, and cable household estimates from Nielsen s market-level universe estimates to arrive at an OTA stratum household estimate for each market. comscore then takes the average of the OTA households from both approaches to derive a final OTA stratum household estimate in each market. This is performed for all 210 markets. (Prior to September 2016, comscore calculated OTA household estimates for each market based only on the first approach outlined above.) Description of Methodology 22

26 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership Projecting Telco By definition, comscore considers the telco stratum to consist solely of AT&T. Similar services, such as Verizon Fios, are treated as cable providers. Aggregating the Strata After the four viewing strata have been projected, the system aggregates them into viewing for the entire market. Any shortterm coverage changes related to free previews, MVPDs dropping channels, blackouts, and so forth are performed as necessary. Description of Methodology 23

27 Chapter 4 Projecting Viewership Projecting to the Nation last update: 10/24//2016 TV Essentials rolls up the 210 market-based projections into national measurements. That is, to get a national average audience measurement, we sum the projected average audience for all markets. The effect of the projection process on our national and market-level live viewing measurements can be seen in the system s actual reported hours and total projected hours. Quantification of Data Adjustments last update: 06/30/2017 A typical question about comscore s projection system is, How much does each of the calibrations contribute to the projection process and the final numbers? As previously mentioned, the system is designed to use the data we do have to model the data we don t have in order to generate reliable television viewing metrics. At the national level, the projections account for seven to eight times the number of hours viewed. The TV Essentials and StationView Essentials products have recently been updated to contain pie charts to illustrate how much adjustment the projection system performs on reported data. These pie charts can be found via the Share of Adj. Calibration Impact selection in the Help pull-down menu for each product. Description of Methodology 24

28 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases CHAPTER 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases last update: 10/24/2016 comscore s projection system is designed to adjust for the limitations and biases inherent to a passive, STB-based measurement system. That is, it uses the information that we do have to model the viewing households that we do not have and adjusts for potential differences between the reporting HHs and the rest of the market. This chapter describes these potential differences and limitations, and the steps that comscore takes to adjust for them. As the system adjusts reported tuning information for each market, it accounts for the following: Instances where a TV is off but the STB remains on Incomplete TV viewing collection Demographic and geographic distribution OTA viewing behavior Cable viewing behavior Non-reporting set-top boxes (in reporting households) Stratum network coverage Data drops and free previews Building TV Off/STB On Logic last update: 11/10/2017 comscore has applied years of experience with TV viewing information, gathered from millions of set-top boxes (STBs), to develop a patented solution (US Patent Nos. 8,863,166 and 9,009,749) to this problem: how to account for instances where the TV is turned off, but the STB stays on. This logic also accounts for instances when the TV is switched to a non-stb input such as a game console or Blu-ray player. Note: Our TV-Off logic is applied to live TV viewing (this includes DVR playback that occurs within 25 seconds of the live airing that is counted as live viewing), and applied to time-shifted viewing from live content. It is not applied to DVR playback from pre-recorded content. Instead, a six-hour capping rule is applied to these DVR playback tunes. We perform the following analysis: 1. We identify STBs that we are virtually certain are turned off when the TV is turned off. Using AT&T data due to their STBs accuracy in reporting TV-off information, we identified approximately 2.8 million STBs that are reliably turned off when the TV is turned off. Using viewing information from a three-month period, we identified these AT&T STBs using the following criteria: The STB is turned off at least once every viewing day where a tune event shorter than four hours was reported to comscore. Tuning to the same channel for six or more consecutive, uninterrupted hours occurs less than 1% of the time. We also identify reliably powered-off DIRECTV STBs using their reliable power and standby event data. Using a threemonth period, we identified approximately 1.07 million reliable STBs using the following criteria: The STB had a standby-in or power-off event within 12 hours of viewing for every day with viewing. Tuning to the same channel for four or more consecutive, uninterrupted hours occurs less than 1% of the time. Because of STB reporting limitations at this time, DIRECTV Genie STBs are excluded from these criteria. Description of Methodology 25

29 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases 2. Using the viewing patterns of these 3.87 million STBs, we create probability curves that a TV is turned off after some number of minutes. We calculate one set of probability curves from the reliable AT&T STBs, which are applied to AT&T tune-level data; one set of probability curves from the reliable DIRECTV STBs, which are applied to DIRECTV data; and one set of probability curves from all 3.87 million STBs that are applied to Charter, Cox, and DISH Network data. There are 10,584 of these TV-off curves for each set of probability curves. Within each set, the majority of the curves - 10,416 of them - apply to tunes where we know the tune s end time. These curves change with the day of the week, the hour in which a tune starts, and the length of the tune to the nearest five-minute increments. The remaining 168 curves apply to instances when a tune is reported to comscore without an end time. These curves change with the day of the week and the hour in which a tune starts. The following graph shows two examples TV-off curves that would be applied to tunes with a known end time: Notice how a TV is more likely to be turned off overnight than in prime time. The Tuesday 3:00 4:00 AM curve has a higher probability on the vertical axis that viewing has ended, meaning it is more likely that a minute tune at this hour will have a lower adjusted tune length after TV-Off is applied. Applying TV Off/STB On Logic last update: 11/10/2017 The TV Off / STB On logic applies the curves to adjust all tunes of 60 minutes or more and tunes without end times. (This is applied to the imported STB tuning data prior to schedule data being applied during summarization.) 1. Assign tunes to the proper TV-Off curve in the assigned MVPD set of probability curves. For tunes with end times, assign each tune of 60 minutes or more to the appropriate curve out of the 10,416 TV Off curves based on the day of the week, the tune s start time, and the tune s length to the nearest five-minute increment. The system assigns every tune longer than six hours 10 minutes (370 minutes) to the probability curve assigned to minute tunes. For tunes with no end times, assign each tune to the appropriate curve out of the 168 TV Off curves based only on the day of the week and the tune s start time. 2. For each tune, randomly assign a probability from 0% to 100% that viewing has ended. Description of Methodology 26

30 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases 3. Adjust the tune length to the corresponding number of minutes on the TV-Off curve. For example, consider this tune: Tune Start Tune Length Tune End 8:45 PM 120 minutes 10:45 PM Assign the tune a random probability on its TV-Off curve; for example, 22%: Adjust the tune to the corresponding minutes: Tune Start Tune Length Tune End 8:45 PM 58 minutes 9:43 PM Note: The post TV-Off total minutes of each adjusted tune is rounded to the nearest minute. The seconds component of the original tune length is retained by the TV-Off adjustment. This methodology, by construction, assures that across many tunes the adjusted tune-length distribution matches the tune-length distribution of the STBs identified in step 1 as demonstrating reliable TV-Off / STB-Off behavior. For some MVPDs where comscore has verified that the MVPD-provided end time for tunes is accurate, comscore determines the original tune length that is used to identify the TV Off curve to apply based on the time period between the tune's start time and end time. Because the start of a new tuning event is the trigger that ends the current tune, for these MVPDs with accurate end times, the end time of a current tune is the same as the start time of the next tune. The exceptions to this are cases where a STB Power Mode event is in between those events. For other MVPDs, comscore uses the start time of each tune and the start time of its next tune event to determine each tune's length. The application of the TV Off logic to these tunes ensures that the aggregated adjusted tunes correspond to viewing behavior that removes STB On / TV Off bias in the reported data. comscore does not use Power Mode events to infer tune end times because comscore's extensive analysis of STB data has indicated circumstances where some Power Mode events are not accurate in certain circumstances. The application of the TV Off logic ensures that reported tunes are adjusted to viewing distributions where the STB On / TV Off bias is removed as if accurate Power Mode information was accounted for in all reported data for all MVPDs. Description of Methodology 27

31 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Programming Exception last update: 01/26/2016 TV Off processing is not applied to tunes received for the network and time frame of the Super Bowl telecast. Incomplete TV Viewing Collection last update: 01/26/2016 Several calendar days can elapse before comscore receives all the TV viewing for a given air date from our MVPD partners. During the time between when we begin to receive TV viewing for a given air date and when we lock the air date s reporting, the system accounts for incomplete TV viewing to calculate ratings. Reporting Status The following example for June 1 shows how live, household-level reporting status progresses for a typical air date as we receive TV viewing: Note: This graph represents live viewing only. DVR viewing for the same date would become final 15 days later to allow for all DVR reporting windows to complete. Reporting progresses through four statuses as we receive TV tuning from our MVPD partners: No Reporting: Incomplete Reporting: Reporting becomes available about two to three days after the air date. In the example, reporting for June 1 becomes available on June 4. Once reporting becomes available, the reporting fluctuates during this period as we receive more June 1 viewing from our MVPD partners. Description of Methodology 28

32 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Initial Reporting: Final Reporting: Using a statistical method to estimate final reporting, we can determine when 99% of the estimated live, household-level reporting is within 5% of its final, locked value. We identify this date as Initial Day. It typically takes an air date 10 days before this initial reporting is available. In the example, June 1 becomes the Initial Day on June 11. Nine days after reporting becomes available, we lock the day s reporting and identify the date as Final Day. It typically takes an air date 12 days to become final. In the example, June 1 becomes the Final Day on June 13. Note: On occasion, comscore will freeze the Final Day in the system so we can perform maintenance or other adjustments without having to reprocess data. The system is still available during these site freezes, but the Final Day does not advance during this period. Once the maintenance is complete and the freeze is lifted, the Final Day will be brought current. Incomplete TV Viewing Adjustment While a given air date s reporting status is incomplete or initial, the system estimates ratings by adjusting collected TV viewing so that it reflects historical averages. The estimates are adjusted and refined as we continue to collect TV viewing. As mentioned in Chapter 3: Turning STB Tuning Events Into Viewing, two of the basic building blocks of comscore s measurements are Households and Total Hours Viewed. The projection system adjusts these numbers to reflect historical averages while TV viewing is still being collected. By comparing the reported, but incomplete, numbers to the final reported numbers for the most recent matching days of the week that have been locked, the projection system determines a ratio it uses to adjust the incomplete TV viewing numbers. In the example above, ratings for June 1 are calculated using adjusted numbers of households and hours viewed during the period before reporting is locked on June 13. If June 1 falls on a Monday, the projection system adjusts the numbers by ratios derived from comparing the incomplete TV viewing numbers to the average numbers for the most recent final Mondays. Demographic and Geographic Distribution (D Calibration) last update: 06/30/2017 Overview To project household-level viewing measurements such as Rating, Share, and Average Audience, the system adjusts for the demographic and geographic distribution differences between reporting households and the total number of households in each market stratum. These adjustments, collectively referred to as a D calibration, account for the following: Demographic distribution of reporting households Geographic distribution of reporting households D calibrations apply to projecting viewership for all strata. Granularity The demographic and geographic adjustments described below are combined into a single, overall calibration for each combination of: < market network stratum > Description of Methodology 29

33 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Adjustment Limits The minimum value for this final overall calibration is 0.5. The maximum value is capped at 2.0. Demographic Distribution of Reporting Households When the system projects household ratings, it adjusts for the variance between our reporting household demographics and the market demographics. The basic idea is to add missing or subtract excess demographic household viewership so the reporting MVPD universe matches the demographic makeup of the market. We adjust for the following demographic segments: Hispanic heads of households African-American heads of households Presence of children Household income The projection system adjusts tuning levels based on the percentage of total market households for those demographic segments using ZIP-code level demographic information from Devonshire Associates, Ltd. In most markets, we roll up this information for ZIP codes that begin with the same first three digits (ZIP3s). For some smaller markets where all ZIP codes begin with the same ZIP3s, we calculate this adjustment using the information for the individual ZIP codes in the market. These markets are listed below: Bend, OR Fairbanks, AK Lafayette, IN North Platte, NE Twin Falls, ID Eureka, CA Harlingen, TX Lima, OH Palm Springs, CA Victoria, TX Geographic Distribution of Reporting Households The projection system weights each market s reporting households to reflect the relative size of each ZIP code s actual households in the market. In other words, if a MVPD s households are over-represented in rural ZIPs, the projection system down-weights the tuning from those households. If a MVPD s households are under-represented in urban ZIPs, the projection system up-weights the tuning from those households. Cable Adjustments The basic geographic adjustment distributes viewing evenly across all populated, residential ZIP codes in a market. This works well for DBS households since these households are distributed across nearly every ZIP code in the nation. Cable households are not distributed as proportionally across markets as DBS households, and may not have households in every ZIP code in some cable-reporting markets. To account for this, cable geographic adjustments calculated for the top four broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC) are weighted by the percentage of total market households in ZIP3s instead of a single ZIP code. We make this adjustment for both Charter and Cox markets. If there are no cable households in a ZIP3 within a market, viewing is modeled based on reported DBS viewing and the ratio of DBS to cable viewing in ZIP3s with cable households. Description of Methodology 30

34 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Station-Level Adjustments While the D calibration adjustment is applied at the market-network level, we encounter a few situations where the basic adjustment is not granular enough. This can be a due to a single market having more than one station for the same network being carried by different MVPD partners. For example, a market may have two ABC affiliates. One affiliate is carried by one satellite MVPD while the second affiliate is carried by the other satellite MVPD. In this situation, applying our market-network level adjustment to both stations could result in inaccurate ratings. We account for this by calculating a separate, station-level adjustment for each affiliate as though we projected each station at the station level. This station-level adjustment is applied to the following stations: Market Atlanta Austin Bakersfield Baltimore Baton Rouge Birmingham (Ann and Tusc) Boise Buffalo Chattanooga Chicago Flint-Saginaw-Bay City Fresno-Visalia Ft. Myers-Naples Ft. Wayne Grand Rapids-Kalmzoo-B.Crk Greensboro-H.Point-W.Salem Harlingen-Wslco-Brnsvl-McA Hartford & New Haven Indianapolis Jackson, MS Lafayette, IN Laredo Lubbock Madison Memphis Stations WKTB (Telemundo) NEYE (Telemundo) KABE (Univision), KZKC (Azteca) WMPT (PBS) EGMB (CW) WTJP (TBN) KYUU (CW) WNYB (TCT) WELF (TBN) WJYS (IND), EMEU (IND) WCMU (PBS), WAQP (TCT) KMSG (Azteca) WWDT (Telemundo) WINM (TCT) WTLJ (TCT) WLXI (TCT) XRIO (CW) WRDM (Telemundo) WIPB (PBS) WRBJ (TBN) WXIN (FOX), WTHR-LIN (NBC) OGNS (Telemundo) KXTQ (Telemundo) EHA (IND) WBUY (TBN) Description of Methodology 31

35 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Market Miami-Ft. Lauderdale Milwaukee Monterey-Salinas Myrtle Beach-Florence New York Odessa-Midland Paducah-Cape Girard-Harsbg Palm Springs Philadelphia Phoenix (Prescott) Raleigh-Durham (Fayetvlle) Rochestr-Mason City-Austin San Diego Spokane Tampa-St. Pete (Sarasota) Tucson (Sierra Vista) Tulsa Tyler-Longview(Lfkn&Ncgd) Waco-Temple-Bryan Washington, DC (Hagrstwn) Wausau-Rhinelander West Palm Beach-Ft. Pierce Wichita Falls & Lawton Wilkes Barre-Scranton-Hztn Yakima-Pasco-Rchlnd-Knnwck Yuma-El Centro Stations WFUN (IND) WWRS (TBN), WYTU (Telemundo) KMCE (Azteca) WUNU (PBS) WNJB (PBS) KTLE (Telemundo) WTCT (TCT) KVER (Univision), KCWQ (CW) WMGM (IND) NTVK (IND) WRAY (TCT) KSTP+ (ABC), WCCO+ (CBS) NDTF (UniMas) KGPX (ION) WRMD (Telemundo) KUDF (Azteca), KFTU (UniMas) KTPX (ION), NRSU (IND) KTRE (ABC) KRHD (ABC) WHAG (NBC) WTPX (ION) WBEC (IND), WWHB (Azteca) KKTM (Telemundo) WQPX (ION) KTNW (PBC), KIMA (CBS), KNDU (NBC), KAPP (ABC), KCYU (FOX), KYVE (PBC), KVEW (ABC), KVVK (Univision), KEPR (CBS), KNDO (NBC), NAAP (MeTV), NVEW (MeTV), KFFX (FOX), NIMA (CW), NCYU (Telemundo), NFFX (Telemundo), NEPR (CW), KUNW (Univision) QECY (Telemundo) Description of Methodology 32

36 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases OTA Viewing Behavior last update: 06/30/2017 Overview To project the OTA stratum, the system accounts for behavioral differences between the OTA households and reporting MVPD partner households as well as network availability. Note: As mentioned in Projecting OTA, comscore considers the OTA stratum to consist solely of households that use an antenna as their only means of viewing live television and do not report any viewing by an STB. comscore s system does not account for the OTA viewing that may occur in cable, DBS, and telco households. While we have no direct reporting from OTA households, we know they watch TV differently from DBS, telco, and cable households. They watch some networks more and some networks less. We use a combination of consumer survey information and reported viewing data from all MVPD partners present in a market to project OTA viewing on a network-bynetwork basis. We use this information to account for the following: access only to broadcast networks viewing individual broadcast networks in different proportions than reporting MVPD households The F1, F2, and G calibrations described below apply only to projecting viewership for the OTA stratum. OTA Household Viewing Levels (F1 Calibration) OTA households may exhibit different total amounts of viewing (for the broadcast networks that they have access to) than comscore s reporting households that are used to project viewing in the OTA stratum. comscore therefore calculates and applies an F1 calibration to account for these different total viewing levels between OTA and reporting households. This is shown in step 1 in the earlier figure. Description of Methodology 33

37 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases F1 calibrations are calculated at a market level. Because OTA households do not report data to comscore that can be used to calculate viewing level differences as compared to reporting households, comscore deployed a consumer survey in 2014 in all 210 markets where respondents specified the total number of hours of live or recorded TV that they watched the previous day. The Google Consumer Survey platform was used to distribute this survey to respondents in every market across each day of week. Across all 210 markets, the survey was fielded to over 262,000 respondents. Granularity F1 = (Total TV Viewing Hours per OTA Household in Market) / (Total TV Viewing Hours per non-ota Household in Market) F1 calibrations are calculated for each combination of: < market > Adjustment Limits The minimum value for F1 calibrations is 0.6. The maximum value is capped at 1.1. The minimum and maximum values were chosen based on an analysis of the distribution of pre-capped values. Access Only to Broadcast Networks (F2 Calibration) OTA households can watch only broadcast networks (for example, ABC, CBS, NBC, and so forth). We ascribe all reported viewing for both cable and broadcast to broadcast stations only, as illustrated in step 2 in the earlier figure. We calculate an F2 calibration to account for this increased viewership of broadcast networks. F2 calibrations are calculated in the system daily by adding all hours viewed on all networks and dividing by the total number of hours viewed on broadcast networks for each reporting MVPD partner. Granularity F2 = (Cable network hours viewed + Broadcast network hours viewed) / Broadcast network hours viewed F2 calibrations are calculated for each combination of: < market day stratum > Adjustment Limits F2 calibrations are capped at a maximum value of 10. The minimum value is 1, since the total viewing hours will always be greater than or equal to the total broadcast network viewing hours. Description of Methodology 34

38 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Differences in Broadcast Network Viewing Share (G Calibration) OTA households view broadcast networks in different amounts than our reporting households. That is, OTA households watch certain broadcast networks more and other broadcast networks less than the non-ota households that report to comscore even after accounting for differential total hours (F1) and the fact that OTA households cannot watch cable networks (F2). We calculate a G calibration to adjust each station s viewing to the appropriate share, as illustrated in step 3 of the earlier figure. This adjustment corresponds to step 3 in the earlier figure, and applies to the following broadcast networks: ABC The CW Independent My Network TV Telemundo Azteca Estrella TV ION NBC UniMas CBS FOX MeTV PBS Univision G calibrations are calculated by using a comscore-designed 2014 Google Consumer Survey across all 210 markets to determine the ratio of hours viewed per OTA household to total hours viewed per MVPD partner household. This study targeted approximately 262,000 respondents across all markets. Granularity G factor for network (a) for Cable in market (b) = network (a) share in OTA households in market (b) / network (a) share in Cable households in market (b) G factor for network (a) for DBS in market (b) = network (a) share in OTA households in market (b) / network (a) share in DBS households in market (b) G factor for network (a) for Telco in market (b) = network (a) share in OTA households in market (b) / network (a) share in Telco households in market (b) G calibrations are calculated for each combination of: < market broadcast network stratum > Empirical Support and Station Affiliation Changes Analysis comscore completed two additional surveys in 2016 to gain empirical support for our OTA calibrations described above as calculated from the 2014 Google Consumer Survey (GCS). The first survey was a repeat of the 2014 GCS survey in five markets: Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Houston, and Norfolk-Portsmth-Newpt Nws. The second survey was a probability sample survey using the same GCS questionnaires that was fielded in the same five markets as the GCS studies. OTA calibrations were calculated from each of these two additional surveys for the five markets and compared to the calibrations from the 2014 survey leading to three sets of OTA calibrations in total. Our comparisons showed the projected ratings using each of these three sets of OTA calibrations where comparable and within a 1-Sigma confidence interval for approximately 90% of the examined cases. The network affiliates that were compared in these five markets are provided in the table below. An example of these comparisons is then provided using the Los Angeles market for illustration purposes. ABC The CW NBC UniMas CBS FOX Telemundo Univision Description of Methodology 35

39 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases comscore completed a third additional survey in early 2017 to evaluate the impact of station affiliation changes since the original 2014 survey, and how these affiliation changes might have changed the results of the 2014 survey had those affiliation changes taken place before the 2014 survey was fielded. 19 markets were identified as having affiliation changes since the 2014 survey. When this 2017 survey was completed, comscore made G calibration updates to the Minot-Bsmrck- Dcknsn(Wlstn) and Tri-Cities, TN-VA markets. Adjustment Limits For the September 2016 refresh, the minimum value for G calibrations was 0.4. The maximum value was capped at 2.3. The minimum and maximum values were chosen based on an analysis of the distribution of pre-capped values from 2014 GCS study. However, after the two additional 2016 validation surveys had been completed, in 2017, comscore examined the approximately 10% of cases where the projected ratings were not within the confidence interval, and determined that a minimum G calibration value of 0.8 and a maximum value of 1.2 would bring these cases into the confidence interval. comscore revised the G calibrations to these new adjustment limits for the Houston market in April 2017, and for the Dallas- Ft. Worth market in May 2017, as these markets had cases where the ratings comparisons were not within the confidence interval. comscore also updated the adjustment limits for the Minot-Bsmrck-Dcknsn(Wlstn) and Tri-Cities, TN-VA markets when those G calibrations were refreshed in response to the additional station affiliation change survey in May For the September 2017 refresh, comscore applied adjustment limits to all stations in all 210 markets based on an updated analysis of the distribution of pre-capped values. Cable Viewing Behavior (C Calibration) last update: 06/30/2017 Overview We use a combination of tune events from all MVPD partners in a market to project cable viewing for that market. This includes using reporting from our DBS and telco reporting households to project cable viewing. However, cable households watch some networks more than DBS and telco households do, while watching other networks less. We use cable weighting calibrations (C calibrations) to account for the increased or decreased viewership of a network by cable subscribers compared to non-cable reporting households. These calibrations adjust network-level viewing differences between DBS/telco households and Cable households. They are only used to adjust the portion of DBS/telco reporting data that is used to project the total Cable stratum viewing. Thus, the adjustments are made on a network-by-network basis for DBS and telco reporting data. Granularity C calibrations are calculated for each combination of: < network stratum > Description of Methodology 36

40 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Adjustment Limits The minimum value for C calibrations is 0.5. The maximum value is capped at 2.0. Detailed Explanation We use a combination of reported viewing information from: 1. Charter Communications and Cox Communications (cable) 2. DISH Network and DIRECTV (DBS) 3. AT&T U-Verse (telco) The C calibration is calculated as a ratio of the horizontally-adjusted (after the application of the H calibration described later to account for the non-reporting STBs in reporting HHs) total viewing hours per covered household among reporting cable households to the horizontally-adjusted total viewing hours per covered household among reporting non-cable households. For each network, we first calculate the ratio of horizontally-adjusted actual viewing hours to reporting universe households adjusted to account for coverage for cable and DBS/telco groups where the adjustment to actual households is to account for the non-reporting STBs in reporting households. We first calculate the ratio of actual viewing hours to reporting universe households adjusted to account for network coverage for cable and DBS groups. In the ratio below, covered households would be defined as the reporting household universe multiplied by the coverage fraction (whose methodology is also described later) for that network. Horizontally-Adjusted Actual Hours / Covered HHs We then divide the cable actual viewing hours per household ratio by the DBS and telco actual hours per household ratios for the network-specific C calibrations for DBS and telco strata. More specifically: DBS C for network(a) = total network(a) actual cable viewing hours per cable covered household / total network(a) actual DBS viewing hours per DBS covered household Telco C for network(a) = total network(a) actual cable viewing hours per cable covered household / total network(a) actual Telco viewing hours per Telco covered household Description of Methodology 37

41 Chapter 5 Adjusting for Limitations and Biases Non-reporting STBs (H Calibration) last update: 06/30/2017 Overview The projection system accounts for reporting households with multiple STBs where not all the STBs report tuning data. For example, a household might have two STBs, but only one reports tuning data back to the MVPD. The non-reporting STB might not be return-path capable, or may not be connected to a phone line or the Internet. This horizontal calibration (H calibration) adds a fractional amount to the reported viewership to account for these non-reporting STBs. The H calibration applies to projecting live and DVR viewing for the DBS, cable, and OTA strata (where we use the reporting we have including from households with non-reporting STBs to project to the OTA stratum). Since all telco STBs report viewing data, we don t calculate an H calibration for telco households. Granularity H calibrations are initially calculated for each combination of: < MVPD network > Final DBS H calibrations for the projection system are then calculated at a network-level by proportionally combining the network-level DIRECTV and DISH H calibrations for a single stratum-level calibration: < network > Final cable H calibrations for the projection system are calculated at the following level: < market network > These calibrations are calculated as follows: For markets where comscore receives only Cox Communications reporting, the network-level Cox H calibrations are installed as the Cable H calibrations. For markets where comscore receives only Charter Communications reporting, the network-level Charter H calibrations are installed as the Cable H calibrations. For markets where comscore receives both Cox Communications and Charter Communications reporting, the network-level Cox and Charter are proportionally combined to install as the Cable H calibrations Adjustment Limits The minimum value for H calibrations is 1, because it is an upward adjustment to account for missing viewing from nonreporting STBs. There is no maximum value cap. Description of Methodology 38

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