1 Mr. Cunningham s Expository text project Book due September _You will have turn in dates on Tunitin.com for some of the more important sections to see how you are doing. These will be graded. October First1/4 Sections 1-3 November 5-6 2/4 due of book due Sections 4-6 November Audience Purpose revisited December 12th Book done : two best examples of section eight through twelve Presentations Dec 16-17th
2 By December 12th you should be done with your expository text and be prepared with a power point presentation to give in class on December 16 th or 17 th. You will present to four other students in the class on that day and they will give you a complete grade. For each section you should have two (minimum) quotations with page numbers and an analytical paragraph for each quotation written in correct MLA form with parenthetical citations and correctly integrated quotations. In addition there should be a clear, concise analytical topic sentence and concrete specific commentary for each example that you use to prove your topic.
3 Section Rhetorical triangle: Apply this in general to your book Have two representative examples (quotations or indirect references) from the text with commentary on the author values, the implied understanding of the audience s belief s and the primary message (so far) in the text. Message: Purpose What might the author be hoping to accomplish through this piece of writing? Do you detect an agenda that the author may have in mind? Audience Whom may the author have had in mind when writing this piece? How do you envision the primary audience for the piece of writing? Communicator: Ethos ( character ) Convincing the reader by the character of the author: Conveyed through tone and style of writer. Can be based on the writer s reputation, experience, or expertise. Can be based on the writer s integrity and honesty.
4 Can be revealed through writer s respectability and likeability. Can appeal to patriotic or religious values. Section two-three: Appeals Pathos: Appeal to Emotion Does the author use examples or language that is designed to stir up feelings of compassion, fear, anger, etc. in the audience? Consider whether this type of persuasion is fair and also whether it s effective. Affects the reader s emotional response to the text: Attempts to play on our needs, desires, fears, and insecurities. Appeals to our imagination and sympathies. Created through use of vivid examples and emotionally charged diction. Uses narrative and personal anecdo Logos: Appeal to Logic Does the author make use of facts and figures, the testimony of witnesses or experts, or some other logicbased argument? (literally word ; also understood as topic ) What are the facts? Data Expert testimony Statistics Eye Witness Testimonials Evidence Logical Reasoning: Induction and Deduction Ethos: Appeal to Ethics (Author s Credibility) Is the author someone who knows his or her stuff? Does she/he associate herself/himself in some way with other authorities on the subject? Does the author have some authority in her/his own right? How does the author turn that authority into an advantage?use at least two quotations for each appeal with anayslsis to prove the author s appeal. Section Four and Five: Structure a. You should have two -three concrete examples on each section and a general examination and analysis of structure as it relates to purpose.
5 Organization, Structure, Form Is the piece organized chronologically or spatially? Does the writer use a method of Narration, Description, Example, Comparison/ Contrast, Process Analysis, Cause and Effect, Definition, Argument, or Persuasion? Are certain paragraphs long or short? Types of Writing Narrative Persuasive Expository Descriptive Exposition: Is the author defining, comparing, classifying, analyzing (a process), describing, or narrating? Persuasion: Is the author arguing about what something means, whether something is true, which alternative is the best (or most important), or what course of action someone should take? General: What is the author trying to accomplish? How is the writer using e.g., narrative to solve that problem?how does the author show us what he/she means? What sorts of examples, evidence, or details are given to show us the significance of what he/she is trying to say? Does the author present all sides of an issue or just a few? Why might he/she have chosen to just focus on those points (and not the hundred other ones he/she left out)? b. Organization Compare/Contrast Importance Chronology Cause-Effect Order of degree Classification Spatial Which organizational pattern does the author use? Why does the author choose to use that particular organizational strategy? Are there places where the author blends or alternates between different organizational patterns? If so, what is the author trying to accomplish by mixing them in these ways? c.to what extent and in what ways do you think the author s organizational strategy is effective? Is the book a collection of interrelated pieces or separate articles. Is there a purpose in the entire book and are the
6 articles ior chapter organized to achieve that purpose? SECTION SIX AND SEVEN-Revisiting SPEAKER AND AUDIENCE: Introduce the material and explain its context. Who is the author? What is his or her background (social class, nationality, etc.) and personal characteristics (life experience, age, occupation, gender, sexual orientation, political beliefs, religious beliefs, etc.)? How does this information affect your understanding of the text? Does the author tell you anything directly about him/herself? Does he/she imply some personal information that isn t stated directly? Why might the author have done this? Audience -Who did the author write the piece for? To whom does the author seem to be speaking in the piece? Are you a member of this group? What beliefs does the author assume the audience shares with him or her? Where and how does the author make these assumptions explicit? Where does he/she imply them? SECTION EIGHT THROUGH ELEVEN OR TWELVE Rhetorical devices -You should have four to five sections on the most important rhetorical devices, with examples of each (three to four quotations for each device and a clear analysis of each device and how it relates to the author s purpose). This is the key element of analysis. Theessence of analysis is telling the reader how a device is used and why an author chose that device.how: To answer how, you need to understand how a device ingeneral works. Theglossary includes an explanation of how each device works. Some generic how questions to get you thinking: How does this device work in general? How does it work here? What effect does it have on the audience? How does it develop the thesis and purpose? Possible devices Does the tone shift through the book? Diction Diction Low or informal (e.g., dialect, slang, or jargon) Elevated or formal language Abstract and concrete diction Denotation and connotation What effect is the author trying to achieve through the use of a specific type of diction? What does the author s use of diction suggest about his or hear attitude toward the subject, event, or character?
7 What are the connotations of a given word used in a particular context? From Jim Burke s Style Analysis handout Types Slang Colloquial Jargon Dialect Concrete Abstract Denotation Connotation Which of the following categories best describes the diction in the passage or text? o Low or informal (e.g., dialect, slang, or jargon) o Elevated or formal language o Abstract and concrete diction o Denotation and connotation What effect is the author trying to achieve through the use of a specific type of diction? What does the author s use of diction suggest about his or hear attitude toward the subject, event, or character? What are the connotations of a given word used in a particular context? (To begin, you might ask if the word(s) have a positive or negative connotation, then consider them in the specific context.) What words would best describe the diction in a specific passage or the text in general? event? Syntax Sentence structure Sentence patterns Declarative Imperative Interrogative Exclamatory Simple Compound Complex Comp-Complex Loose/Cumulative Periodic Balanced Inversion
8 Interruption Juxtaposition Parallelism Repetition Punctuation: How does the author punctuate the sentence and to what extent does the punctuation affect the meaning? Structure: How are words and phrases arranged within the sentence? What is the author trying to accomplish through this arrangement? How would you characterize the author s syntax in this text? Changes: Are there places where the syntax clearly changes? If so, where, how, and why? Sentence length: How many words are in the different sentences? Do you notice any pattern (e.g., a cluster of short sentences of a particular type)? Devices: How would you describe the author s use of the following: o Independent and dependent clauses o Coordinating, subordinating, or correlative conjunctions o Repetition o Parallelism o Fragments o Comparisons Sentence beginnings: How does the author begin his or her sentences? (Does the author, for example, consistently begin with introductory phrases or clauses? Language: What use does the author make of figurative language or colloquial expression and why? What is the importance and meaning of this change? What words best describe the different use of these elements? For example, how would you describe the point of view and the effect it has on the meaning of the text ImageryImagery Anything that can be related to with one of the five senses. If you can smell it, touch it, taste it, see it, or hear it, it s an image. Image connects a reader to an idea because it is a physical thing. It can be used to create emotion in a reader as well. What sensory information do I find in the language: color, scents, sounds, tastes, or textures? What is the author trying to convey or achieve by using this imagery? Are these images part of a larger pattern or structure within the text (e.g., does it connect to one of the major themes)? What figures of speech metaphors, similes, analogies, personification does the writer use? How
9 do they affect the meaning of the text? What is the author trying to accomplish by using them? EXTENDED METAPHOR: (Rhetorical Device): A metaphor that is extended and used throughout an essay. You return to it multiple times and use it to develop your thesis. This can work like analogy to teach, or it can create humor, sarcasm, or tone. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: These devices deviate from the standard meaning of words in order to create a special effect. Metaphor, simile, and personification are the most common forms. See metaphor, simile, personification. POINT OF VIEW & VIEWPOINT: In narratives, you choose 1st (I, we), 2nd (you) or 3rd (he, she, it, they) for your point of view. You also choose a viewpoint character. Who is telling this narrative? Point of View can be used to sympathize with one side, to create distance, or to create closeness. GLOSSARY OF RHETORICAL DEVICES ACTION & DIALOGUE: (Rhetorical Devices): Action shows us something as it s happening. Dialogue is a conversation between two people in your narrative. These are used to create scenes in a narrative; they take a reader into a specific moment. ALLUSION: (Rhetorical Device): A reference to a person, event, or place in history, religious texts, or literature. For example: The Garden of Eden is an allusion to the place in Genesis and often symbolizes perfection. It is used to connect ideas to literary or historical ideas, often to emphasize the validity of the idea. ANALOGY (Rhetorical Device): Uses comparison to develop an idea. Unlike metaphor and simile, it looks for like things to compare. It is used to illustrate or develop simile, it looks for like things to compare. It is used to illustrate or develop something hard to describe. ANAPHORA: (Rhetorical Device): The repetition of the first few words in a series of sentences. Martin Luther King Jr. s speech I Have a Dream is an example of this. It creates emphasis and rhythm for a piece of writing. ANEDCOTE: (Rhetorical Device): A very short story (usually a paragraph) used to illustrate a point. Usually contains action & dialogue and is longer than an example. Often used in expository essays to develop an idea. Used in persuasive essays as one method of developing pathos. It can also be used as a hook to draw a reader into a story. CLICHÉ: A dead metaphor. For example: Love is like a rose. It can be used ironically, but is typically avoided by good writers. CONNOTATION: The implied or contextual meaning of a word. (See denotation.)
10 DEDUCTIVE REASONING: In persuasion, this is a logical reasoning process that starts with general claims and then moves to specific instances to prove those claims. For example: Drag racing is harmful; last week a police officer was killed by drag racers. (See inductive reasoning.) This is used to argue logically. DENOTATION: The dictionary definition of a word. (See connotation.) DICTION: (Rhetorical Device): Word choice. Choice of words is one way in which to establish ethos in persuasion. Diction develops tone and style. DIRECT QUOTATION: (Rhetorical Device): In Research: Directly copying someone else s words and then citing it. (See paraphrase.) If the person quoted is an expert this can be used to validate a point or idea. It is often used in persuasion. ESTABLISH COMMON GROUND: (Rhetorical Device created through other devices): In persuasion, this is used to establish commonality with the opposing side. This is not a stand alone device because it s created through the use of other devices. You might offer facts or statements that help create this. This is important in helping convince your opponent to listen to your side. ETHOS: This is one corner of the rhetorical triangle. In persuasion, this is the ethical appeal. It is created through devices (such as quotes from experts, personal credentials, establishment of common ground, avoidance of logical fallacies) to create this ethical appeal. A writer aims to make a reader trust him/her by creating ethos.(see logos and pathos.) EXAMPLE: (Rhetorical Device): An example proves or develops your thesis. In expository essays it helps us understand a concept. In persuasion, it s used as evidence to prove a point. Example is typically shorter than an anecdote one or to sentences as opposed to a paragraph (it also doesn t contain any scene material such as action or dialogue). This can create interest or emotion in a reader. EXTENDED METAPHOR: (Rhetorical Device): A metaphor that is extended and used throughout an essay. You return to it multiple times and use it to develop your thesis. This can work like analogy to teach, or it can create humor, sarcasm, or tone. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: These devices deviate from the standard meaning of words in order to create a special effect. Metaphor, simile, and personification are the most common forms. See metaphor, simile, personification. HOOK: (Rhetorical Device created through other devices): This device is created through the use of other devices such as anecdotes, quotes, startling fact, shocking statement, etc. Used to draw a reader into your essay.
11 IMAGE: (Rhetorical Device): Anything that can be related to with one of the five senses. If you can smell it, touch it, taste it, see it, or hear it, it s an image. Image connects a reader to an idea because it is a physical thing. It can be used to create emotion in a reader as well. INDUCTIVE REASONING: In persuasion, this is a logical reasoning process that uses specific facts to arrive at general principals. For example: If drag racing drivers end up in accidents, then drag racing is harmful. (See deductive reasoning.) This is used to argue logically. KEY EVENTS: In a narrative, these are the events you use to create scenes. These events directly develop the thesis. directly develop the thesis. LOGICAL FALLCIES: Problems in logical argument. Include: hasty generalizations, non sequiturs, false analogies, either or fallacies, bandwagon appeals, etc. An author may use these to try and unfairly convince a reader of something. LOGOS: This is one corner of the rhetorical triangle. In persuasion, this is the logicall appeal. It is created through devices (such as facts, statistics, quotes from experts, refutation, and deductive and inductive reasoning) to create this logical appeal. (See pathos and ethos.) This creates a logical argument. METAPHOR: (Rhetorical Device): The comparison of two or more unlike things. This is a direct comparison and creates a transformation. For example: She is an aspen, slim in the wind. The tenor is she or the woman being described, and the vehicle is the aspen the image used to describe the tenor. Metaphor aims to change our understanding of something by comparing it to something unexpected. You can transform an idea or thing with a comparison. For example, if I said he is black ice then I am suggesting he is dangerous and you may not see him coming. Metaphor is stronger than simile. PATHOS: This is one corner of the rhetorical triangle. In persuasion, this is the emotional appeal. It is created through devices (such as anecdote and image) to create this emotional appeal. (See logos and ethos.) This creates an emotional argument. PERSONIFICATION: (Rhetorical Device): The act of giving human attributes to inanimate objects. For example: The rock wept for weeks following the storm. This is used to help a reader identify with an inanimate object. POINT OF VIEW & VIEWPOINT: In narratives, you choose 1st (I, we), 2nd (you) or 3rd (he, she, it, they) for your point of view. You also choose a viewpoint character. Who is telling this narrative? Point of View can be used to sympathize with one side, to create
12 distance, or to create closeness. PRIMARY SOURCE: In Research: This is taking information from someone directly involved. For example, interviewing someone at the scene of an accident who saw it happen, or who was in the accident. (See secondary source.) This can be used to develop an idea or argument. REFUTING THE OPPONENT: (Rhetorical Device created through other devices): In Persuasion: This directly addresses arguments for the other side, and then refutes, or proves them wrong, inadequate, etc. This is created through the use of facts, quotes from experts, examples, etc. This is used to logically argue. REPETITION: (Rhetorical Device): The repeated use of a word. Used for emphasis or rhythm. RHETORICAL MODE: A method of organization for an essay: Narration, Description, Cause and Effect, Example and Illustration, Process Analysis, Definition, Comparison and Contrast, Classification and Division, Persuasion. An author chooses his/her mode to develop his/her purpose. SARCASM: (Rhetorical Device): Sarcasm ridicules a person or idea. It is used to make a strong point. SCENE: (Rhetorical device created with action and dialogue): Scenes show what happened rather than summarize what happened. They use dialogue and/or action. A scene takes a reader into the situation so he/she can see or understand it better. Can be used in persuasion as an emotional device. SIMILE: (Rhetorical Device): A comparison of two or more unlike things using a comparative word such as like or as. For example: She is as slim as an aspen tree. Simile aims to change our understanding of something by comparing it to something unexpected. You can create new qualities for an idea or thing with a comparison. For example, if I said he is slick as black ice then I am suggesting he is dangerous and you may not see him coming. I have created new qualities for him. SYMBOL: (Rhetorical Device): An image that represents a large or abstract idea. For example, the World Trade Center Towers symbolize America s vulnerability. Symbol is used to develop and represent an idea using an image. SYNECHDOCHE: (Rhetorical Device): A part that represents the whole. For example, he is all mouth for he is a person who talks all the time. This can be used for humor or sarcasm. TONE: The writer s position toward the subject matter. For example, if I were arguing against oil drilling, my tone would reflect my position on the matter. Tone is typically created through diction, but image or figurative language can create tone too. Tone helps us understand the writer s stance on an issue. VERBAL IRONY: A statement which express the opposite meaning from what is literally stated.
13 For example: This is a nice day! spoken during a hail storm. This is used to create sarcasm or humor.
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Similarities in Amy Tans Two Kinds by annessa young WORD COUNT 1284 CHARACTER COUNT 5780 TIME SUBMITTED APR 25, 2011 08:42PM " " " " ital awk 1 " " ww (,) 2 coh 3, 4 5 Second Person, : source cap 6 7 8,
Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Mr. Drew Brittain Carolina High School firstname.lastname@example.org 2014 Summer Assessment Welcome to AP Language and Composition. In order to prepare
A.P. Language and Composition Rhetorical Terms & Glossary Abstract Allegory Anecdote Annotation Antithesis Aphorism Apostrophe refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images ( ideas
1 st quarter (11.1a) Gather and organize evidence to support a position (11.1b) Present evidence clearly and convincingly (11.1c) Address counterclaims (11.1d) Support and defend ideas in public forums
District of Columbia s (Grade 9) This chart correlates the District of Columbia s to the chapters of The Essential Guide to Language, Writing, and Literature, Blue Level. 9.EL.1 Identify nominalized, adjectival,
AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM UNIT FOR THE CRITIQUE OF PROSE AND FICTION OVERVIEW I. CONTENT Building on the foundations of literature from earlier periods, significant contributions emerged both in form and
LEARNING TARGETS: 1) I can paraphrase the sequence of events in a complex text 1b. I can describe character development (RL.3) 2) I can write a claim that answers a question. I can support my claim with