Presented by: Amany Mohamed Yara Naguib May Mohamed Sara Mahmoud Maha Ali. Supervised by: Dr.Mohamed Abd El Ghany

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1 Presented by: Amany Mohamed Yara Naguib May Mohamed Sara Mahmoud Maha Ali Supervised by: Dr.Mohamed Abd El Ghany

2 Analogue Terrestrial TV. No satellite Transmission Digital Satellite TV. Uses satellite and provides wide channel range. Cable TV or (CAT). Distributes audiovisual content using co-axial cables. New Technologies: Digital Terrestrial TV. HD TV. Uses NTSC, PAL, SECAM. Web-TV. IP TV.

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5 The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, and a phosphorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the screen to create the images.

6 Color television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the image can be displayed in color on the television screen. It is an improvement on the earliest television technology, monochrome or black and white television, in which the image is displayed in grey scale.

7 A cathode-ray tube (CRT) television displays an image by scanning a beam of electrons across the screen in a pattern of horizontal lines known as a raster. At the end of each line the beam returns to the start of the next line; the end of the last line is a link that returns to the top of the screen. As it passes each point, the intensity of the beam is varied.

8 A color television system is identical except that an additional signal known as chrominance controls the color of the spot. The chrominance is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture

9 When analog television was developed, the luminance signal has to be generated and transmitted at the same time (displayed on CRT). It is therefore essential to keep the raster scanning in the device generating the signal in exact synchronization with the scanning in the television.

10 The human eye has a characteristic called Phi phenomenon. Quickly displaying successive scan images will allow the apparent illusion of smooth motion. The quick movement of the image can be partially solved using a long persistence phosphor coating on the CRT, so that successive images fade slowly.

11 The maximum frame rate depends on the bandwidth of the transmission system and the number of horizontal scan lines in the image. A frame rate of 25 or 30 Hz is a satisfactory compromise, while the process of interlacing two video fields of the picture per frame is used to build the image.

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13 Plasma screens and LCD screens have been used in analog television sets. These types of display screens use lower voltages than older CRT displays. Many dual system television receivers, equipped to receive both analog transmissions and digital transmissions have analog tuner receiving capability and must use a television antenna.

14 A TV channel usually consists of 2 signals. The picture information is transmitted using amplitude modulation. The sound information is transmitted using frequency modulation. Different methods of modulation are used to minimize interference between the picture and sound signals. The picture information is transmitted on a separate carrier located 4.5 MHz lower in frequency than the sound carrier. Vestigial sideband modulation technique is used in Television system.

15 The video signal is most often generated by a TV camera. TV camera is used to convert the scene to an electric signal this is done by transmitting a voltage of 1 V for black and 0 V for white. The scene is divided into smaller segments that can be transmitted serially over a period of time.

16 Scanning is a technique that divides a rectangular scene into individual lines. the scene is subdivided into many fine horizontal lines called scan lines. Each line represents a very narrow portion of light variations in the scene. TV standards call for the scene to be divided into a maximum of 525 horizontal lines. The greater the number of scan lines, the higher the resolution and the greater the detail that can be observed.

17

18 The RF Tuner consists of an RF amplifier, mixer, and local oscillator. The tuner is used to select the TV channel to be viewed by choosing an appropriate intermediate frequency (IF).

19 The receiver employs two or three stages of intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The output from the last IF stage is demodulated to recover the video signal. The signal that carries picture information is amplified and coupled to the picture tube

20 The picture tube converts the electrical signal back into picture elements of the same degree of black and white.

21 The picture tube is very similar to the cathode-ray tube used in an oscilloscope. The glass envelope contains an electron-gun structure that produces a beam of electrons. When electron beam strikes the screen, This beam is deflected by a pair of deflecting coils. The video signal is fed to the grid or cathode of the picture tube. Relation between signal voltage and the control grid.

22 IF signal consists of a video carrier wave and the sound carrier A demodulator recovers the video signal New carrier frequency is sent to an FM demodulator Advantage of intercarrier sound So the FM sound carrier is then demodulated, amplified, and used to drive a loudspeaker.

23 Color signal conveys picture information for each of the RGB components of an image Not simply transmitted as three separate signals, because Monochrome receivers Three times the bandwidth of existing television Problems with signal transmission

24 The RGB signals are converted into YUV form Y signal represents the lightness and darkness (luminance) of the colors in the image. The Y signal is ideal for transmission as the luminance signal.

25 The U and V signals are "color difference" signals The U signal is the difference between the B signal and the Y signal The V signal is the difference between the R signal and the Y signal Advantage of this scheme

26 Two demodulators X demodulator Z demodulator Color difference signals are further matrixed into three color difference signals.

27 R, G, B signals in the receiver are electronically derived by matrixing Low resolution portion of the Y signal cancel out The higher resolution portions of the Y signals do not cancel out

28 U and V are transmitted by using quadrature amplitude modulation Before transmission, the subcarrier, a 3.58 MHz sine wave, is removed from the active portion of the video Subcarrier sidebands that carry all the information of U and V signals are produced

29 The subcarrier sidebands are known as "Chroma" or "chrominance". It is a 3.58 MHz sine wave which changes phase as compared to the subcarrier according to the changing values of U and V representing hue of the color It also changes amplitude which represents the approximate saturation of a color

30 The chrominance signal represents only the U signal, after 70 ns V signal, 70 ns later U and 70 later V To extract U, a synchronous demodulator samples the Chroma every 280 nanoseconds The output is a train of discrete pulses having amplitude same as original U(discrete time analog samples) The pulses are low-pass filtered (analog continuous time signal) To extract V, a 90 degree shifted subcarrier samples the Chroma signal every 280 nanoseconds

31 The mentioned process uses the subcarrier HOW?!! The receiver must reconstitute the subcarrier. Color burst, is transmitted during the back porch of each scan line Phase-locked loop (oscillator) locks onto the signal to achieve a phase reference Such a process causes poor color reproduction due to phase errors in the received signal

32 Synchronizing pulses added to the video signal at the end of every scan line video frame remains locked to reconstruct the image

33 The Sync signal separator circuit separates the composite signal into 2 signals. a sync separator circuit detects the sync voltage levels Loss of horizontal synchronization results in an unwatchable picture Loss of vertical synchronization produces an image rolling up or down the screen.

34 Signals the beginning of each new video line. A back porch, which is used as a reference level to remove any DC components from the floating (AC-coupled) video signal. For composite color signals, the clamping occurs during the horizontal sync pulse

35 It is a series of pulses that occur between fields to signal the monitor and prepare to scan the next field. Some lines contain only HSYNC pulses, while others contain VSYNC pulses

36 Changes to the image are kept in step with the vertical synchronization pulse to avoid visible discontinuity of the image. If the image is updated with a new one while being transmitted, the display shows a mishmash of both frames

37 Vertical synchronization times frame buffer to ensure that only whole frames are seen on screen. the program has to wait until the video controller finishes transmitting the image Triple buffering reduces this latency significantly.

38 Channel selector switch The fine tuning control The hold control The brightness control The contrast control The volume and tone controls

39 the-various-methods-of-tv-transmission -system/tv-television-transmitter

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