From Synchronous to Asynchronous Design

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1 by Gerrit Muller Buskerud University College Abstract The most simple real time programming paradigm is a synchronous loop. This is an effective approach for simple systems, but at a certain level of concurrent activities an asynchronous design, based on scheduling tasks, becomes more effective. We will use a conventional television as case to show real time design strategies, starting with a straightforward analog television based on a synchronous design and incrementally extending the television to become a full-fledged digital TV with many concurrent functions. The complete course ASP TM is owned by Buskerud University College. To teach this course a license from Buskerud University College is required. This material is preliminary course material. The final material and course information can be found at: status: preliminary draft

2 Hard Real Time Design hard real time soft real time disastrous failure failure dissatisfaction irritation human safety device safety loss of information loss of functionality or (image) quality loss of eye hand coordination limited throughput waiting time 2 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTpositioning

3 Case Simple Analog TV Simple Analog TV Multiple views on system Fundamentals of periodic or streaming Hard Real-Time applications System performance characterisation: Performance model Synchronous design concept 3 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTatvIntro

4 Functional Flow Simple Analog Television User Interface ~100 ms Tuner User Interface ~100 ms demux Line demux: ~ 60µs Video signal de-mux Audio processing Bit detection ~ 150 ns Teletext processing Picture processing Audio / video sync ~ 20ms User i/f graphics generation Teletext overlay generation Video signal mux Control User Interface ~100 ms ~1.8ms / bit 4 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionArchitectureSimple

5 SW Construction Diagram UI Control Background task User input Txt Txt displ Audio proc. Video proc. Check status HRT 5 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionSWconstruction

6 Video Timing Hidden lines (can contain data) Scan line even Scan line odd Retrace even Retrace odd Vertical retrace For PAL-625: Line Frequency: khz Scanning Lines: 625 Field Frequency: 50 Hz Hidden lines (can contain data) 6 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionScanLines

7 Audio-Video Synchronization Requirement 0 ms 40 ms 80 ms Time Images: Discrete in time Sound: Continuous in time Latency Sound and vision must be lip-sync or better Maximum latency ~ +/- 100 msec 7 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionImageSoundTiming

8 Synchronous Control Software Synchronous design Frame interrupt Frame interrupt Capture teletext Initiate video proc. Initiate audio proc. Check user input Do User Interface Display teletext (when active) Check status (HW) 20 msec 8 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionSynchrDesign

9 HW Diagram Mem CPU Control bus Tuner Audio proc. Video proc. Frame buffer gfx rendering D/A D/A Speaker CRT 9 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionHWdiagram

10 Exercise Synchronous design questions Estimate processing time on a 100 MHz ARM core Assuming that all processing and acquisition is done in HW Graphics rendering (user interface + teletext display) is done in SW Where do you expect variation? How feasible and how reliable is this design? 10 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionSynchrDesignExercise

11 Low Priority Work in the Background Design with multiple parallel tasks Do User Interface Display teletext (when active) Check status (HW) Do User Interface Display teletext (when active) Check status (HW) Frame interrupt Frame interrupt Frame interrupt image processing Parallel / background tasks image processing Parallel / background tasks image processing 20 msec 20 msec 11 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionSynchrDesignPlusBG

12 Synchronous or Asynchronous? Synchronous => Map on Highest frequency Constraints: - Processing frequency must be a whole (integer) multiple of the lower frequencies - Each process must be completed within the period of the highest frequency, together with the high-frequency process A-Synchronous => Concurrent processes 12 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PSRTDesignOpstionsSynchronousAsynchronous

13 Multiple Periods in a Simple TV Input signal Processing User Interface Power and Housekeeping Output 50 Hz 100 Hz 20 Hz 0.5 Hz 50, 100 Hz 13 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PSRTsimpleVideoMultiplePeriods

14 Summary Case Simple Analog TV Performance model requires: Simple Analog TV identification of processing steps their relation critical parameters and values Synchronous design sufficient for periodic applications with one dominant frequency Multiple views on system: HW diagram SW construction diagram Functional flow Time-line 14 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTatvSummary

15 Case Digital Television From Analog TV to Digital TV Adding more input formats and output devices Multiple heterogenous periods: asynchronous design with concurrent tasks. 15 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTfromATVtoDTVintro

16 Digital Television Input Many frequencies Video & Audio variable timing Output Processing Many frequencies Variable Many video variants (see table) Many audio variants (quality, number of speakers,...) 16 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PSRTdigitalTV

17 Simple Video Processing Pipeline multi task design complex TV In modern television the format of the image can change (e.g. widescreen) The user can set the refresh rate to higher values (e.g. 100Hz anti-flicker) Different displays (CRT, LCD, Plasma) can be attached that need the image in different formats (interlaced, non-interlaced, different refresh rates) Non interlaced images need special filtering of the image to prevent ragged images Signal enhancement Image improvement deinterlace Format adaptation (aspect ratio) Device specific processing CRT LCD Interlaced 100Hz non-interlaced 50Hz?? Other Clock Adaptation PLA 17 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTtelevisionProcessingSimple

18 Table with ATSC Video Formats spec Horizontal pixels Vertical pixels Aspect ratio Monitor interface Format name Frames per sec Fields per sec 1080i yes : i 1080p no 1080p no 720p no :09 720p 720p no 720p no 480p 480p no :09 480i yes 480i 480p no ATSC 480p no 480p 480p no :03 480i yes 480i 480p no 480p no 480p 480p no :03 480i yes i 480p no 480p no NTSC» :03 Note 1 Note yes Note 1: Some people refer to NTSC as 480i. Source: Transmitted interlaced 18 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTatscTable

19 Data Packets in Digital TV Packet Data Compr. Audio Compressed Video Data Compr. Audio Compr. Video Data Reference Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame Reference Frame 19 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PSRTdataInDigitalTV

20 Summary Case Digital Television From Analog TV to Digital TV Real-life applications rapidly introduce all kinds of variations Concurrent tasks cope with different periods 20 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PHRTfromATVtoDTVsummary

21 Colofon The ASP TM course is partially derived from the EXARCH course developed at Philips CTT by Ton Kostelijk and Gerrit Muller. Extensions and additional slides have been developed at ESI by Teun Hendriks, Roland Mathijssen and Gerrit Muller. 21 c 2006, Gerrit Muller PERFcolofon

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