Extending the Usable Range of Error Vector Magnitude Testing

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1 t a m V Design file: MSFT DIFF CLOCK WITH TERMINATORREV2.FFS Designer: Microsoft HyperLynx V8.0 Comment: 650MHz at clk input, J10, fixture attached Time (ps) Date: Wednesday Mar. 3, 2010 Time: 14:16:09 V [U3.1 (at pin)] OSCILLOSCOPE V ol g e- Extending the Usable Range of Error Vector Magnitude Testing Chris Ziomek, ZTEC Instruments, Dr. Matthew Hunter, ZTEC Instruments, Silicon Valley Test Conference

2 AGENDA Wireless Trends WLAN Overview WLAN Compliance Testing EVM Measurements Test Equipment Silicon Valley Test Conference

3 WIRELESS TRENDS video + wireless connectivity = higher wireless data rates required Application Max Data Rate (Mbps) Videoconference 0.5 Streaming internet video 8 HD video 25 Blu Ray 40 Uncompressed video 3730 Silicon Valley Test Conference

4 WIRELESS TRENDS 5G Wi-Fi (WLAN) ac, up to 7 Gbps, Now! 160 MHz bandwidth, up to 8X8 MIMO 4G Cellular LTE-Advanced, over 1 Gbps, MHz bandwidth, up to 4X4 MIMO, HetNet WiGig ad, up to 7 Gbps, 2014? 2 GHz bandwidth, 60 GHz spectrum (point-to-point) Silicon Valley Test Conference

5 WLAN TRENDS Enterprise WLAN replacing wired LAN Hotspots Public & private Airports, libraries, etc. Home PC connectivity Cell phones, laptops Streaming video (TV, tablets, etc.) -AnandLalShimpi, AnandTech Silicon Valley Test Conference

6 WLAN TRENDS Record $1.7B WLAN infrastructure sales in Q (14% YOY growth) Nearly 500,000 WLAN devices were shipped to service providers in 2011 (170% YOY growth) Largest vertical markets in the 2nd half of 2011: Education 22%, Healthcare 14%, Enterprise 12% Shipments of ac SOHO WLAN devices in 2012 and Enterprise WLAN devices in 2013 Dell Oro Group, Feb. 29, 2012 In-Stat projects >1B ac devices to ship by 2015 Silicon Valley Test Conference

7 AGENDA Wireless Trends WLAN Overview WLAN Compliance Testing EVM Measurements Test Equipment Silicon Valley Test Conference

8 WLAN OVERVIEW OFDM Subcarriers Silicon Valley Test Conference

9 WLAN OVERVIEW network standards Frequency Bandwidth Data rate per stream MIMO Release protocol (GHz) (MHz) (Mbit/s) streams Modulation - Jun DSSS, FHSS a Sep , OFDM b Sep DSSS g Jun OFDM, DSSS n Oct , OFDM ac (draft) Nov OFDM Silicon Valley Test Conference

10 802.11ac OVERVIEW Up to 6.93 Gb/s (160 MHz, MCS 9, 8 streams, short Guard Interval) Uses less crowded 5 GHz spectrum ac Features Item Mandatory Optional Channel Bandwidth 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz 160 MHz, MHz Data Subcarriers 52, 108, Modulation Coding Schemes MCS 0 to 7 MCS 8 & 9 Modulation Types BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 256QAM PPDU Format Very High Throughput (VHT) MIMO Streams 1 2 to 8 MIMO Features Beamforming Multi-User MIMO 5170 MHz 5330 MHz 5490 MHz 5710 MHz 5735 MHz 5835 MHz IEEE channel # 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz MHz Silicon Valley Test Conference

11 AGENDA Wireless Trends WLAN Overview WLAN Compliance Testing EVM Measurements Test Equipment Silicon Valley Test Conference

12 TX COMPLIANCE TESTING Spectrum Mask Spectral Flatness Peak Power Center Frequency Error Symbol Clock Frequency Error Center Frequency Leakage Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Modulation Coding Rate Relative Constellation Error or EVM BPSK 1/2-5 db (56.2%) QPSK 1/2-10 db (31.6%) QPSK 3/4-13 db (22.4%) 16-QAM 1/2-16 db (15.8%) 16-QAM 3/4-19 db (11.2%) 64-QAM 2/3-22 db (7.94%) 64-QAM 3/4-25 db (5.62%) 64-QAM 5/6-27 db (4.47%) 256-QAM 3/4-30 db (3.16%) 256-QAM 5/6-32 db (2.51%) Silicon Valley Test Conference

13 TX COMPLIANCE TESTING Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) + Protocol Analysis Software Silicon Valley Test Conference

14 RX COMPLIANCE TESTING Minimum Input Level Sensitivity Maximum Input Level Adjacent Channel Rejection (ACR) Non-Adjacent Channel Rejection Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Sensitivity Modulation Coding Rate Minimum Sensitivity 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz BPSK 1/2-82 dbm -79 dbm -76 dbm -73 dbm QPSK 1/2-79 dbm -76 dbm -73 dbm -70 dbm QPSK 3/4-77 dbm -74 dbm -71 dbm -68 dbm 16-QAM 1/2-74 dbm -71 dbm -68 dbm -65 dbm 16-QAM 3/4-70 dbm -67 dbm -64 dbm -61 dbm 64-QAM 2/3-66 dbm -63 dbm -60 dbm -57 dbm 64-QAM 3/4-65 dbm -62 dbm -59 dbm -56 dbm 64-QAM 5/6-64 dbm -61 dbm -58 dbm -55 dbm 256-QAM 3/4-59 dbm -56 dbm -53 dbm -50 dbm 256-QAM 5/6-57 dbm -54 dbm -51 dbm -48 dbm Silicon Valley Test Conference

15 RX COMPLIANCE TESTING Vector Signal Generator (VSG) + Protocol Generation Software Silicon Valley Test Conference

16 AGENDA Wireless Trends WLAN Overview WLAN Compliance Testing EVM Measurements Test Equipment Silicon Valley Test Conference

17 EVM MEASUREMENTS Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Comprehensive measurement of RF performance Requires VSG + VSA + Protocol software Impairments I/Q imbalance Noise Distortion Phase noise Spurious signals Silicon Valley Test Conference

18 EVM OPTIMIZATION Phase Imbalance Magnitude Imbalance I/Q Balanced Silicon Valley Test Conference

19 EVM OPTIMIZATION Noise & Distortion Tradeoff Silicon Valley Test Conference

20 EVM OPTIMIZATION Phase Noise (-2dB side lobe = -2dB EVM) Silicon Valley Test Conference

21 AGENDA Wireless Trends WLAN Overview WLAN Compliance Testing EVM Measurements Test Equipment Silicon Valley Test Conference

22 TEST EQUIPMENT Vector Signal Generator (VSG) Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) Silicon Valley Test Conference

23 TEST EQUIPMENT Example RF Test Set 6 GHz VSG + 6 GHz VSA EVM-optimized states PXIe modular instruments PXIe throughput (250 MB/s) Fast embedded processing Open-source software Backplane synchronization Silicon Valley Test Conference

24 TEST EQUIPMENT Residual EVM Limits DUT EVM measurement floor Limited by test equipment noise & distortion Wider bandwidth = degraded EVM (noise) Advanced Techniques I/Q imbalance correction Channel estimation (preamble only, preamble + pilot + data) Thru calibration Spectral shaping Digital pre-distortion Silicon Valley Test Conference

25 EVM FLOOR Silicon Valley Test Conference

26 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES I/Q imbalance correction Channel estimation (preamble only, preamble + pilot + data) Thru calibration Silicon Valley Test Conference

27 SPECTRAL SHAPING EVM optimized (-53dB EVM) ACP optimized (-48dB EVM) Silicon Valley Test Conference

28 DIGITAL PRE DISTORTION DPD using VSG(s) Requires 3-5x modulation bandwidth Single broadband VSG or multiple combined VSGs Crest factor spectral shaping is an alternative solution - James Sills, Intersil Silicon Valley Test Conference

29 CONCLUSION EVM is a powerful measurement technique for comprehensive and efficient RFIC testing Test equipment selection and setup is critical to achieve the best EVM-based testing performance There are a number of techniques that assist in test equipment setup for minimizing residual EVM of the test equipment These techniques allow the measurement of the EVM contribution of just the DUT over a broad range of test conditions Silicon Valley Test Conference

30 Q&A Questions? Contact Information Chris Ziomek, Dr. Matthew Hunter, Supplemental Application Note Thank You! Silicon Valley Test Conference

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