# CHAPTER 3 COLOR TELEVISION SYSTEMS

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1 HAPTE 3 OLO TELEISION SSTEMS 3.1 Introduction olor signals The color GB-T system has three primary colours : ed, whith wavelngth λ = 610nm, Green, wavelength λ G = 535nm, Blue, wavelength λ B = 470nm. The color image is decomposed in the optical system of the camera in three spatial distributions that corresponds to the red, green and blue content of the original image. Each of these three spatial distributions are delivered to three image sensors. The image sensors generate at their outputs the primary colour signals E, E, E ompatibility G B When color television systems were designed, the black and white television systems were already in use and it was necessary to find a solution in order to use as much as possible the black and white television infrastructure (radio transmitters, bandwith and channel alocation) and to allow the black and white receivers to display (in black and white) images broadcasted in one of the new colour television systems. For the color receivers it was also necessary to display (in black and white) images broadcasted in old still working black and white systems. 3.2 Signals in compatible television systems It is compulsory to use a signal that carries the luminance information in order to be used by a black and white television receiver. This signal is called luminance signal, E. This signal is generated by a sum of the three primay colour signals (red, green and blue) weighted according to their relative perception by the human eye. This is the relative spectral eye response K ( λ ), whith a maximum at λ = 556 nm. If the sum of the weighted coefficients has to be 1 (in that case if each of the primary colour signal has an amplitude between 0 and 1, then luminance signal has also the same amplitude), then :

2 0,17 0,17 0,9 0, 46 c = = = 0,11, b = = 0,53, a = = 0,3. Then the luminance 0,17 + 0,9 + 0, 46 1,53 1, 53 1, 53 signal is : E = 0,3E + 0,53EG + 0,11E B. E Together with the luminance signal, two other signals (linear combination of the primary colour signals) must be sent in order to reconstruct from these 3 signals the primary color signals at the receiver and to apply these to the display device in order to obtain a color image. These signals are the color difference signals E E and EB E. For any grey level between black and white E = EG = EB = E and the colour difference signals E E and EB E are zero. In this way, the color difference signals E E and EB E carry only the hue and saturation information from the color, and the luminance signal E carries the luminance information of the color. Because the T (athode ay Tube ) transfer function (dispalyed colour brightness versus input signal voltage on each cathode) is nonlinear, BGB,, = k E ) γ GB,, (γ value 2,2), it is necessary to have a gamma correction on each primary colour signal. This is done by the gamma correction circuit in videocameras : ( ) 1 E = E γ. This gamma correction is GB,, GB,, valid also for other display devices for example for LD (Liquid rystal Display) devices that have a similar transfer function (dispalyed colour brightness versus input primary color signal voltage) as the T. 3.3 hrominance signal and color video complex signal The two color difference signals are transmitted by using a color subcarrier. This color subcarrier is amplitude or frequency modulated (depending on the T colour system). olour differnce signal bandwidth is 1, 2 1, 5 MHz, that is 3 to 4 times lower than the luminance bandwidth, because the eye resolution for colour details is 3 to 4 times lower than the eye resolution for black and white details. The subcarrier frequency is chosen in order to allow the spectrum interlace of the subcarrier modulated signal (the chrominance signal) in the free spaces present in the luminance signal spectrum. 2

3 By adding this chrominance signal with the luminance signal and other auxiliary signals the color complex video signal is generated S. Direct compatibility is not complete becuse the modulated subcarrier frequency is visible on the black and white T receivers as a high frequency structure superimposed on the black and white image. This effect is called subcarrier visibility. 4 PAL System 4.1 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation This type of modulation (QAM) is used in NTS and PAL systems. he chrominance signal is : E () t = E B () t sinωspt + E ( t) cosωspt = E ( t) sin ωspt + ϕ () t, E ( ) where E () 2 () 2 t = E t + E B () t, () arctg t ϕ t =. It is not aloowed for the E B () t modulated color subcarrier superimposed on the luminance signal for a specific color to be above the white level or below the sync level. The condition to be fulfilled by color differnce weighting : 2 2 E + ( a E ) + ( b E B ) GALBEN = 1 şi E ( ) 2 ( ) 2 + a E + b E B TUOAZ = 1. 1 By solving this equation system the resulting values are a = = 0,877 and 1,14 1 b = = 0, ,03 In order to demodulate the QAM signal it is necessary to rebuild the subcarrier frequency whith correct frequency and phase. For this purpose in PAL and NTS systems a burst is used. It is a signal consisting of 10 subcarrier periods whith a fixed phase and peak to peak amplitude equal to the sync pulse amplitude. Burst amplitude is used in the colour decoder for automatic gain control (AG) in the chrominance amplifier. This burst signal is transmitted on the return horizontal time interval. 4.2 Signals In PAL system the luminace signal is used (as in the other T color systems) : E = 0,3E + 0,59E G + 0,11E B. The wheighted color difference signals are : E B E E U = and E =, 2,03 1,14 For the colors used in standard test pattern signal values before gamma correstion are presented in the table below. olor E EG E B E E E EB E E ϕ o White

4 ellow ,89 0,11-0,89 0, yan ,70-0,7 0,30 0, Green ,59-0,59-0,59 0, Mauve ,41 0,59 0,59 0,83 45 ed ,30 0,70-0,30 0, Blue ,11-0,11 0,89 0, Black After gamma correction the resulting signals are E, E G, E B. olor differnce signals E E E B E are weighted and. After the lowpass filter (1,2 MHz bandwidth) the 1,14 2,03 signals are EB E U = and 2,03 E E =. 1,14 For the color standard test pattern whith 8 vertical color bars : white, black, red, green and blue (the primary color signals) cyan, mauve and yellow (their complementary colors). Two complementary colors have the property that by mixing them the result is white. The 8 color bars are placed in the standard test pattern in decreasing order of their luminance. The signals are presented below. 4

5 The chrominance (unweighted) is : 5

6 After weighting and adding all the components, the PAL video complex color signal for one active line is : 4.3 PAL color coder The three primary colors are generated in the videocamera as shown in the diagram below. 6

7 The symbols are: SO - optic system (the lens) - dichroice mirrors (one part of the visible spectrum is reflected and the othe part is OD 1,2 transmitted) - mirrors O 1,2 F, FG, FB - oloured filters FN - neutral filters Trad, G, B - image sensors (transducers) The three primary color signals are gamma corrected and are used to generate in the first stage of the PAL coder (matrix) the luminance and the weighted colour differnce signals. For the luminance signal the operation can be done by the diagram : = 3 0,3, = 5 0,59, = 8 0,11 For color differnce signal generation the diagram below is used :, 3 = 6 = 9 = 10. Because of the delay introduced on the chrominance path by the lowpass filters, an additional delay is necessary on the luminance path. 7

8 After adding pulses from the BK (Burst Key) block, the two colour differnce signals are introduced in the D component fixing blocks F. After QAM subcarrier modulation chrominance signal E is generated together with burst signal on the return horizontal time interval. These signals are added to the luminance and sync and blanking pulses (horizontal and vertical) generated on the luminance path and the PAL complex video signal. Phase alternation of the E signal at each line is obtained by a phase shift circuit with 0 or π phase shift at each line for the cosine subcarrier signal. This is the phase error compensation in PAL. 4.4 Phase error compensation in PAL The mediation done in the PAL decoder for the chrominance signal on two succesive lines (possible because of the use of a delay line equal to the horizontal scan period) and phase alternation of the E signal (PAL = Phase Alternation Line), transform a possible phase error in the communication channel into a saturation error on the colour image. In NTS the effect of a phase error is a hue error on the image which is most annoying for the human eye. The phase error compensation in PAL is presented in the vector diagram below : The chrominance signal on line K is the vector E. It is assumed that on two succesive lines K we have the same colour. Only E polarity will change from line K-1 to line K. If there is a ) phase error Δ ϕ, E vector will be received instead of E K. After mediation between K ) ) E K and * ) ( E K ) the resulting vector is E 1 D with the same phase as the correct vector K E and with lower amplitude. So, in the displayed image, colour hue will be correct and K 8

9 colour saturation will bw lower, which is less annoying for the human eye. The human eye can tolerate a colour de-saturation of 70%, corresponding to a phase error of 40 o. 4.5 Burst signal It is necessary for color subcarrier reconstruction in the decoder. It is also used in the decoder to recover the correct polarity of E. The burst phase is + 135o for a line with positive E, and + 225o for a line with negative : () ω ( ) ω ω () S t = Ssin spt + Sgcom t cos spt = S 2 sin spt gcom t 45 9

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