1 TEACHING RESOURCES SCHEMES OF WORK DEVELOPING A SPECIFICATION COMPONENT FACTSHEETS HOW TO SOLDER GUIDE SEE AMAZING LIGHTING EFFECTS WITH THIS COLOUR CHANGING USB LAMP KIT Version 2.1
2 Index of Sheets TEACHING RESOURCES Index of Sheets Introduction Schemes of Work Answers The Design Process The Design Brief Investigation / Research Developing a Specification Design Design Review (group task) Soldering in Ten Steps Resistor Values LEDs & Current Limit Resistors Evaluation Packaging Design ESSENTIAL INFORMATION Build Instructions Checking Your USB Lamp PCB How the USB Lamp Works Designing the Enclosure Online Information
3 Introduction About the project kit Both the project kit and the supporting material have been carefully designed for use in KS3 Design and Technology lessons. The project kit has been designed so that even teachers with a limited knowledge of electronics should have no trouble using it as a basis from which they can form a scheme of work. The project kits can be used in two ways: 1. As part of a larger project involving all aspects of a product design, such as designing an enclosure for the electronics to fit into. 2. On their own as a way of introducing electronics and electronic construction to students over a number of lessons. This booklet contains a wealth of material to aid the teacher in either case. Caution: Shorting of the red and black wire on the USB cable could result in damage to the PC to which it is connected. All kits should be checked carefully once built so that this does no occur. Using the booklet The first few pages of this booklet contains information to aid the teacher in planning their lessons and also covers worksheet answers. The rest of the booklet is designed to be printed out as classroom handouts. In most cases all of the sheets will not be needed, hence there being no page numbers, teachers can pick and choose as they see fit. Please feel free to print any pages of this booklet to use as student handouts in conjunction with Kitronik project kits. Support and resources You can also find additional resources at There are component fact sheets, information on calculating resistor and capacitor values, puzzles and much more. Kitronik provide a next day response technical assistance service via . If you have any questions regarding this kit or even suggestions for improvements, please us at: Alternatively, phone us on
4 Schemes of Work Two schemes of work are included in this pack; the first is a complete project including the design & manufacture of an enclosure for the kit (below). The second is a much shorter focused practical task covering just the assembly of the kit (next page). Equally, feel free to use the material as you see fit to develop your own schemes. Before starting we would advise that you to build a kit yourself. This will allow you to become familiar with the project and will provide a unit to demonstrate. Complete product design project including electronics and enclosure Hour 1 Hour 2 Hour 3 Hour 4 Hour 5 Hour 6 Hour 7 Hour 8 Introduce the task using The Design Brief sheet. Demonstrate a built unit. Take students through the design process using The Design Process sheet. Homework: Collect examples of lighting products including some lamps. List the common features of these products on the Investigation/ Research sheet. Develop a specification for the project using the Developing a Specification sheet. Resource: Sample of lamps and lighting products. Homework: Using the internet or other search method, find out what is meant by design for manufacture. List five reasons why design for manufacture should be considered on any design project. Read Designing the Enclosure sheet. Develop a product design using the Design sheet. Homework: Complete design. Using cardboard, get the students to model their enclosure design. Allow them to make alterations to their design if the model shows any areas that need changing. Split the students into groups and get them to perform a group design review using the Design Review sheet. Using the Soldering in Ten Steps sheet, demonstrate and get students to practice soldering. Start the Resistor Value worksheet and work through the information on LEDs& Current Limit Resistors. Homework: Complete any of the remaining resistor tasks. Build the electronic kit using the Build Instructions. Complete the build of the electronic kit. Check the completed PCB and fault find if required using the Checking Your USB Lamp PCB section. Homework: Read How the USB Lamp Works sheet in conjunction with the LED sheet. Hour 9 Build the enclosure. Hour 10 Build the enclosure. Hour 11 Build the enclosure. Hour 12 Using the Evaluation and Improvement sheet, get the students to evaluate their final product and state where improvements can be made. Additional Work Package design for those who complete ahead of others.
5 Electronics only Hour 1 Hour 2 Hour 3 Introduction to the kit demonstrating a built unit. Using the Soldering in Ten Steps sheet, practice soldering. Build the kit using the Build Instructions. Check the completed PCB and fault find if required using Checking Your USB Lamp PCB. Answers Resistor questions 1st Band 2nd Band Multiplier x Value Brown Black Yellow 100,000 Ω Green Blue Brown 560 Ω Brown Grey Yellow 180,000Ω Orange White Black 39Ω Value 1st Band 2nd Band Multiplier x 180 Ω Brown Grey Brown 3,900 Ω Orange White Red 47,000 (47K) Ω Yellow Violet Orange 1,000,000 (1M) Ω Brown Black Green
6 The Design Process The design process can be short or long, but will always consist of a number of steps that are the same on every project. By splitting a project into these clearly defined steps, it becomes more structured and manageable. The steps allow clear focus on a specific task before moving to the next phase of the project. A typical design process is shown on the right. Design brief What is the purpose or aim of the project? Why is it required and who is it for? Investigation Research the background of the project. What might the requirements be? Are there competitors and what are they doing? The more information found out about the problem at this stage, the better, as it may make a big difference later in the project. Specification This is a complete list of all the requirements that the project must fulfil - no matter how small. This will allow you to focus on specifics at the design stage and to evaluate your design. Missing a key point from a specification can result in a product that does not fulfil its required task. Design Develop your ideas and produce a design that meets the requirements listed in the specification. At this stage it is often normal to prototype some of your ideas to see which work and which do not. Design Brief Investigation Specification Design Build Evaluate Improve Build Build your design based upon the design that you have developed. Evaluate Does the product meet all points listed in the specification? If not, return to the design stage and make the required changes. Does it then meet all of the requirements of the design brief? If not, return to the specification stage and make improvements to the specification that will allow the product to meet these requirements and repeat from this point. It is normal to have such iterations in design projects, though you normally aim to keep these to a minimum. Improve Do you feel the product could be improved in any way? These improvements can be added to the design.
7 The Design Brief A manufacturer has developed a simple circuit for producing a lamp that is powered by plugging it into a USB port of a computer. The circuit has been developed to the point where they have a working Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The manufacturer would like ideas for a product that can be created by designing an enclosure for this PCB. For example the lamp could be used for lighting a document, making it easier to read, or the lamp could also be used to create some form of mood lighting. The manufacturer has asked you to do this for them. It is important that you make sure the final design meets all the requirements that you identify for such a product. Complete circuit A fully built circuit is shown below.
8 Investigation / Research Using a number of different search methods, find examples of similar products that are already on the market. Use additional pages if required. Name Class
9 Developing a Specification Using your research into the target market for the product, identify the key requirements for the product and explain why each of these is important. Name Class Requirement Reason Example: The enclosure should allow Example: So that the lamp can be turned on and off. access to the on / off switch.
10 Design Develop your ideas to produce a design that meets the requirements listed in the specification. Name Class
11 Design Review (group task) Split into groups of three or four. Take it in turns to review each person s design against the requirements of their specification. Also look to see if you can spot any additional aspects of each design that may cause problems with the final product. This will allow you to ensure that you have a good design and catch any faults early in the design process. Note each point that is made and the reason behind it. Decide if you are going to accept or reject the comment made. Use these points to make improvements to your initial design. Comment Reason for comment Accept or Reject
12 USB Lamp Kit Teaching Resources Soldering In Ten Steps 1. Start with the smallest components working up to the taller components, soldering any interconnecting wires last. 2. Place the component into the board, making sure that it goes in the right way around and the part sits flush against the board. 3. Bend the leads slightly to secure the part. 4. Make sure that the soldering iron has warmed up and if necessary, use the damp sponge to clean the tip. 5. Place the soldering iron on the pad. 6. Using your free hand, feed the end of the solder onto the pad (top picture). 7. Remove the solder, then the soldering iron. 8. Leave the joint to cool for a few seconds. 9. Using a pair of cutters, trim the excess component lead (middle picture). 10. If you make a mistake heat up the joint with the soldering iron, whilst the solder is molten, place the tip of your solder extractor by the solder and push the button (bottom picture). Solder joints Good solder joint Too little solder Too much solder
13 Resistor Values A resistor is a device that opposes the flow of electrical current. The bigger the value of a resistor, the more it opposes the current flow. The value of a resistor is given in Ω (ohms) and is often referred to as its resistance. Identifying resistor values Band Colour 1st Band 2nd Band Multiplier x Tolerance Silver % Gold 10 5% Black Brown % Red % Orange Yellow ,000 Green ,000 Blue 6 6 1,000,000 Violet 7 7 Grey 8 8 White 9 9 Example: Band 1 = Red, Band 2 = Violet, Band 3 = Orange, Band 4 = Gold The value of this resistor would be: 2 (Red) 7 (Violet) x 1,000 (Orange) = 27 x 1,000 = 27,000 with a 5% tolerance (gold) = 27KΩ Too many zeros? Kilo ohms and mega ohms can be used: 1,000Ω = 1K 1,000K = 1M Resistor identification task Calculate the resistor values given by the bands shown below. The tolerance band has been ignored. 1st Band 2nd Band Multiplier x Value Brown Black Yellow Green Blue Brown Brown Grey Yellow Orange White Black
14 Calculating resistor markings Calculate what the colour bands would be for the following resistor values. Value 1st Band 2nd Band Multiplier x 180 Ω 3,900 Ω 47,000 (47K) Ω 1,000,000 (1M) Ω What does tolerance mean? Resistors always have a tolerance but what does this mean? It refers to the accuracy to which it has been manufactured. For example if you were to measure the resistance of a gold tolerance resistor you can guarantee that the value measured will be within 5% of its stated value. Tolerances are important if the accuracy of a resistors value is critical to a design s performance. Preferred values There are a number of different ranges of values for resistors. Two of the most popular are the E12 and E24. They take into account the manufacturing tolerance and are chosen such that there is a minimum overlap between the upper possible value of the first value in the series and the lowest possible value of the next. Hence there are fewer values in the 10% tolerance range. E-12 resistance tolerance (± 10%) E-24 resistance tolerance (± 5 %)
15 LEDs & Current Limit Resistors Before we look at LEDs, we first need to start with diodes. Diodes are used to control the direction of flow of electricity. In one direction they allow the current to flow through the diode, in the other direction the current is blocked. An LED is a special diode. LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. LEDs are like normal diodes, in that they only allow current to flow in one direction, however when the current is flowing the LED lights. The symbol for an LED is the same as the diode but with the addition of two arrows to show that there is light coming from the diode. As the LED only allows current to flow in one direction, it's important that we can work out which way the electricity will flow. This is indicated by a flat edge on the LED. For an LED to light properly, the amount of current that flows through it needs to be controlled. To do this we use a current limit resistor. If we didn t use a current limit resistor the LED would be very bright for a short amount of time, before being permanently destroyed. To work out the best resistor value we need to use Ohms Law. This connects the voltage across a device and the current flowing through it to its resistance. Ohms Law tells us that the flow of current (I) in a circuit is given by the voltage (V) across the circuit divided by the resistance (R) of the circuit. V I = R Like diodes, LEDs drop some voltage across them: typically 1.8 volts for a standard LED. However the high brightness LED used in the white light version of the lamp drops 3.5 volts. The USB lamp runs off the 5V supply provided by the USB connection so there must be a total of 5 volts dropped across the LED (V LED) and the resistor (V R). As the LED manufacturer s datasheet tells us that there is 3.5 volts dropped across the LED, there must be 1.5 volts dropped across the resistor. (V LED + V R = = 5V). LEDs normally need about 10mA to operate at a good brightness. Since we know that the voltage across the current limit resistor is 1.5 volts and we know that the current flowing through it is 0.01 Amps, the resistor can be calculated. Using Ohms Law in a slightly rearranged format: V 1.5 R = = = 150Ω I 0.01 Hence we need a 150Ω current limit resistor.
16 LEDs Continued The Colour Changing LEDs used in the colour version of the lamp has the current limit resistor built into the LED itself. Therefore no current limit resistor is required. Because of this, a zero Ω resistor is used to connect the voltage supply of 5V directly to the Colour Changing LED. Packages LEDs are available in many shapes and sizes. The 5mm round LED is the most common. The colour of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual colour of light emitted but not always with high brightness LEDs. Advantages of using LEDs over bulbs Some of the advantages of using an LED over a traditional bulb are: Power efficiency LEDs use less power to produce the same amount of light, which means that they are more efficient. This makes them ideal for battery power applications. Long life LEDs have a very long life when compared to normal light bulbs. They also fail by gradually dimming over time instead of a sharp burn out. Low temperature Due to the higher efficiency of LEDs, they can run much cooler than a bulb. Hard to break LEDs are much more resistant to mechanical shock, making them more difficult to break than a bulb. Small LEDs can be made very small. This allows them to be used in many applications, which would not be possible with a bulb. Fast turn on LEDs can light up faster than normal light bulbs, making them ideal for use in car break lights. Disadvantages of using LEDs Some of the disadvantages of using an LED over a traditional bulb are: Cost Drive circuit Directional LEDs currently cost more for the same light output than traditional bulbs. However, this needs to be balanced against the lower running cost of LEDs due to their greater efficiency. To work in the desired manner, an LED must be supplied with the correct current. This could take the form of a series resistor or a regulated power supply. LEDs normally produce a light that is focused in one direction, which is not ideal for some applications. Typical LED applications Some applications that use LEDs are: Bicycle lights Car lights (break and headlights) Traffic lights Indicator lights on consumer electronics Torches Road signs Information displays Household lights Clocks Backlights on flat screen TVs and displays
17 Evaluation It is always important to evaluate your design once it is complete. This will ensure that it has met all of the requirements defined in the specification. In turn, this should ensure that the design fulfils the design brief. Check that your design meets all of the points listed in your specification. Show your product to another person (in real life this person should be the kind of person at which the product is aimed). Get them to identify aspects of the design, which parts they like and aspects that they feel could be improved. Good aspects of the design Areas that could be improved Improvements Every product on the market is constantly subject to redesign and improvement. What aspects of your design do you feel you could improve? List the aspects that could be improved and where possible, draw a sketch showing the changes that you would make.
18 Packaging Design If your product was to be sold in a high street electrical retailer, what requirements would the packaging have? List these giving the reason for the requirement. Requirement Reason Develop a packaging design for your product that meets these requirements. Use additional pages if required.
19 ESSENTIAL INFORMATION BUILD INSTRUCTIONS CHECKING YOUR PCB & FAULT-FINDING MECHANICAL DETAILS HOW THE KIT WORKS SEE AMAZING LIGHTING EFFECTS WITH THIS COLOUR CHANGING USB LAMP KIT Version 2.1
20 USB Lamp Kit Essentials Build Instructions Before you start, take a look at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The components go in the side with the writing on and the solder goes on the side with the tracks and silver pads. 1 PLACE RESISTORS Start with the resistor R1. The text on the PCB shows where R1 should go. It doesn t matter which way around the resistor goes into the board. PCB Ref Value Colour Bands R1 0Ω Black 2 Place the Light Emitting Diode into LED1. The LED won t work if it doesn t go in the right way around. If you look carefully one side of the LED has a flat edge, which must line up with the flat edge on the outline on the PCB. You can mount this facing up from the board, or if you prefer you can mount it at 90º angle to the PCB. To do this you will need to put a 90º bend into the LED legs, just make sure that you bend it so that the flat edge on the LED is next to the flat edge on the board. Once you are happy, solder it into place. 3 PLACE LED Solder the PCB Mount Right Angled On / Off Slide Switch into SW1. The row of three pins that exit the back of the switch must be soldered but it will not matter too much if you can t solder the other two pins. 4 SOLDER THE SWITCH CONNECT THE POWER LEAD Finally, the USB power lead needs to be connected. Feed the red and black wire of the lead through the strain relief hole. The red wire of the USB power cable is soldered to the power connector labelled Red and the black wire of the USB power cable is soldered to the power connector labelled Black.
21 USB Lamp Kit Essentials Checking Your USB Lamp PCB Check the following before you plug your lamp into a USB port. Check the bottom of the board to ensure that: All holes (except the two large mounting holes) are filled with the lead of a component. All these leads are soldered. Pins next to each other are not soldered together. Check the top of the board to ensure that: The flat edge on the LED matches the outline on the PCB. The red wire on the USB power cable is connected to the power connector labelled Red and the black wire on the USB power cable is connected to the power connector labelled Black. How the USB Lamp Works The circuit diagram for the USB lamp is shown above. It is a very simple circuit. The 5V that powers the circuit is supplied from the USB connector. LEDs can be damaged if the current through them is not limited. A 0Ω resistor is used with the Colour Changing LED. This is because the required current limit resistor is built into the LED itself, therefore, we simply want to connect this LED directly to the 5V supply. Finally, the on / off switch allows the circuit to be opened and closed: open the switch to turn the LED off and close the switch to turn the LED on.
22 USB Lamp Kit Essentials Designing the Enclosure When you design the enclosure, you will need to consider: The size of the PCB. Where the LED is mounted (shown in the top right corner of the PCB). Where the on / off switch is mounted. There are two 3.3mm holes in the corners of the PCB to secure the PCB in the enclosure. This technical drawing of the built USB lamp PCB should help you design your enclosure. The 2 mounting holes are 3.3mm diameter. The diameter of the LED is 5mm and the total height of the unit approximately 11mm. Mounting the PCB to the enclosure The drawing to the left shows how a hex spacer can be used with two bolts to fix the PCB to the enclosure. Your PCB has two mounting holes designed to take M3 bolts.
23 Online Information Two sets of information can be downloaded from the product page where the kit can also be reordered from. The Essential Information contains all of the information that you need to get started with the kit and the Teaching Resources contains more information on soldering, components used in the kit, educational schemes of work and so on and also includes the essentials. Download from: This kit is designed and manufactured in the UK by Kitronik Every effort has been made to ensure that these notes are correct, however Kitronik accept no responsibility for issues arising from errors / omissions in the notes. Kitronik Ltd - Any unauthorised copying / duplication of this booklet or part thereof for purposes except for use with Kitronik project kits is not allowed without Kitronik s prior consent.
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T-1 (3mm) Blinking LED Lamp DESCRIPTIONS The Bright Red source color devices are made with Gallium Phosphide Red Light Emitting Diode Electrostatic discharge and power surge could damage the LEDs It is
126 Package Warm White Chip LED Technical Data Sheet Part No.: S15W-W6-1E Spec No.: S15 Rev No.: V.3 Date: Jul./1/26 Page: 1 OF 11 Features: Package in 8mm tape on 7 diameter reel. Compatible with automatic
Circuit Prototyping OBJECTIVES In this lab you will create a prototype of an electronic speed sensor that you will use to measure the speed of the roller coaster ball on your roller coaster. The lab has
www.greenelectricalsupply.com MaxLite 6 & 8 Commercial Downlight Retrofit General Safety Information To reduce the risk of death, personal injury or property damage from fire, electric shock, falling parts,
LEARN HOW TO SEW A CIRCUIT WITH THIS E-TEXTILES STARTER PACK WHITE LEDs BLUE LEDs LARGE COIN CELL MINIATURE COIN CELL SEWABLE ELECTRONICS INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRO-FASHION Electro-Fashion is Kitronik's own
Nixie Clock Kit V1.08 Assembly and Operation Hardware Revision 14.05.2005 Software Version 6.0 Revision 19.04.2006 This document is copyrighted. No parts of this documentation may be used commercially.
Nixie Clock Kit IN-B color LED backlit Operation Manual Nixie Clock Kit IN-B V. ( All Right Reserved ) - - Operation Manual IN-B Nixie Clock Power for your Nixie Clock The clock does not include a wall
dmx led effects OWNER'S MANUAL KIT INCLUDES 3M VHB Mounting Pad Mounting Hardware PART # 40040 IMPORTANT It is strongly recommended that this product be installed by a professional. 1. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION...3
Owners SW-LCD 2.0 Manual & Specifications Contents 1. Preface. 19 2. Appearance and Size.20 2.1 Material and Color 20 2.2 Display Size and Installation Size 20 3. Function Summary and Button Definition