Timing Needs in Cable Networks. Yair Neugeboren Director System Architecture, CTO Group, Network and Cloud, ARRIS WSTS 2017

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1 Timing Needs in Cable Networks Yair Neugeboren Director System Architecture, CTO Group, Network and Cloud, ARRIS WSTS 2017

2 Outline What is a Cable Network? Timing Aspects in Cable Distributed Architecture and Timing Requirements Mobile Backhaul Support through Cable Networks 2

3 Outline What is a Cable Network? Timing Aspects in Cable Distributed Architecture and Timing Requirements Mobile Backhaul Support through Cable Networks 3

4 Cable Services Delivery Commercial Residential Voice Services Data Services Video Conferencing Video On Demand Digital Television Analog Television Gaming Web Surfing Telephone HFC Channelized Network Downstream [MHz] 4

5 Cable Services Delivery - Today Commercial Residential Voice Services Data Services Video Conferencing Video On Demand Digital Television Analog Television Gaming Web Surf + OTT Video Telephone HFC Channelized Network Downstream [MHz] 5

6 What is DOCSIS? The cable TV industry came together in the late 90 s and set up a group called CableLabs They created a set of specifications called Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications, or DOCSIS for short DOCSIS defines the electrical and logical interfaces specification for network and RF elements in a cable network DOCSIS is a Point to Multipoint Protocol Downstream is continuous One to Many Upstream is dynamically scheduled BW allocation DOCSIS versions are 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.1 6

7 Customer Cable Network Topology The HFC network provides the communications link between the CMTS/CCAP and the stations, STBs, CMs and emtas. Customer Assurance Lawful Assurance & Applica on HFC plant consists of Record up to / Billing ~160 km Systems of optical Enforcement fiber, few Logic Back hundred Office meters Northbound of API coaxial cable, Northbound API RF distributions and Amplifiers. Data Backbone Video Feeds Record / Billing Customer Assurance Systems SDN Controller Record / Billing Lawful Enforcement Systems Lawful SDN Controller Abstrac on Enforcement Back Office Northbound API Back Office NETCONF OpenFlow SNMP DHCP PCMM HFC / Hybrid COPS Abstrac Fiber Coax on SDN Controller Abstrac on & Applica on Network Logic Element & Applica on Southbound API Logic NETCONF OpenFlow SNMP DHCP PCMM / COPS NETCONF OpenFlow PCMM / COPS Network Element Network Element Southbound API Southbound API SNMP DHCP STB Set top Box CMTS - Cable Modem Termination System CCAP - Converged Cable Access Platform Fiber Node CM Cable Modem emta - Embedded Media Terminal Adapter 7

8 Communication over the HFC Network The HFC consists of both Downstream (DS) and Upstream (US) links that are very different in behavior. Return Broadcast Video HSD Video on Demand HSD U P DOWNSTREAM Broadcast Narrowcast 1218 (MHz) Upstream: In DOCSIS 3.1 channel width can vary from 6.4 MHz up to 96 MHz Located at the lower end of the spectrum Channels shared among all CMs on the link via TDMA bursts Downstream: In DOCSIS 3.1 channel width can vary from 6 MHz to 192 MHz Located at the center and higher end of the spectrum TDM continuous broadcast transmission 8

9 Communication Behavior All Simultaneous users contend for the US and DS access. The CMTS transmits data to the cable modems on a first come, first served basis. CM must time-share upstream channels. Request and Grant reservation scheme. Only one modem can be active in the US at any given instant in time. The DOCSIS path delay is inherently asymmetrical and can contain a moderate to high amount of jitter 9

10 Outline What is the Cable Network? Timing Aspects in Cable Distributed Architecture and Timing Requirements Mobile Backhaul Support through Cable Networks 10

11 DOCSIS Timing DOCSIS transport is Synchronous in nature and uses a common clock derived by the CMTS The CMTS delivers MAC management messages on the downstream: Sync Messages: a 32 bit timestamp derived from a MHz clock. The timestamp is sent between times per second MAP messages: assigns upstream transmit opportunities for each CM. The request and grant cycle between the CM and CMTS use MAP messages The CM derives its frequency from the QAM symbol clock and time reference from the Sync messages Up to 500ns Jitter on downstream timestamp +/-5 ppm on Clock accuracy. Clock drift rate <= 10-8 per second 11

12 Cable Modem Ranging The CM needs to know how far off their clock is from the master reference, or their transmissions will be distorted at the CMTS Time offset is determined for each CM to allow its transmissions to be received at the correct time at the CMTS The determination process of this offset is called Ranging Ranging offset is a value indicating the upstream delay between a CMTS and a specific CM Ranging is done when a CM is booting up and every ~30 seconds thereafter CMTS Sync message (Timestamp 0 ) MAP message (send Range Request at time 10 ) Range Response (CM ranging offset = 9) CM Range Request

13 Outline What is the Cable Network? Timing Aspects in Cable Distributed Architecture and Timing Requirements Mobile Backhaul Support through Cable Networks 13

14 Distributed Access Architectures 14

15 Remote PHY and Timing Separating the MAC and the PHY into 2 boxes with 160 km distance between them poses challenges on timing synchronization The CCAP Core maintains the MAC functionality and produces the MAP messages The R-PHY Entity timestamps the sync packets The Core and R-PHY must be synced in clock and phase! CableLabs Remote DTI spec (R-DTI) specifies the timing requirements for R-PHY architecture: 15

16 R-PHY Timing Requirements and Challenges The Presicion Time Protocol (PTP) was chosen for Core and R-PHY synchronization G PTP profile selected SyncE is optional accuracy of <= 5ppm (or 500 ppb for some advanced applications) Phase error <= (0.5ms - 1ms) depends on timing topology Fast convergence from boot-up till phase lock (few minutes) 1588 unaware or partially aware networks drift (slew rate when CM are locked) is <= 10 ppb/sec No phase steps are allowed when CMs are locked Scale (each Core could have hundreds of Remote PHY devices that should be synced) 16

17 Remote PHY Deployment Scenarios Node Slave Will probably be the most common scenario. Two main use cases: A. CMTS Core is the Grand Master (GM) and the Remote Phy Device (RPD) is the Slave: CMTS Core CIN R-PHY HFC CM CMTS Core MAC DEPI / UEPI Upstream PHY Gate Burst RX Demodulator RNG_REQ Phase (TS) MAP 1588 Master Slave Phase (TS) Downstream PHY D3.1 TSMB D3.0 Sync Modulator MAP RNG_RSP Symbol CLK SYNC/PLC PHY Phase (TS) Phase (TS) Phase (TS) Phase (TS) CMTS Core CLK R-PHY CLK CM CLK Main Advantage: No need for an external Grand Master Main Disadvantage: The CMTS Core will need to distribute timing information via PTP to hundreds or thousands of RPDs 17

18 Remote PHY Deployment Scenarios Node Slave B. CMTS Core and the RPD are Slaves to an external Grand Master: CMTS Core CIN RPD HFC CM CMTS Core MAC DEPI / UEPI Upstream PHY Gate Burst RX Demodulator RNG_REQ MAP Phase (TS) 1588 Slave Slave Phase (TS) Downstream PHY D3.1 TSMB D3.0 Sync Modulator MAP RNG_RSP Symbol CLK SYNC/PLC PHY Phase (TS) Phase (TS) Phase (TS) Phase (TS) CMTS Core CLK 1588 GM RPD CLK CM CLK Main Advantages: CMTS Core is only a slave. PTP performance requirements are on the Grand Master Accurate ToD Main Disadvantage: A need for external GM (costly, Interop required) 18

19 Remote PHY Deployment Scenarios Node Master Remote PHY is the Master and the CMTS Core is the Slave The CMTS Core tracks each RPD time without achieving frequency sync CMTS Core MAC module obtains the frequency and phase information from the timestamp messages and runs a phase calibration process to track the RPD time without achieving frequency synchronization CMTS Core CIN R-PHY HFC CM CMTS Core MAC DEPI / UEPI Upstream PHY Gate Burst RX Demodulator RNG_REQ MAP Phase (TS) 1588 Slave Master Phase (TS) Downstream PHY D3.1 TSMB D3.0 Sync Modulator MAP RNG_RSP Symbol CLK SYNC/PLC PHY Phase (TS) Phase (TS) Phase (TS) CMTS Core CLK R-PHY CLK CM CLK Main Advantage : No need for frequency sync between the CMTS Core and RPD Main Disadvantage : The CMTS Core will need to handle each RPD timing separately, at possible scale of thousand of RPDs 19

20 SyncE 1588 R-PHY Deployment Scenarios Network Scenarios Scenario 1: Core is master, node is slave, network is timing unaware Standard Time Source 1588 OC (GM) Non-Participant Non-Participant Non-Participant 1588 OC (Slave) CMTS Core M Switch 1 Switch Switch n 1588 S R-PHY DTP Symbol Clock 1588 OC (GM) CM M Scenario 3: Core is slave, node is slave, network is timing Aware (Boundary Clock (BC) or Transparent Clock (TC)) Standard Time Source M 1588 GM S DTP CMTS Core S M M 1588 S M Switch 1 Switch SyncE Switch n SyncE R-PHY Symbol Clock CM 1588 OC (Slave) Non-Participant 1588 BC Non-Participant & EEC & EEC 1588 OC (Slave) 1588 OC (GM) 20

21 Outline What is the Cable Network? Timing Aspects in Cable Distributed Architecture and Timing Requirements Mobile Backhaul Support through Cable Networks 21

22 Cellular Backhaul and DOCSIS Cellular Backhaul support through DOCSIS network is an opportunity for supporting femtocell, picocell, microcell and macrocells DOCSIS presents many challenges in order to support precise Timing delivery: Asymmetry due the nature of DOCSIS upstream scheduling and HFC plant Jitter (PDV) due to the Upstream Scheduling Unknown delays and asymmetries in the CMTS and CM PHYs DOCSIS typical round trip latency of 5-10 ms poses challenge on enodeb communication (might be reduced with special service flow implementations) 22

23 Cellular Backhaul and DOCSIS For LTE-FDD deployments, the current DOCSIS network may be sufficient (with some improvements) For LTE-TDD deployments, major changes are required 23

24 DTP DOCSIS Timing Protocol DTP has been created to solve Timing issues and create a consistent time synchronization mechanism through the DOCSIS domain between the CMTS and CM is addressed by coupling the cable modem (CM) Ethernet timing to the DOCSIS downstream Symbol clock Time is addressed by: Coupling the CMTS SYNC message timestamp to the PTP timestamp received from a GM Coupling the CM PTP timestamp message to the DOCSIS SYNC message timestamp Time offset and asymmetry will be addressed through new measurement, signaling, and ranging The CM would have an Ethernet output that support SyncE and PTP Introduced in DOCSIS

25 DTP Overview DOCSIS 3.1 Extended Timestamp Epoch: A reference point in time (e.g., January :00:00 ) Timescale: A standard measure of time (e.g., a counter that increments at a known frequency) 8 bytes 23 bits 32 bits 5 bits Epoch D3.0 Timestamp 20 4 bits 16 Changes from DOCSIS years Provides an absolute timestamp rather than a relative timestamp Epoch: January :00:00 (midnight) Timescale: International Atomic Time (TAI), does not account for leap seconds Includes more bits for a higher degree of precision (305 ps versus ns) Extended time stamp is carried in the Timestamp Message Block 7 min ns MHz 4.88 ns MHz with roll-over 305 ps MHz x MHz x

26 DTP - True Ranging Offset (TRO) T ms = 20 Master Slave T = Timestamp + T ms To synchronize its time with the master clock, the slave clock must account for the received Timestamp and the network delay. Much of the information needed to calculate this delay in a DOCSIS network is built into the ranging process. Upstream delay = Calculated primarily during the CM ranging process. Round trip delay (True Ranging Offset) = Calculated by the CM. Downstream delay = round trip delay - upstream delay. 26

27 TRO Example PTP Timestamp PTP Timestamp Sync & Conversion (t-cmts-ds-i = 0) CMTS Clock 500 SYNC 500 MAP (Tx=7000) RNG REQ 20 CMTS PHY t-cm -us-p DOCSIS RANGING, DTP Signaling t-cmus-o t-cmtsus-o t-hfcds-o t-hfcus-o CM PHY Sync & Conversion (t-cm-adj = 1800) (t-cm-ds-i = 0) t-cmtsds-o t-cmtsds-p t-cmds-o t-cmds-p t-hfcds-p t-cmus-p t-hfcus-p CM Clock True Ranging Offset measured transmit time MAP entry TRO Measured ====== 2700 Round Trip Delay Between Reference Points ==== 2700 known characterized? to be measured characterized known characterized? to be measured characterized Clock offset needed = 2700(TRO) 900(aggregated us delay)=

28 DTP Error Budget T-cmts-error The variance in delay that the CMTS causes as measured from the clocking ingress port (NSI or DTI) to the CMTS DOCSIS egress. T-cm-error The variation in delay that the CM introduces as measured from the CM DOCSIS ingress port to the CM CMCI egress port. T-docsis-error The timing error introduced by the combination of the CMTS and CM. This value is tested with a zero length HFC plant. T-docsis-error = T-cmts-error + T-cm-error T-source-skew This is the max allowable difference in arrival time of a reference timing source at the NSI ports of two CMTSs that exist within the same timing system. T-hfc-error This is the latency error introduced by the modeling of the HFC plant. T-cm-cm-skew The is the skew that can occur between two similar reference points at the timing egress points on the two CMs. T-cm-cm-skew = 2 * T-docsis-error + T-source-skew + T-hfc-error SLIDE 28

29 DOCSIS Domain Time Distribution DOCSIS Domain NTP 1588v2 PTP SyncE PTP Slave CMTS Distributed PTP BC DTP PTP Master CM 1588v2 PTP SyncE 1PPS Test Boundary Clock (PTP In DTP Out) Boundary Clock (DTP In PTP Out) CMTS synchronizes DOCSIS domain to network source With IEEE1588v2, CMTS fulfills PTP Slave Port functions while syncing the DOCSIS Domain to its clock SyncE Slave port also resides in CMTS, can be used to assist clock holdover and Locking time if SyncE primary reference clock is the same as PTP GM DOCSIS latency and asymmetry are measured and compensated for by DTP CM generates precision timing for subtending network (PTP Master and SyncE output functions reside in the CM) The PTP Boundary Clock function mainly resides in CMTS (higher quality clock), and can support tight Holdover requirements. 29

30 SyncE SyncE Delivery- PTP/SyncE (G ) GPS Time synchronization synchronization Sync Delay_resp S BC M S OC Delay_req SyncE SyncE GM M N N N N SyncE EEC device M S T N BC OC GM Master port Slave port Transparent port Non participating node Boundary clock Ordinary clock Grandmaster clock S OC CMTS DOCSIS CM SyncE ARRIS Confidential and Restricted Roadmap subject to change 30

31 SyncE SyncE SyncE Phase Delivery- Hybrid 1588v2+SyncE (G /2) Time synchronization Sync Delay_resp GPS synchronization Sync Delay_resp S BC M S OC Delay_req SyncE SyncE GM M N N N N S SyncE BC M M SyncE M S T N BC OC GM EEC device Master port Slave port Transparent port Non participating node Boundary clock Ordinary clock Grandmaster clock Delay_req S OC CMTS Delay_req + ResTime B DTP M CM Delay_req SyncE S ARRIS Confidential and Restricted Roadmap subject to change 31

32 Thank You!

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