DIGITAL SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS (ECE421) DIGITAL ELECTRONICS FUNDAMENTAL (ECE422) COUNTERS


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1 COURSE / CODE DIGITAL SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS (ECE421) DIGITAL ELECTRONICS FUNDAMENTAL (ECE422) COUNTERS One common requirement in digital circuits is counting, both forward and backward. Digital clocks and watches are everywhere, timers are found in a range of appliances from microwave ovens to VCRs, and counters for other reasons are found in everything from automobiles to test equipment. Although there many variations on the basic counter, they are all fundamentally very similar. Counters can be implemented quite easily using registertype circuits such as the flipflop, and a wide variety of designs exist: 1. Asynchronous (ripple) counter changing state bits are used as clocks to subsequent state flipflops 2. Synchronous counter all state bits change under control of a single clock 3. Decade counter counts through ten states per stage 4. Up down counter counts both up and down, under command of a control input 5. Ring counter formed by a shift register with feedback connection in a ring 6. Johnson counter a twisted ring counter 7. Cascaded counter Each is useful for different applications. Usually, counter circuits are digital in nature, and count in binary, or sometimes binary coded decimal (BCD). Many types of counter circuit are available as digital building blocks, for example a number of chips in the 4000 series implement different counters. Asynchronous Counters This type of counter produces a prescribed sequence of states upon the application of clock pulses. The clock pulse triggers the first flipflop, and the output of the next flipflop is used to trigger the next flipflop, and so on. There is not much of design steps required, since the flipflops are all in the toggle mode, that is, J = K = 1. Shown below is a twobit asynchronous binary counter. For the flipflops, the SET and CLR inputs are set to 0 and the flip flops are using negative edge trigger clock. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 1
2 Exercise: What would be the counting sequence if the output is taken from the Q output? Shown below is a threebit asynchronous binary counter. For the flipflops, the SET and CLR inputs are set to 0 and the flip flops are using positive edge trigger clock. Exercise 1: What would be the count if the output is taken from the Q output? Exercise 2: For the following asynchronous counters, determine the count sequence. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 2
3 Exercise 3: What is the count if the JK flipflops is negative edge triggered? What is the count if the JK flipflops is positive edge triggered? BCD or Decade Counter A BCD counter or decade counter can be constructed from a straight asynchronous binary counter by terminating the "ripplethrough" counting when the count reaches decimal 9 (binary 1001). Since the next toggle would set the two most significant bits, a NAND gate tied from those two outputs to the asynchronous clear line will start the count over after 9. Observe that the JK inputs are set to 1 (HIGH), which means the flipflops are in toggle mode. Note: If the CLR and SET is an active HIGH inputs, then the gate used will be a AND gate. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 3
4 Exercise 1 a) Explain the differences between a combinational with a sequential logic circuit. b) What are the advantages of sequential logic circuit over combinational logic circuit? c) Why JK flipflops are called the universal flipflop? d) Why are asynchronous counters are called ripple counters? Disadvantages of Asynchronous Counters: An extra resynchronizing output flipflop may be required. To count a truncated sequence not equal to 2 n, extra feedback logic is required. Counting a large number of bits, propagation delay by successive stages may become undesirably large. This delay gives them the nickname of Propagation Counters. Counting errors occur at high clocking frequencies. Synchronous Counters are faster and more reliable as they use the same clock signal for all flipflops. Synchronous Counters The output bit of the counter change state simultaneously, with no ripple. The design is such that the clock inputs for all the flipflops are connected together, so that each and every flipflop receives the exact same clock pulse at the exact same time. Now, the question is, what need to be done with the J and K inputs if the output is to be counting in a certain sequence? Design procedures of Synchronous Counters Example: To design a synchronous counter that counts 1,2,3,5,7, Problem specifications Highest count = 7, meaning requires 3 flip flops (7 = 1112) Call it flipflop A, B, C Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 4
5 2. Draw the State Diagram. The arrow indicates a clock pulse and the counter changes state. 3. Construct the State Table. The unused states can be assigned as don t care (x means don t care state) or any state in the sequence. Present Present State State Next State Next State Count A B C Count A B C x x x x x x The unused states 0, 4 and 6 since it is not in the counting sequence is assigned as don t care. 4. FlipFlop Excitation Table (Textbook Method) Requires the flipflop excitation map, in this case the JK flipflop. Present State A B C Next State A B C JA KA JB KB JC KC x x x x x x x x 1 x x x x 0 1 x x x 1 x x x x x x x x x 0 1 x x x x x x x x x x 1 x 1 x 0 5. Flipflop excitation maps. Since the flipflop has two inputs J and K, separate map is drawn for each input. AB AB C C x 0 x x 0 x x x x x x 1 x x 1 0 JA=BC KA=B AB AB C C x x x x 0 x 0 x x 1 1 x x 1 1 x 1 1 x JB=1 KB=C Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 5
6 AB AB C C x 1 x x 0 x x x x 1 x x x x Implementation of the counter using JK flipflops. Complete the circuit. JC=1 KC= A B Note: The textbook method is tedious and may cause errors during the preparation of the excitation table, also the desired flipflop excitation map must be available during the process for reference. The flipflop excitation maps also are then drawn for both inputs separately (for JK and SR flipflops), adding to the complexity. If the same counter is to be implemented with a different flipflop, say D flipflop, the whole process is repeated using D flipflop excitation map. The Universal Map Method This method will simplify the process of designing a counter. It is simpler, almost error free, requires only one flipflop excitation and can be used for all flipflops without the need to repeat the process. 1. Excitation Map Make similar maps as Kmap, one for each state. Then fill up for each state according to the following symbols, there is no need for the flipflop excitation map. Present State A B C Next State A B C FLIP FLOP A FLIP FLOP B FLIP FLOP C x x x x α β α α β x x x x α x x x x β β 1 AB AB AB C C C x 0 x x 0 x 1 x x 0 x α x x 1 0 α β 1 1 α β β α 1 β Flipflop A Flipflop B Flipflop C Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 6
7 2. FlipFlop input expressions (Flipflops excitations) The rule for reading the input expressions for the JK flip flop is as follows: For J input: must read all α, optional read β, 1, x, but must not read 0. For K input: must read all β, optional read α, 0, x, but must not read 1. Thus, giving: JA=BC JB=1 JC=1 KA=B KB=C KC= A B If the counter is to be redesigned using D flipflop, there is no need to draw the excitation map again. Use the same excitation map in step 4, and the input excitation for the D flipflops can be found using the following rules. This is the main advantage of using the Universal map method as compared to the textbook method. For example, to implement the counter using D flipflops, then by referring to the flipflop excitation map above and following the rules for D flipflop: DA= ABC AB DB= B C DC= A B Exercise: Determine the flip flop excitation for the counter if T flip flops were used. Exercise 1 Verify that the synchronous counter below is a 3 bit up counter as shown by the timing diagram. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 7
8 Exercise 2 What does the following circuit do? Determine its output. UpDown Counters Both Synchronous and Asynchronous counters are capable of counting Up or counting Down, but there is another more Universal type of counter that can count in both directions either Up or Down depending on the state of their input control pin and these are known as Bidirectional Counters. Bidirectional counters, also known as Up/Down counters, are capable of counting in either direction through any given count sequence and they can be reversed at any point within their count sequence by using an additional control input as shown below. The design of the updown counter is the same as the design of universal synchronous counter as shown above except that there is now an input to the counter which controls the counting sequence. PRESENT NEXT UP/*DOWN QA QB QC QA QB QC Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 8
9 Exercise 1: Show the design of the 3 bit updown counter above using Universal Map method. The Shift Register The Shift Register is another type of sequential logic circuit that can be used for the storage or the transfer of data in the form of binary numbers. This sequential device loads the data present on its inputs and then moves or shifts it to its output once every clock cycle, hence the name Shift Register. A shift register basically consists of several single bit DType Data Latches, one for each data bit, either a logic 0 or a 1, connected together in a serial type daisychain arrangement so that the output from one data latch becomes the input of the next latch and so on. Data bits may be fed in or out of a shift register serially, that is one after the other from either the left or the right direction, or all together at the same time in a parallel configuration. The number of individual data latches required to make up a single Shift Register device is usually determined by the number of bits to be stored with the most common being 8bits (one byte) wide constructed from eight individual data latches. Shift Registers are used for data storage or for the movement of data and are therefore commonly used inside calculators or computers to store data such as two binary numbers before they are added together, or to convert the data from either a serial to parallel or parallel to serial format. The individual data latches that make up a single shift register are all driven by a common clock ( Clk ) signal making them synchronous devices. Shift register IC s are generally provided with a clear or reset connection so that they can be SET or RESET as required. Generally, shift registers operate in one of four different modes with the basic movement of data through a shift register being: Serialin to Parallelout (SIPO)  the register is loaded with serial data, one bit at a time, with the stored data being available at the output in parallel form. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 9
10 Serialin to Serialout (SISO)  the data is shifted serially IN and OUT of the register, one bit at a time in either a left or right direction under clock control. Parallelin to Serialout (PISO)  the parallel data is loaded into the register simultaneously and is shifted out of the register serially one bit at a time under clock control. Parallelin to Parallelout (PIPO)  the parallel data is loaded simultaneously into the register, and transferred together to their respective outputs by the same clock pulse. The effect of data movement from left to right through a shift register can be presented graphically as: Also, the directional movement of the data through a shift register can be either to the left, (left shifting) to the right, (right shifting) leftin but rightout, (rotation) or both left and right shifting within the same register thereby making it bidirectional. In this tutorial it is assumed that all the data shifts to the right, (right shifting). Serialin to Parallelout (SIPO) Shift Register 4bit Serialin to Parallelout Shift Register The operation is as follows. Let s assume that all the flipflops ( FFA to FFD ) have just been RESET ( CLEAR input ) and that all the outputs QA to QD are at logic level 0 i.e., no parallel data output. If a logic 1 is connected to the DATA input pin of FFA then on the first clock pulse the output of FFA and therefore the resulting QA will be set HIGH to logic 1 with all the other outputs still remaining LOW at logic 0. Assume now that the DATA input pin of FFA has returned LOW again to logic 0 giving us one data pulse or The second clock pulse will change the output of FFA to logic 0 and the output of FFB and QB HIGH to logic 1 as its input D has the logic 1 level on it from QA. The logic 1 has now moved or been shifted one place along the register to the right as it is now at QA. When the third clock pulse arrives this logic 1 value moves to the output of FFC (QC) and so on until the arrival of the fifth clock pulse which sets all the outputs QA to QD back again to logic level 0 because the input to FFA has remained constant at logic level 0. The effect of each clock pulse is to shift the data contents of each stage one place to the right, and this is shown in the following table until the complete data value of is stored in the register. This data value can now be read directly from the outputs of QA to QD. Then the data has been converted from a serial data input signal to a parallel data output. The truth table and following waveforms show the propagation of the logic 1 through the register from left to right as follows. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 10
11 Basic Data Movement Through a Shift Register Note that after the fourth clock pulse has ended the 4bits of data ( ) are stored in the register and will remain there provided clocking of the register has stopped. In practice the input data to the register may consist of various combinations of logic 1 and 0. Commonly available SIPO IC s include the standard 8bit 74LS164 or the 74LS594. Serialin to Serialout (SISO) Shift Register This shift register is very similar to the SIPO above, except were before the data was read directly in a parallel form from the outputs QA to QD, this time the data is allowed to flow straight through the register and out of the other end. Since there is only one output, the DATA leaves the shift register one bit at a time in a serial pattern, hence the name Serialin to SerialOut Shift Register or SISO. The SISO shift register is one of the simplest of the four configurations as it has only three connections, the serial input (SI) which determines what enters the left hand flipflop, the serial output (SO) which is taken from the output of the right hand flipflop and the sequencing clock signal (Clk). The logic circuit diagram below shows a generalized serialin serialout shift register. 4bit Serialin to Serialout Shift Register You may think what s the point of a SISO shift register if the output data is exactly the same as the input data. Well this type of Shift Register also acts as a temporary storage device or it can act as a time delay device for the data, with the amount of time delay being controlled by the number of stages in the register, 4, 8, 16 etc or by varying the application of the clock pulses. Commonly available IC s include the 74HC595 8bit Serialin to Serialout Shift Register all with 3state outputs. Parallelin to Serialout (PISO) Shift Register The Parallelin to Serialout shift register acts in the opposite way to the serialin to parallelout one above. The data is loaded into the register in a parallel format in which all the data bits enter their inputs simultaneously, to the parallel input pins PA to PD of the register. The data is then read out sequentially in the normal shiftright mode from the register at Q representing the data present at PA to PD. This data is outputted one bit at a time on each clock cycle in a serial format. It is important to note that with this type of data register a clock pulse is not required to parallel load the register as it is already present, but four clock pulses are required to unload the data. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 11
12 4bit Parallelin to Serialout Shift Register As this type of shift register converts parallel data, such as an 8 bit data word into serial format, it can be used to multiplex many different input lines into a single serial DATA stream which can be sent directly to a computer or transmitted over a communications line. Commonly available IC s include the 74HC166 8bit Parallelin/Serialout Shift Registers. Parallelin to Parallelout (PIPO) Shift Register The final mode of operation is the Parallelin to Parallelout Shift Register. This type of shift register also acts as a temporary storage device or as a time delay device similar to the SISO configuration above. The data is presented in a parallel format to the parallel input pins PA to PD and then transferred together directly to their respective output pins QA to QA by the same clock pulse. Then one clock pulse loads and unloads the register. This arrangement for parallel loading and unloading is shown below. 4bit Parallelin to Parallelout Shift Register The PIPO shift register is the simplest of the four configurations as it has only three connections, the parallel input (PI) which determines what enters the flipflop, the parallel output (PO) and the sequencing clock signal (Clk). Similar to the Serialin to Serialout shift register, this type of register also acts as a temporary storage device or as a time delay device, with the amount of time delay being varied by the frequency of the clock pulses. Also, in this type of register there are no interconnections between the individual flipflops since no serial shifting of the data is required. Universal Shift Register Today, there are many high speed bidirectional universal type Shift Registers available such as the TTL 74LS194, 74LS195 or the CMOS 4035 which are available as 4bit multifunction devices that can be used in either serialtoserial, left shifting, right shifting, serialtoparallel, paralleltoserial, or as a paralleltoparallel multifunction data register, hence the name Universal. These universal shift registers can perform any combination of parallel and serial input to output operations but require additional Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 12
13 inputs to specify desired function and to preload and reset the device. A commonly used universal shift register is the TTL 74LS194 as shown below. 4bit Universal Shift Register 74LS194 Universal shift registers are very useful digital devices. They can be configured to respond to operations that require some form of temporary memory storage or for the delay of information such as the SISO or PIPO configuration modes or transfer data from one point to another in either a serial or parallel format. Universal shift registers are frequently used in arithmetic operations to shift data to the left or right for multiplication or division. Ring Counters In the previous shift register discussion above, we saw that if we apply a serial data signal to the input of a Serialin to Serialout Shift Register, the same sequence of data will exit from the last flip flop in the register chain. This serial movement of data through the resister occurs after a preset number of clock cycles thereby allowing the SISO register to act as a sort of time delay circuit to the original input data signal. But what if we were to connect the output of this shift register back to its input so that the output from the last flipflop, QD becomes the input of the first flipflop, DA. We would then have a closed loop circuit that recirculates the same bit of DATA around a continuous loop for every state of its sequence, and this is the principal operation of a Ring Counter. Then by looping the output back to the input, (feedback) we can convert a standard shift register circuit into a ring counter. Consider the circuit below. 4bit Ring Counter The synchronous Ring Counter example above, is preset so that exactly one data bit in the register is set to logic 1 with all the other bits reset to 0. To achieve this, a CLEAR signal is firstly applied to all the flipflops together in order to RESET their outputs to a logic 0 level and then a PRESET pulse is applied to the input of the first flipflop (FFA) before the clock pulses are applied. This then places a single logic 1 value into the circuit of the ring counter. So on each successive clock pulse, the counter circulates the same data bit between the four flipflops over and over again around the ring every fourth clock cycle. But in order to cycle the data correctly around the counter we must first load the counter with a suitable data pattern as all logic 0 s or all logic 1 s outputted at each clock cycle would make the ring counter invalid. This type of data movement is called rotation, and like the previous shift register, the effect of the movement of the data bit from left to right through a ring counter can be presented graphically as follows along with its timing diagram: Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 13
14 Rotational Movement of a Ring Counter Since the ring counter example shown above has four distinct states, it is also known as a modulo4 or mod4 counter with each flipflop output having a frequency value equal to onefourth or a quarter (1/4) that of the main clock frequency. The MODULO or MODULUS of a counter is the number of states the counter counts or sequences through before repeating itself and a ring counter can be made to output any modulo number. A modn ring counter will require n number of flipflops connected together to circulate a single data bit providing n different output states. For example, a mod8 ring counter requires eight flipflops and a mod16 ring counter would require sixteen flipflops. However, as in our example above, only four of the possible sixteen states are used, making ring counters very inefficient in terms of their output state usage. Johnson Ring Counter The Johnson Ring Counter or Twisted Ring Counters, is another shift register with feedback exactly the same as the standard Ring Counter above, except that this time the inverted output Q of the last flipflop is now connected back to the input D of the first flipflop as shown below. The main advantage of this type of ring counter is that it only needs half the number of flipflops compared to the standard ring counter then its modulo number is halved. So a nstage Johnson counter will circulate a single data bit giving sequence of 2n different states and can therefore be considered as a mod2n counter. 4bit Johnson Ring Counter This inversion of Q before it is fed back to input D causes the counter to count in a different way. Instead of counting through a fixed set of patterns like the normal ring counter such as for a 4bit counter, 0001 (1), 0010 (2), 0100 (4), 1000 (8) and repeat, the Johnson counter counts up and then down as the initial logic 1 passes through it to the right replacing the preceding logic 0. A 4bit Johnson ring counter passes blocks of four logic 0 and then four logic 1 thereby producing an 8bit pattern. As the inverted output Q is connected to the input D this 8bit pattern continually repeats. For example, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011, 0001, 0000 and this is demonstrated in the following table below. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 14
15 Truth Table for a 4bit Johnson Ring Counter As well as counting or rotating data around a continuous loop, ring counters can also be used to detect or recognize various patterns or number values within a set of data. By connecting simple logic gates such as the AND or the OR gates to the outputs of the flipflops the circuit can be made to detect a set number or value. Standard 2, 3 or 4stage Johnson Ring Counters can also be used to divide the frequency of the clock signal by varying their feedback connections and divideby3 or divideby5 outputs are also available. For example, a 3stage Johnson Ring Counter could be used as a 3phase, 120 degree phase shift square wave generator by connecting to the data outputs at A, Band NOTB. The standard 5stage Johnson counter such as the commonly available CD4017 is generally used as a synchronous decade counter/divider circuit. Other combinations such as the smaller 2stage circuit which is also called a Quadrature (sine/cosine) Oscillator or Generator can be used to produce four individual outputs that are each 90 degrees outofphase with respect to each other to produce a 4phase timing signal as shown below. 2bit Quadrature Generator As the four outputs, A to D are phase shifted by 90 degrees with regards to each other, they can be used with additional circuitry, to drive a 2phase fullstep stepper motor for position control or the ability to rotate a motor to a particular location as shown below. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 15
16 Stepper Motor Control 2phase (unipolar) FullStep Stepper Motor Circuit The speed of rotation of the Stepper Motor will depend mainly upon the clock frequency and additional circuitry would be require to drive the power requirements of the motor. Cascaded Counters Just as parallel combinational logic devices can be expanded to create a wider parallel device, counters can be cascaded to create counters with higher moduli, or ranges of count values. How counters are cascaded depends upon the basic counter type. Asynchronous Cascaded Counters Because all but the first flipflop in an asynchronous counter uses an output of the preceding counter as its clock, you can cascade asynchronous counters by simply connecting the MSB output of one counter to the clock of the next. In effect, this is how you create a 4bit counter with the 74LS93. If the counter you wish to cascade has N bits and the added counter has M bits, the new counter will have (N + M) bits and a maximum count of 2 N+M. Synchronous Cascaded Counters Cascading a synchronous counter requires more care than cascading an asynchronous counter. The counter being added to the existing counter circuit shares the same clock line but must increment its count ONLY when the preceding counter rolls over from its terminal count back to 0. Most IC counters like the 74HC163 have a terminal or maximum count signal to enable the next counter, but if this is not the case, the cascaded counter design must include the decoding logic to provide one. Mohd Uzir Kamaluddin / Aug 2016 page 16
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