1 Assessing and Measuring VCR Playback Image Quality, Part 1. Leo Backman/DigiOmmel & Co. Assessing analog VCR image quality and stability requires dedicated measuring instruments. Still, standard metrics developed for testing video signal in broadcasting environment are not directly applicable for non-broadcast VCRs. Part 1. of this study discusses the visibility of low-frequency dynamic errors affecting VCR playback signal. The quality and stability of a VCR playback video signal is unavoidably affected by various electrical, magnetic and mechanical factors. Some errors have impinged on the signal already at the recording process. Identification of the nature, cause and typical magnitudes of these errors can offer solutions to reduce the dominant dynamic errors in non-broadcast video tape digital transfer process. First, video signal measurement and quality assessment methods and practises are discussed. The use of narrow-band spectrum analysis for identifying VCR noise problems are also demonstrated and discussed.
2 Comparing an electronically generated video test-pattern with VCR playback readily shows how the overall image stability is determined by the level of dynamic errors in the video signal. The most significant factors are time-base errors, or video jitter, luminance amplitude noise and chrominance modulation noise. We will tackle them in three stages: jitter, luminance, and chrominance noise, starting with the jitter. Jitter visibility In order to get some visual proof of how jitter actually corrupts the playback image, we constructed a test setup around high-stability video generator (Philips PM5570) and used it as a signal source. The generator was modified so that and external signal could be injected into the time-base oscillator as jitter simulation (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Jitter simulation test setup. With the setup, jitter of freely variable amplitude, frequency distribution and waveform could be caused to the otherwise 'noiseless' video signal (better than 75dB unweighted S/N ratio). First we established the level (percentage) at which jitter just becomes visible on the monitor screen. This was done at optimum conditions in terms of ambient lighting and monitor viewing distance. With random noise as jitter signal, the absolute detection level (ADL) was found at about 0.008% (peak). For a more extensive ADL analysis, various types of signals were used. Next, a sine wave jitter at various spot-frequencies were generated. Below 350Hz, the ADL varied by 13dB (1:4.4), depending on its exact frequency. It was established that the visual jitter instability is at its lowest at video field frequency (50Hz) and its even multiples (100, 150, 200 Hz etc.). As expected, jitter at odd multiples of the line frequency (25, 75, 125, 175 Hz etc.) becomes most visible (Fig. 2).
3 Figure 2. The absolute jitter detection level or ADL varies significantly between odd multiples of the video signal field frequency (50Hz). To examine the ADL variation between odd an even-frequency jitter more closely, we made measurements at 2.5-Hz increments discovering that, from 25 to 75Hz, the ADL does not change symmetrically but rather peaks at precisely even multiples (Fig. 3). This measurement was made to see how resonances and other instabilities unrelated to video signal field frequency might affect the image stability. From these observations, it can be deduced that low-frequency jitter is least visible when its spectral distribution is 'synchronised' with the field frequency. Figure 3. A spot-frequency measurement of low-frequency jitter visibility shows that the variation in ADL is not symmetrical from 25 to 75 Hz, but peaks rather sharply at 50 Hz.
4 The explanation for odd/even-frequency variation in ADL is obvious: Jitter at even multiples of field frequency causes no horizontal displacement of the picture content between successive fields. Even at high levels of jitter, vertical lines and image details still appear horizontally at the same place on the screen, only slightly 'bent'. With odd-multiple jitter, however, the image details appear at two horizontal places causing a noticeable 25-Hz flicker (Fig. 4). Figure 4. The same level of jitter at odd an even multiples appear very different on a monitor screen. Standard weighting curves These findings confirmed our assumption that the visibility of low-frequency jitter should not be assessed as any random error. At least two attempts were made by the IEC, to create standard weighting curve for VCR jitter. The earliest (IEC-511, 1975) sets limits for highest acceptable jitter vs. frequency. It simply imposes lower limit to jitter frequencies between about 50 and 1.5kHz. Figure 5. IEC-511 sets limits to highest acceptable jitter vs. frequency. IEC-756 defines suitable weighting curve for jitter measurements. The JVC Company obviously adopted the latter as their factory specification.
5 The IEC-756 (1983) however, takes the opposite approach by defining the appropriate weighting curve for VCR jitter measurement (Fig. 5). As a measure of visual video image stability, both standards are rather unsuccessful. There may be two VCRs with almost 1:5 disparity in their peak jitter percentage, still appearing visually equal in terms of image stability. If a visually corresponding jitter weighting is adopted, we should expect to look something like the one drawn in Fig. 6. Figure. 6 A jitter weighting curve relating to the visual annoyance with CCIR 625/50 video signal. Jitter and noise are inseparable Random noise, mixed additively with composite video signal, including synchronization pulses, has both amplitude and time quantity. Any amplitude noise, added to the video signal, will also generate jitter; and any jitter in the video signal will be seen as noise on TV screen. We demonstrate this claim by recording and playing back a test pattern with a semi-professional VCR having an exceptionally low luminance S/N ratio (approx. 50dB unweighted). Our test pattern has a single vertical line, superimposed on a black-level background. The test generator itself, as noted, adds no visible amplitude noise. In this arrangement, the visibility of the amplitude noise in the video signal is minimised. Figure 7. Jitter visibility test signal photographed from a CRT screen (left). The 'indicator' line is horizontally time-expanded to show how jitter alone creates edge noise at sharp vertical lines, even when the luminance amplitude noise is invisible.
6 Our claim how jitter without amplitude noise causes considerable image noise is depicted in Fig. 7. Jitter from VCR s tape transport broadens bright vertical lines and sharp contours, making them appear as blurred and noisy. This phenomenon has been referred to as 'edge noise'. So, jitter alone can turn a lownoise video image into a noisy one. In summary, a high-stability video playback requires not just high S/N ratio, but also a fairly low jitter that is concentrated at even-multiples of the video field frequency. Wide-band amplitude noise, giving rise to video jitter or frequency noise was demonstrated by yet another experiment. The video generator was connected to a luminance noise meter and jitter analyser (Fig. 1). The ratio of an amplitude noise to video signal was gradually decreased from 75dB to 20dB, while marking down the jitter readings. The plot in Fig. 8 shows that a VCR, having an unweighted S/N ratio of 40dB, may be accurately measured for wide-band jitter down to about 0.055% (peak). If a zero-luminance test signal is used, or the VCR S/N ratio is only 35dB, the jitter accuracy decreases to about 0.11% (peak). This test serves to show that, if possible, a full white field should be used for jitter testing unless one desires to measure jitter and S/N mixed together! Figure 8. The S/N ratio and luminance level of a video signal determines the accuracy of jitter measurement. One method of measuring VCR jitter is to plot the line sync pulse frequency deviation across the entire video frame (40 msec). The jitter naturally always peaks at video head switching point, set at some 5-10 lines before the start of field-blanking period (Fig. 9).
7 Figure 9. Jitter value depends very much on how it is measured. This measurement, however, disregards the fact that the blanking period is basically never displayed on the screen. The blanking periods last about 1.7 msec and are placed well before the next 'visible' field begins. Modern video monitors and TV sets are quite capable of completely time-correcting such linefrequency 'jumps' due to video head switchover. Dedicated jitter meters gate the jitter from blanking periods before measuring the jitter percentage. However, when gating or blanking continuous jitter signal as per Fig. 9, is used, the jitter level will be reduced and its spectrum altered. Figure 10. While jitter can be reduced significantly with an impedance roller between 100 and 800Hz, the roller is not effective below 100Hz or above 900 Hz. Mechanical means to reduce video jitter by dampening tape resonances have been used by adding an 'inertial' or 'impedance' roller near the video head cylinder tape exit and entrance points. A result jitter spectrum of one such VCR is shown in Fig. 10, with the roller engaged and disengaged. Added inertia can indeed reduce video jitter significantly bweteen 100 and about 800 Hz.
8 Measuring luminance noise Next, our test generator-monitor-luminance noise meter setup was used to determine how the luminance level (brightness) affects the visibility of amplitude noise on TV screen. In the viewing sessions, we came up with a curve drawn in Fig. 11. The sessions were conducted at optimum conditions (viewing distance and ambient lighting). As expected, the luminance noise is most visible at mid-grey levels, or video amplitudes between 20 to 30%. The curve also shows that an unweighted noise visibility limit for the CCIR PAL signal stands at an S/N ratio of around 53dB. So, a video image with an S/N figure of more than 53dB, looks exactly as noise-free' as the one having an S/N of 65, 75, or 85dB. Incidentally, it was only in the early 1990s, when the IEC revised its standard for S/N measurement from 50 to 30% video levels. Figure 11. This S/N visibility curve implies that the noise should be assessed and measured an amplitude of 20-30%. Most VCR testers used CCIR-Rec-567 weighting filter for luminance S/N measurement. However, the filter was already outdated. In any case, weighted S/N measurements were originally meant for testing TV broadcasting networks and other professional video systems. Fig. 12 shows how the weighting filter ignores the visibility of the upper portion of luminance video noise.
9 Figure 12. The CCIR-567 weighting filter ignores a significant part of the mid- and high-frequency luminance noise. Considering the proliferation of large TV screen sizes and ever-increasing screen resolutions, the use of weighting is misleading; it attenuates a portion of the high-frequency noise that is revealed by modern monitor and TV screens. Weighted S/N figures can give wrong impression of a non-broadcast VCRs, too. Fig. 13 shows two measurements of the luminance noise spectra from VCRs with an overlaid CCIR-567 weighting filter. A significant portion of the 1 to 3-MHz noise would be cut down by the filter, giving rather similar S/N readings. Still, the 'BR-6600E' produces visibly noisier playback image against the 'AG-7330'. The narrow 'spikes' in the spectra do not significantly contribute to RMS noise. Figure 13. Luminance noise spectra of two semi-professional VCRs. Measuring chrominance noise Chrominance noise measurement involves rather complex pre-processing of the video signal being analyzed. A chroma noise meter has band-pass filter to separate the 4.43-MHz subcarrier from composite video signal. The noise is measured as two modulation components of the subcarrier: amplitude and phase. In PAL signal, both AM and PM manifest as amplitude or de-saturation noise on the screen.
10 The AM and PM are typically found to have low correlation in analog VCRs. so, each should be analysed individually. All consumer-grade VCR formats such as Beta, VHS, Video8, Video2000 and even U-matic, employ a 'colour under' signal format. On recording, the 4.43MHz PAL standard chrominance signal is down-converted into a carrier located between 0.5 and 1MHz. The chroma signal also contains short bursts that serve as colour phase and level correction during playback. Burst signals are important; any time or amplitude error impinging on the burst also deteriorate the demodulated colour image by almost as much as any noise in the actual (displayed) part of the colour signal. On playback, the LF chroma carrier converted back to 4.43MHz. Upconversion also alters the chroma signal. An AM carrier, recorded at 0.5 MHz cannot theoretically contain any color information beyond 0.5MHz. Noise meters pre-condition composite video signal prior to measuring because, unlike in continuous audio signal, video signal is serrated by constant-amplitude field and line blanking periods, with their respective synchronization pulses and chrominance burst signals placed between each line period. Because of the line-synchronised phase-alternation of standard PAL chroma signal, noise measurement requires even more processing than the NTSC signal (Fig. 14). The IEC-883 (Measuring method for chrominance signal-to-random noise ratio for video tape recorders), defines the basic procedure. Still, it leaves much to interpretation. Figure 14. Chrominance AM/PM noise measurement method, according to IEC-883. For instance, many test engineers used 1, 10, or even 100-kHz high-pass filters in their chroma S/N measurements despite of the fact that the most visible LF chroma noise in any VCR occurs below 4 khz (Fig. 15). In order to study the basic low-frequency chroma noise visibility vs. frequency, we modified our video test pattern generator once more. This time, an external signal was injected into the generator s chroma subcarrier oscillator. Now we had a video signal source that could be set to produce controlled amounts of AM or PM noise at any frequency.
11 Figure 15. Gating causes aliasing of the chroma noise signal spectra. The chroma noise between 25Hz to 4kHz is the region of interest as it causes flicker in the colour image. Noise above 4 khz only slightly reduces colour saturation. Figure 16. This measurement shows why high-pass filters should not be used in VCR chroma noise measurements. Surprisingly, the spot-frequency experiment showed chroma noise ADL frequency-dependency at opposite field-frequency multiples to the jitter frequency ADL! One possibility for this is seen in Fig. 17, where the complex relationship between chroma subcarrier frequency and the resulting PM noise is presented.
12 Figure 17. Chroma PM noise can either double in frequency or increase considerably in amplitude depending on its static frequency. It seems the chroma noise, appearing at multiples of field frequency can become decoded in different ways depending on the exact subcarrier frequency. Although a full explanation this could not be confirmed at this time, we can conclude that VCR low-frequency chroma noise components should be assessed individually (AM, PM). Figure 18. A presentation of how chroma PM noise may appear on a TV or video monitor screen (red-field test pattern).
13 Figure 19. Jitter, AM and PM noise spectra of a single VCR show that all three dynamic error mechanisms can have very low correlation, and should be assessed individually. Finally, Fig. 20 illustrates how two VCRs, that produce a numerically equal amount of chroma LF noise, but differ significantly it terms of actual visibility of the noise. In VCR B, most of it appears at even multiples of the video field frequency, thus making the color flicker considerably less visible than in VCR A, where the dominant noise appears at disturbing odd multiples (25, 75, 125, 175, 225 Hz). Figure 20. Comparison of two VCRs with odd and even-multiples of LF chroma noise. The color image from VCR B has a much lower visible flicker than VCR A, even though their absolute S/N figures are quite similar. Conclusion The above tests and graphics show that a high-resolution spectrum analysis in connection with video jitter and noise meters are needed to produce objective and comparable results of how different VCRs actually perform in terms of playback image quality and stability. Part 2. of this instalment compares practical chroma noise measurements of different non-broadcast VCRs formats, and discusses their implications in order to improve digital capture of old VCR recordings.
14 Copying, alteration and redistribution of the textual or pictorial content of this document is prohibited without the author s permission. Note: Most of these tests and evaluations were conducted in the s, during the home VCR 'era', with the intention of establishing proper metrics for evaluating consumer-grade VCR video image quality. Back then, the writer was not able to actually conduct all the measurements to prove or disprove these theories. That is why some more recent measurement data were added. Leo Backman, July, 2005 (preliminary draft, March, 1983)
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