Volume 60, Number 11 (November 1942)

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1 Gardner-Webb Unversty Dgtal Gardner-Webb Unversty The Etude Magazne: John R. Dover Memoral Lbrary Volume 60, Number (November 942) James Francs Cooke Follow ths and addtonal works at: Part of the Composton Commons, Musc Pedagogy Commons, and the Musc Performance Commons Recommended Ctaton Cooke, James Francs. "Volume 60, Number (November 942).", (942). Ths Book s brought to you for free and open access by the John R. Dover Memoral Lbrary at Dgtal Gardner-Webb Unversty. It has been accepted for ncluson n The Etude Magazne: by an authorzed admnstrator of Dgtal Gardner-Webb Unversty. For more nformaton, please contact

2 STAMPS ITARY ACAtNMUy

3 ~"* UaeA*B"l j - ll, t I t., MUSICAL How fo Order Use the numbers n orderng to ndcate whch style pn s desred. Gve second choce. Where letters are gven for qualtes, wrte one after number to ndcate the qualty wanted. (*) ndcates that clasp pn has a safety catch. Specal Intals engraved on Nos. 5 or 8, 25 cents extra. Federal tax 0% on all jewelry. LYRE IN SHIELD A brand-new desgn n muscal jewelry noveltes. The lyre and border are n gold or slver, the background n black, blue, red or green. (State color preference and qualty number n orderng.) *90A 0K Gold $2.00 *90B Sterlng Slver 50 *90C Gold Klled 50 90D Gold Dpped 30 90E Slver Dpped 30 GRAND PIANO Clasp Pn re grand pano n black and gold. No. 84A Gold Dpped *No. 84B Gold Flled 30c 50c MOTTO BAR PIN No. 2 The staff, notes and letterng of ths barpnar.e n hard French black enamel, formng a strong contrast to the metal. The llustraton s actual sze. No. 2A Slver $0.70 No. 2B Slver, Gold Plated 70 No. 2C Gldng Metal, Gold Dpped.30 No. 2D Gldng Metal, Slver Dpped 30 In styles Nos. 3A, B, D and E, the staff, clef, notes and letters are rased, a mnature of the bas-relef style. In ncl? 3F the background s flled n wth hard enamel. No. 3A Slver $0.70 No. 3B Slver, Gold Plated 70 No. 3C Slver, Enameled n Red, Black, Blue or Green.. 70 No. 3D -Gldng Metal, Gold Dpped No. 3E Gldng Metal, Slver Dpped 30 No. 3F Gldng Metal. Gold ppped. Enameled Fnsh n Red, Black. Blue or Green VIOLIN Clasp Pn Edged n gold, body of hard enamel, mtaton old voln color. No. 24A Gold Dpped *No. 24 Gold Flled gutar C!«sp Pn No. 30 Gold Flled Gold Dpped.30c 50c 50c...30c JEWELRY FOR "LITTLE" GIFTS THIS CHRISTMASTIDE LYRE PIN TREBLE CLEF PIN *A 0K Gold... *B Sterlng Slver *C Gold Flled D Gold Dpped. E Slver Dpped Illustratons are Exact 8se WINCED HARP PINS Clasp Pn 'Cla Pn cl»«. n jl(}. 4 No. 5 No. 6 The Wnged Harp" and the "Lyre and Wreath" desgns are unte popular wth musc club, socety, and class mem- )0r 8 and wth chor folk. Both desgns are frequently used as przes and as Chrstmas remembrances. On Nos. 5 and 8 ntals wll be engraved at a small extra charge. These desgns are obtanable n the followng qualtes: A 0K Gold $2.00 B Sterlng Slver 50 # C Gold Flled 75 O Gold Dpped 30 E Slver Dpped 30 Ufa LYRE and WREATH PINS MOTTO PINS AlwaysB Natural Sometmes B Sharp Clasp Pn No. 2 Clasp Pn No. 22 The Novelty Motto Pns shown here are great favortes wth pupls. Many teachers use them for ndvdual przes or awards. Never B Flat Clasp Pn No. 23 A :0K Gold $.00 B Slver 35 C Slver. Gold Plated.35 E Gldng Metal 5 F Gldng Metal, Red, Green. Blue, or Black Enamel 5 LYRE or CROSS IN ENAMELED FIELD The background of crcle n the Lyre desgn s red wth lower panel n black; n the Cross desgn, blue wth lower panel n whte. All other parts of the pns are n gold or slver. Also obtanable wth the word Chor substtuted lor -Musc. CELLO - T CORNET Clasp Pn N. 25 pfm *A 0K Gold $2.00 B Sterlng Slver...50 D Gold Dpped 30 E Slver Dpped.30 Clasp Pn No. 26 Gold Flled 50c Gold Flled 50c Gold Dpped.30c Gold Dpped 30c.. BANJO Clasp Pn No. 29 f-n, Gold Flled.. TROMBONE Clasp Pn No. 3 Tu7ffpy==^ 50e Gold Flled 50c Gold Dpped 30c Gold Dpped 30c Theodore Presser Co. 722 J j wm -Instruments n Mnature- SAXO- PHONE Gold Flled 50c Gold Dpped.30c MANDOLIN Clasp Pn No. Gold Flled Gold Dpped 772 CHESTNUT STREET. PHILADELPHIA. PA 50c 30c SEND FOR COMPLETE LIST I H TUI LI wen m(d P ; B L l S H E D M O N T H I. Y ]*V THEODORE PRESSER CO., PHILADELPHIA. I \. EDITORIAL AND ADVISORY S I A / Robert Brane Petro Dero Dr. Ncholas Doury OR..y.MES FRANCIS COOKE. TJlor Guy McCoyand Prsclla Broun, Aulant Edtor t Wllam M. Felton, Musc EJ Dr. Henry S. Fry Karl W. Gehrkens Elzabeth Gest Paul Koepke George C Krck Blanche Lemmon Dr. Guy Maer N. Clfford Page Dr. Rob Roy Peery Peter Hugh Rect Wllam D. Revel l FOUNDED 883 BY THEODORE PR ' * >' (Contents for VOLUME LX, No. Ifjovemer, 942 PRICE 25 CENTS WORLD OF MUSIC. 72 EDITORIAL Musc of the Church and Chancel YOUTH AND MUSIC A New Amercan Symphonst. f Blanch,! mmon <-4 MUSIC AND CULTURE _, Duty Honor Country Haft < 725 " A Background for Opera alter 727 > Proftable Pano Practce am 728 A Challenge for Younger Organsts Alexander h 729 ' Keyboard Mechancs from a Vrtuoso s Standpont Ifarb 730 How to Improve Orchestral Playng %..//' Black 73 MUSIC IN THE HOME Educatonal Records wth New Charm Peter lln lt Herd 723 Wreless Masterpeces n Homes Everywhere....Alfred Lndno u Morgan 734 The Etude Musc Lover s Bookshelf.. B. Nered>th 'adman 735 Progress wth the Boy Chor Laurent* Hxncr 730 MUSIC AND STUDY Hstorcal Schools of Sngng John U nun Stage Frght Can Be Cured T. hm art Transferrng the Student from l(oh <- Muscal Pageantry of the Grdron Itolc rt ft How Musc Can Help Wn the War Wllam h : H Teacher's Table The Round The Secret of Controlled Relaxaton EuQrn* l. Leadng Revval Sngng Ilomre r Short-Cuts to Voln Mastery Knur* Questons and Answers Kar% H A Major How Analyss Helps Pano Study.../ / Master Lesson on Chopn s Prelude Orvlle Technc of the Month Technstores for Boys and Grls Pr9ctlo Brotcn and The Bellows Shake r, Legato Playng for Gutarsts (vory <. /. MUSIC Classc and Contemporary Selectons Across the Footlghts Batp Fr Else Beethoven, Op. l. d bp I n Prelude n A Major...Chopn, Op. 2N. No. 7- -Edt* d In, On Crmson Leaves. It,, her t * Lo»»to ell the Story, An Old. Amercan Tune Bermcn, Warh-k rheme from Pano C oncerto n A Mnor <j. </ Vocal and Instrumental Compostons Vagabond Call (Hgh Voce).... IAlp SI < 'and *' n r of Fanls (Low Voce). r Blanch* tuunrnr o'f > Deep Jjom as Huh Rver (Negro Sprt,ml) (Solo for I t, rl I / Toccata on O Fll et Flae (Organ) Ar (Voln and Pano)... The Stars and Strpes Forever (March) (Two Panos. Four Hand Delghtful Peces for Young Players ttrslf'd^ wh0ff ""*?:, r Clown Capers \\ Technc of the Month Flatty the Flea 770 THE JUNIOR ETUDE Flnt 788 MISCELLANEOUS Voce Questons Answered n... Organ and Chor Questons Answered! 773 Voln Questons Answered 777 Our Nervous Pupls < *r-jr *" Makng Practce Panless Leonora \ *hto n 730 Nne Brothers Make a Chor.*.\\\\\ Mama at 72ft Amusng Muscal Epsodes Paul c Vanlr,, orl //,, ll Entered as second-class matter January 6 lftrd the on n,.. the Act of March ), 879. Copyrght* 942 h. P 732 P la p-! t 'o end W,S ' l942 by f' Great Theodore P t, Brtan. Co.. / f f Rka^Cuba^Dondncjn^Rcpuhl^ B Ecuador?'' 3 ṟ "' Paraguay. Republc of m 't,co, Honduras N, Span foandand. «, IVr anh 5 a year. All Cher I I ft THE ETUDE O VER A SPAN of nearly eghty years these words of our great presdent come to us wth strange and renewed force. For the Church s beng attacked as never before and n ts place a monster of pagan tyranny, nconcevable cruelty, and brutalty s offered to man. All relgons of all lands have sought the nspraton of musc to help them n nterpretng the Dvne sprt. Once, whle at St. Peter s n Rome, we heard an a cappella chor sngng a Palestrna Mass n one of the chapels. The musc was ethereal, transcendent, heavenly. A traveler from the Orent, obvously of a very dfferent creed, was so mpressed that he stood spellbound. Words wthout musc could not have affected hm thus. Agan, n Georga, not so far from Athens, we heard a Negro congregaton n a lttle church nearby sng Swng Low, Sweet Charot wth a sprtualty whch opened the doors to a hgher lfe. In Pars we heard the ncomparable chor of the Russan Cathedral sng n an alen tongue, but there was no mstakng ts reverent message. Musc s one of man s closest bonds wth God. There are moments when we do not want to dspute doctrnes and then musc rases us to that level of emotonal understandng whch exalts our fath and llumnes our souls. Men of vastly dfferent creeds turn to musc nstnctvely to amplfy ther sprtual lfe, whether t be by means of the gant gongs n a Chnese temple, the tambourne of a Salvaton Army Lasse, or the glorous organ of a magnfcent cathedral. Up from the smokng ashes of scores of churches demolshed by a fanatcal enemy there ascends mysterously the musc of a newer sprtual concepton of lfe. Even when the hatred of mllons burns at a whte heat, even whle the roar of bombs paralyzes our fath and deafens our souls, we hear the voce of Hm who wll agan brng humanty to the revelaton that Dvne love, and Dvne love NOVEMBER. 942 "Bless all the churches and blessed be (rod who. n ths great tral, gveth us the churches. ABRAHAM LINCOLN ALL HAIL THE POWER I Standng beneath the lamoua "Chrstmas'' wndow, ars lour membors ol Iho UnWorsIty ol Pttsburgh Chapel Chor, droctod by Prolsssor Theodore M. Fnney. Edtor only, can restore to us the trumph of rghteous peace. But no peace can le trumphant untl, after our ghastly sacrfce, those who have supported the human fends who have brought ahout the world calamty, are stunned wth the fallacy of tryng to consummate ther evl ams wth force. There should never be any queston as to the place of musc n the Church. Its place s to amplfy the servce of God, not to domnate t. No wonder Pope exclamed n hs Essag on Crtcsm, Some to Church repar. Not for the doctrne, hut the musc there! That was wrtten n an age when doctrnal dscussons often dsplaced the sprtual help that man needs from the Church. Churches became forums for debates, rather than sanctuares for the upbuldng of man's hopes and hs belef n Dvne power. The Etude ths month has devoted several of ts pages to the musc of the Church. The subject s a vast one, and we do not pretend that ths ssue can more than touch upon a few mportant and nterestng topcs. For almost sxty years, at least one thousand artcles hnve been presented n The Etude that have gven the opnons of some of the greatest authortes upon Church musc. In addton to these, hundreds of mportant and useful compostons for organ, ns well as sacred songs, have been publshed n our Musc Secton. Ths unquestonably has had a bearng upon the advance of Church musc n our tme. The founder of The Etude was a very relgous man, n the sense that he felt that hs regular attendance at Church was only a part of Chrstanty and that tolerance n creeds was one of the frst essentals n the Chrstan aspect- Therefore. The Etude has from the start had wrters of all faths and all races represented n ts organ and chor department. From those pcturesque days when some of our ancestors ether prohbted all muscal nstruments n the Meetng (Contnued on Pa<jc 774)

4 : - Youth and Mmc A New Amercan Symphonst N MID-SEPTEMBER OF LAST YEAR the Amercan Academy n Rome released a statement whch sad: Snce the Academy cannot I under present world condtons send Fellows to Rome, It wll hold n 942 a specal competton for a cash prze of $000 n muscal composton..,. Canddates must fle applcaton together wth two compostons, one ether for orchestra alone or n combnaton wth a solo nstrument and one for strng quartet or some less usual combnaton of chamber nstruments.... The competton s open to unmarred men under 3 years of age who are ctzens of the Unted States." The young man who won over hundreds of compettors stopped work long enough to acknowledge recept of the prze, to express hs apprecaton and to send a photograph as requested for the publcty whch would be gven ths mportant event all over the country. Then he went back to work, furously. He s Davd Damond and n twentysx years of lfe he had known other moments lke ths one, then as a voln student In the Eastman School of Musc, whch proved very unsatsfactory to all concerned. He stll wonders how teachers who prde themselves on ther analyses of pupls capabltes and on ther gudance programs, could have put hm through the early msery he endured n hs home cty of Rochester, New York. He dd not lke voln practce, and he hated much 724 n hfan the Xenunon of hs school work; a boy of har-trgge tlvty and mercural emotons, he was o unknown reason put nto a techncal c coverng metal work, draftng, woodwork, and so on. To ths day the callous, domneerng atttude of at least one supervsor who tred to lorce hm back nto ths course after he had flunked t, rouses hm to verbal vtrol. He found hs real pleasure n the lbrary of the school and, when he could afford t, n plays and concerts and moton pctures. He recalls clngng to the sounds of orchestral numbers that moved hm, tryng days later to recreate ther exact sonortes n hs mnd. He treasured pctures of Greta Garbo; hers was the face above all others that appealed to hm. And he remembers becomng so enthralled by the orchestraton of Berloz Rakoczy March, whle he was playng n a school orchestra, that hs bow remaned suspended n ar tll hs deak partner s pass at hs shns brought hm back to the lne of duty.. A Wonderful Opportunty breaks n fortune, the frustraton of havng no opportunty to compose, the bte of hun- got straghtened out When hs young lfe ger, the dscouragement of seeng crea- was enrolled as a stu- to the pont where he tve works shelved because there was no the Eastman School dent of composton at money to produce of Musc, he had hs them, then commssons or przes and the hear quanttes of frst opportunty to upward soarng of musc both old and hopes as opportuntes DAVID DIAMOND new. He sat n the agan presented themselves. Plaudts are pleasant but they are also and lstened for hour upon hour wth an almost school s audtorum ephemeral. What matters s work. And the chance brttle ntensty, and the compostons that he to work. heard produced a varety of sensatons and Young Damond started to compose n school; emotons n hm. He remembers weepng over that s, he and a Polsh boy who sat near hm passages n Bernard Rogers Rasng of Lazarus, had a mutually agreeable arrangement whereby feelng volent antpathy toward Beethoven s the Polsh boy worked hs problems and he, Damond, composed tunes n exchange. Then he com- the Eroca. Sxth, and gong nto a vertable transport over posed practcally all day whle he was enrolled Hs most ndescrbable sensaton came later n ths same audtorum, when, for the frst tme, he heard one of hs own compostons performed a frst attempt for chamber orchestra. He went on to New York Cty, obtaned a scholarshp at the Dalcroze School, studed mprovzaton wth Paul Boepple, and analyss, orchestraton and composton wth Roger Sessons He also mopped floors at the school, snce the "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC Orally carred wth t no arrange scholarshp, ^cng j vng expenses. Lke most men l Artsts Damond has constantly come up y U rfs t ths room and board problem, perhaps aganst creatve worker must face. Instr works can be won; but the young composer may easly starve whle he s W ng h Afte r he had been n New York for a tme he A Paul Whteman was sponsorng a hs mother, the pr te e SpetSol In. to b? two years of study at any school, plus publcaton of the wnnng work. How to use a pano where he lved that was free only at mpossble hours was the frst problem for Damond to work out but he solved t by wearng a turtle neck Sweater as nsulaton aganst the low steam nressure of eere hours and by the further expedent of wnnng the good graces of the jantor and nght watchman. A Snfonetta grew from frst draft to fnal score; parts were coped and the whole was submtted just before the contest closed. It won for Damond unnterrupted study for two years almost the frst he had known. A fctonal account of an artst s lfe can show early trals, then steady progress to fame and fortune but a factual recordng of what goes on s more lkely to show as many elevatons and depressons as the New York skylne. One major frut of Damond s chershed unnterrupted study extensve work that requred months of tme to wrte reposes to-day n a cupboard awatng the mracle of money that wll supply t wth an audtorum for performance, scenery, costumes, a large ballet corps, solosts, a conductor, an orchestra and a chorus. It s a muscal settng of E. E. Cummngs ballet Tom. It was composed n Pars, where Damond went at the behest of nterested persons, partly because Leonde Massne, drector of the Ballet Russe, was n London and could shortly thereafter be contacted n the French captal; and t came to ts untmely shelvng n the same cty, approved by the few who had read ts scenaro and heard a pano verson of ts score but never by an audence. But other works followed t n rapd successon a Voln Concerto whch wll soon be performed by Joseph Szget; a Concerto for Strng Quartet, dedcated to Albert Roussel, whom Damond met n Pars; a Psalm for Orchestra, dedcated to Andre Gde. The latter work was nspred by Damond s vst to Pere Lachase Cemetery where he was moved by the sght of the graves of Oscar Wlde, Sarah Bernhardt and Henr Barbusse. Its dedcaton s the result of a talk wth Gde n whch the noted French author encouraged Damond to transmute that evocaton nto sound. Advce from Stravnsky One of the frst persons to hear the Psalm was Stravnsky. Damond was studyng wth Nada Boulanger n Pars, and wth her and other pupls he pad a vst to the great composer s home n the rue St. Honore; there, four hands, they played the composton. Stravnsky gave t scrupulous attenton, expressed hs nterest and then ponted out a part that to hm seemed unsatsfyng. Damond noted mmedately that t was a porton of the work that he, hmself, had found weak, and he felt gratfed at the concurrence of Stravnsky s opnon. He learned from the older and more experenced dagnostcan a smple and effectve way of locatng trouble n a formally balanced work: Stravnsky tested the respectve parts wth a stop watch. The reason the porton n queston seemed unsatsfyng was accordng to ths mpartal judge that t was a bt short. Damond came back (Contnued on Page 780) THE ETUDE POINT IS OF COURSE the popular name for the Unted States Mltary Academy located upon the clffs above the pc- WEST turesque Hudson Rver, not far from the cty of Newburgh, New York. The thousands of excursonsts, travelng up the rver daly durng the summertme, look forward to seeng the huge grey stone buldngs, whch seem to sprng from the forested hlls as though they had grown there lke gant ancent temples. Chef among these s the Academy Chapel, or, as t s actually called, the Cadet Chapel, n whch the relgous ceremones of the Protestant students are held regularly and n whch the baccalaureate servces as well, are conducted. Frederck C. Mayer, an alumnus of the Cncnnat Conservatory of Musc, s the Organst and Chormaster. West Pont has been a mltary post snce very early days. Durng the Revolutonary War t was the ste of a fort, Photo hy Underwood and and t was there Underwood, Washngton, D. C. that Benedct FREDERICK C. MAYER Arnold attempted to be- Organst and Chormaster of the U. S. M. A. at West Pont tray the stronghold. Ths, however, was frustrated by the capture of Major John Andre n 780. The Mltary Academy tself was founded n 802. The frst settlement of West Pont, however, probably dates from 723. The mltary post now s stuated upon a thrty-fve hundred-acre reservaton. In 779 George Washngton establshed hs headquarters at West Pont n the Moore House, whch NOVEMBER. 942 Duty - Honor - Country A Story of Musc at West Pont Its Great Chor Its Grand Drgan-Its Famous Band j ^Jfalte Cff. f^fech stood n what s now known as the Washngton Valley. As long ago as 776, General Knox proposed a mltary school for the Unted States, and Congress agreed upon a commttee to prepare and brng n a plan for a mltary academy. No acton "EYES RIGHT!" "Forward March Wth Musc" has marked the drlls at our famous Mltary Academy at West Pont for a century and a quarter. was taken untl after the Revoluton. General Washngton felt that West Pont had been the key to the whole mltary stuaton n the Unted States and should be fortfed, and he recommended the establshment of a mltary school at West Pont. Hs annual message to Congress n 783 made ths plea. The Academy was opened on July 4, 802 wth only ten Cadets. In 82, largely through the nstrumentalty of Danel D. Tompkns, a new mpetus was gven to the nsttuton. Tompkns became Governor of New York, from 807 to 87. He fnanced the War of 82 and became Vce-Presdent of the Unted States for two terms, 87 to 825. Incdentally, he s bured n the graveyard of Old Sant-Mark sn-the-bouwere, New York Cty. Rgd Requrements At West Pont there are now, approxmately, under war condtons, about 2500 students. Ffteen per cent of these students are Roman Catholc, "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC Musc and Culture and they have ther own Chapel for worshp. Those of the Jewsh fath number about one and one-half per cent, and they have ther own Rabb and servce. Ths leaves about 2000 Cadets who ordnarly attend the Protestant servces n the Cadet Chapel. The Cadet Chor now totals one hundred sxty-fve voces, whch s consdered by many as the largest regular church chor of men s voces n the world. Not all the Chor can be accommodated at the chancel. The overflow are seated n the rear asles of the chancel, and when they sng, they come forward to stand near the altar ral. It has taken years to formulate a plan to keep ths Chor at a hgh standard, when t s consdered that the student body Is naturally flowng on lke a rver, wth each ncomng class and each graduatngclass. Therefore Mr. Mayer naugurated a voce tral for every new student. Students enter between the ages of seventeen and twenty-two and ther voces are all fresh and vrle. When the student s gven hs test, a record s made of the strength, qualty, and range of hs voce. For those havng the best voces, an ear test s gven ; those students are selected who are able to work ther way through a maze of dssonant ntervals, augmented fourths, mnor nnths, and so on, so that the very best materal may be selected. From ths group a chor-tranng squad of about one hundred s selected, and ts members are gven smple part musc to read, as well general choral nstructon. It should be remembered that the dscplne and tranng at West Pont are dfferent from that n the ordnary college or unversty. The student, from the day that he enters untl the day he s graduated, s put under even more rgd mltary restrcton than he wll have when he becomes an offcer n the Unted States Army. The Chor has certan rewards and because of as 725

5 f) Png out Say, of»; Musc and Culture Musc and Culture these, as well as ther Interest and prde n becomng members of the Chor, students are usually very glad to accept an nvtaton to on t. Among the rewards are the two annual vsts to New York Cty. Last year the Chor took part n the servce at St. Thomas' Church and also In he servce at Columba Unversty. Many compostons have been dedcated to the Chor, one of the latest of whch s The Soul Trumphant, by T. Tertus- Noble, Organst of St. Thomas Church, New York. The Chor has a large repertory of musc of a very hgh character, of whch some members have become very popular. Among these s The Corps, the words of whch were wrtten by Herbert Shpman and the musc by W. Franke Harlng. It was arranged for men s voces for the Chor by Frederck C. Mayer. Ths, and the Alma Mater of West Pont are always very much n demand. The Ppe Organ At West Pont, the organ, whch has ncreased from 248 to 3,529 ppes durng the occupany of Frederck C. Mayer as Organst and Chormaster, mght almost be called a mltary organ. The ntroducton of electrcty nto the acton, or mechansm, makes an ncrease n ts sze largely a matter of money and space. The organ was nstalled In 9 by M. P. Moller, Inc., and was played from a three-manual console. The orgnal cost $0,000, and the case, $2,000. The organ has been ncreased, however, by memoral contrbutons made n the names of many of the dstngushed graduates of West Pont. The chmes were gven n memory of Col. Wllam H. Harrs, who had sung n the Chor from 857 to 86. General John A. Johnston made possble the next addton of a new power plant, a new four-manual console wth new concrete expresson chambers, and a new relay. Descendants of Major George P. Peters of the Class of 808, presented the Harmonc Trumpet Stop. Professor Colonel Cornels Wllcox gave the entre Orchestral Organ wth twenty-four ranks of ppes as a memoral to hs wfe. The Assocaton of Graduates gave the entre Harmonc Dvson, contanng sxty-two ranks of ppes, totallng 3,607 ndvdual speakng ppes. General John J. Pershng, as Presdent of the Alumn of West Pont, authorzed ths mportant addton. Thus the organ has grown untl t s now the largest church organ n the Western Hemsphere and one of the great organs of the world. It s nsured for $45,000. The Sunday servce never exceeds an hour. The sermon of the Chaplan, the Reverend John B. Walthour, s usually about ffteen mnutes. A Responsve Atttude Mr. Mayer, durng hs long servce at the Unted States Mltary Academy, has known the dstngushed heads of the nsttuton and has found them to be most responsve n ther atttude toward the value of musc n the tranng of the students. In addton to all of the mltary and techncal educaton the student receves, t s understood that he must, frst of all, be a man and a gentleman, adjusted n lfe to the hgher socal and cultural oblgatons of an army offcer. Requests for the Cadet Prayer, heard at the servces, often have been receved. It s: O God, our Father, Thou Searcher of men s hearts, help us to draw near to Thee n sncerty and truth. May our relgon be flled wth gladness and may our worshp of Thee be natural. ( Contnued on Page 778) Our Nervous Pupls L f Jeon ora Sll Mton A PERSON OF HIGH INTELLIGENCE who s not well adjusted emotonally, does no have as good a chance for happness asa person of moderate ntellgence vdth ettwtons under control declared Dr. Mark Entorf of the New York State College of Economcs, not long "Ths remark nstantly called to mnd two varyng types of musc pupls. Teachers all know them: the calm, contaned boys and grls, whose frm fngers fnd ther places unwaverngly among the keys, and who perform m rectal accurately and wthout self-conscousness; and tne keen-eared, ntensely muscal chldren, capable of attanments far beyond the frst mentoned type, but who are hampered n ther panstc efforts by self-conscousness and nervousness. The very playng of a scale for the teacher s an ordeal for ths second type of chld. Certanly, he has not so good a chance for happness n hs musc lessons as the frst type. It s as much the duty of teachers to make that chance possble, as t s to nstll the proper rhythm of a pece nto a scholar. But how are we to do t? Dr. Entorf beleves that calm, logcal reasonng does not meet the stuaton of a person or chld emotonally upset. He says, Fears are removed by the reverse of the process by whch they are acqured; namely by a new assocaton. Therefore, when a teacher sees a hghly strung chld bunglng over the pano keys, she may wsely make herself appear, for the moment, not dong. to notce what that pupl s You play your scale whle I m fndng that new nece I sooke of," she may say, or, Let me "In Everythng Gve Thanks' Ohan/, ankfyvnfy 942 AT THIS THANKSGIVING SEASON we Amercans, despte the gref that rests n many hearts, have rch grattude for the blessngs that have been bestowed upon us. The staggerng tragedy thrust upon the world by predatory beasts n human form wll pass n due tme, and n the Lord s own way, justce, freedom, and lastng peace wll come agan to man. In the quet depths of our nmost souls there s now a deep realzaton of the fact that all of the agonzng sacrfces cannot be n van. Wth ths comes a sense of grateful convcton n the joyful knowledge that we have not been cursed by beng on the sde of the demons who head the crmes of our enemes. Musc s one of the world s hghest present blessngs. It has lessened the stran of the hour for mllons of fellow Amercans. It has nspred the vast bodes of men and women n mltary servce. At ths moment we offer a prayer of gratefulness for all that musc has brought to us. In everythng gve thanks: for ths s the wll of God n Chrst Jesus concernng you The Frst Epstle of St. Paul, the Apostle, to the Thessalonans V:8 726 "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC hear the etude, whle I am makng out the lesson Sl Of course, at such tmes the teacher wll be v keenly to the chld s performance, and ftpn We can vouch for the fact wth our own pupfs) be rewarded wth the sound of accurately, Sly played tones. Teachers must guard aganst drectng too great an ntensty of nterest upon e work of our senstve scholars. One of the foremost lessons these boys and grls have to earn at ths stage of ther development, s to bear the scrutny of ther efforts wthout dscomfture The subtle stran of ths process must be relaxed, f the best results n ther musc study are to be attaned.. A sudden nterest on the teacher s part, n a book on the table or a brd outsde the wndow, wll help lessen the agony of watchfulness over the playng of the lesson. Once we broke the spell of such self-conscousness, by askng abruptly, Was that your Mother callng you? A rush to the door, a search through the hall and, fnally, m v mstake unhnged a tense. Makng Practce Panless 2. B ut HOW DO YOU GET them to practce? Imagne keepng three of them at t, and 3. one a boy, too! My grl makes such a fuss about comng n from play to put n her hour! 4. As usual after the rectal Mrs Vctorne was the center of an admrng group of half-envous mothers. 5. Oh, I never call them n from a game to practce. I ve worked out a lttle system so that play and musc do not conflct. 6. Her success wth her own youngsters was so notable that the group of tool hers fnally persuaded her to make out a lst o: Do's and Don ts for the rest of them. Here they are: 7. Do keep the pano n tune alv. ays. The keener your chld s ear and the greater ns muscal apprecaton, the more he wll h; n- practcng on an out-of-tune nstrument. Don t make a chld do ext practce as dscplne. It s bad psychology. Eve connected wth the study of musc should be pleasant. Do have a regular tme for act ce, as early n the day as possble. Half an r before school and half an hour at noon are It a. t lkely to nterfere wth other actvtes. Don t make one chld pr ce whle the rest of the famly are havng hlarous tme. Let one practce whle the otr wash dshes, enty of oppor- do other household tasks, or stud'. Do gve the young muscan \ tuntes to perform. Learn the nun.. and frequently ask hm to play Sunday afternoon famly mush - ncentve. hs peces tan favortes. are a great Don t call the chld to prn when other chldren are urgng hm to c< : to play. Have t understood wth the ne: bors that certan hours of the day are for p nce and other tasks. If you never make any xe ptons, they wll soon stop callng durng work hours. Do be specfc n your pr,. Your scales certanly sound smoother ths mornng. or What a nce lght staccato! I ran farly hear the elves dancng. 8 Don t avod concerts, rectau and classcal rado programs f you want your chld to thnk that you love good musc. Chldren usually mtate ther elders n taste. THE ETUDE A Background for Opera A Conference wth JSruno er Internatonally Dstngushed SECURED EXPRESSLY FOR THE ETUDE BY STEPHEN WEST T HE POLITICAL TURMOIL of the world today has had the result of shftng the musc center from Europe to Amerca. There s a greater number of foregn emnent artsts here than ever before; and they have brought standards of artstc tradton whch, we fnd, are beng carred nto a dstnctly Amercan muscal lfe, suffcently developed and aware to make the best use of them. To my mnd, the form for ths best use would be the development of opera n Amerca. We shall hardly create an Amercan Salzburg; Salzburg s too deeply bound up wth ts own tradtons to permt transplantng. Nether can European methods of opera be transplanted, n ther entrety, because the tradtonal source of these methods s nherent n the lands of ther orgn. And that, precsely, carres an advantage of ts own! Amerca has bult up a dstnctve muscal lfe of ts own; whatever nfluences come here from Europe to-day wll not supplant the Amercan pattern, but enrch t. Amerca need only decde what form ths enrchment s to take; and the tme s rpe for such decson. The Role of Amercan Musc The necessary servce Amercan musc can render tself to-day les no longer along the lnes of quantty but of dscrmnaton. The rado has added to the muscal lfe of concert halls, opera houses, and so on, an enormous amount of musc of all sorts. A comparatvely short tme ago, the many ctes and great sectons of the country that dd not have muscal organzatons of ther own, dd wthout musc. To-day, there s not a vllage or hamlet that cannot hear musc at any hour of the day or nght. If muscal emnence depended upon sheer quantty of supply, we mght already be n a poston to take precedence over Venna. But quantty s not qualty. Indeed, the greater the amount of artstc output, the greater the danger of nebulous dscrmnaton. And there, precsely, s where our mmedate task les. In order to buld ts own muscal pattern, n order to make use of the excellent materal avalable, Amerca must not only lsten to musc, but develop and exercse dscrmnaton among standards of performance. Ths s, of course, also true of opera. The chef dfference between Amercan muscal lfe and that of former Europe s that n Europe operatc nterest was stronger whle here concert nterest has always been the more developed. The smallest European ctes had ther own opera houses, staffed wth competently traned performers, and whch served the artstc needs of the most average ctzen; whle here, there s but one permanent and establshed opera house n the entre land. Ths presents a tragc stuaton for gfted young sngers n ths country. Amercan voces and Amercan talent are n no wse nferor to those of Europe. But the wder performance facltes avalable to the young European snger have gven hm far greater scope for perfectng Conductor seeng t), and n seeng slver-screen drama (where musc s, at best, ncdental) could har y, fal to be stmulated by the noblest examples o dramatc plus muscal art whch s opera. The frst step n buldng a natonal musc pattern then, s to make use of the vast potental audence whch s now rpe for opera; whch, ndeed, t already enjoyng t va the rado, n but half ts glory. hmself. We know that practce makes perfect and, operatcally speakng, Europe has had centures of dlgent, unnterrupted practce. We BRUNO WALTER must consder ths lack of smlar practce a dstnct dsadvantage for Amercan operatc talent. There s no reason why Amerca should not make use of ths shft n the musc center to create ts own tradtons of opera, wth the help of experenced men from European operatc nsttutons. There can no longer be any doubt that Amerca s thoroughly muscal, that t lkes opera, that ts ctzens would respond to local opera companes as heartly as they have already responded to local symphones and concert courses. Smply, the begnnng must be made! I am perfectly convnced that the average ctzen would welcome opera that he could see, as well as hear over the rado. From the begnnng of cvlzaton, the most popular art has always been that of the stage, where man can actually see hmself, hs deals, hs heroes, hs myths brought to a lvng realty n whch he may share. When fne scenc effects and great musc are added to the stage pcture, the most complete entertanment values are assembled n one performance. The publc whch delghts n hearng rado opera (wthout The Snger's Responsblty Let us now consder the operatc snger whe bears the drect responsblty of makng the work come to lfe. If the audence needs dscrmnaton the snger needs t even more! The snger s task s threefold. Frst, he must study the musc as a sacred trust. He must approach t wth the knowledge that the composer s wshes are to be realzed or frustrated! through hm. Above hs own < vocal techncs and fluences whch need to be secure, of course) s there always the as set forth n the score. In second place the snger must have a complete grasp ol the hstronc, the psychologcal sgnfcance of hs role. It s not enough to sng aras and dress the part; he must become the personage he plays, lr order to convnce h! audence. Lastly, the snger must master both the muscal and the dramatc requrements of hs part tt the pont of beng able to know when to subordnate one to tht where the muscal lne ments where the word.* the role mples an ablty to dscrmnate betweer other. There are moments n every opera domnates the word.* and the stage play also, there are mo- and the stage plaj domnate the musc Adequate mastery ol these values, and to make the necessary emphass It devolves upon the snger to acheve ths becauxr he s the one to brng the varous parts to lfe: seldom, however, docs the snger accomplsh these nuancngs by hmself. Partcularly In hls begnnngs, he needs a gudng hand to teach and advse hm. Vocal advce should come from a voce teacher; dramatc counsels emanate from tht stage drector; and the buldng of the performance as a whole Is the task of the conductor. It s the conductor s task. In cooperaton wth the stage drector, to represent the author" ol the work. Hs vson anmates the whole. As ht hears the musc and vsualzes the characterzatons, just so the performance has to come to lfe It s because of ths enormous responsblty tha the conductor s studes are never endng. Tht conductor s duty s prmarly not to please the audence (although the satsfacton of hs hearers s hs greatest reward), but to satsfy the composer! The closer he comes to the orgnal ntentons of the creator of (Contnued on Page 780 NOVEMBER. 942 "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC 72:

6 \ hnlcally Musc and Culture Proftable Pano Practce A Conference wth Edward ent^ Dstngushed Ynung Amercan Panst SECURED EXPRESSLY FOR THE ETUDE BY ROSE HEYLBUT E DWARD KILENYI, currently beng acclamed among the most outstandng of our natve young artsts, s n several senses an unusual Amercan. He was born n Phladelpha some twenty-eght years ago, whle hs parents were on a vst to the Unted States. Fve weeks after hs brth, the chld was taken back to Hungary, where he grew up. He began playng pano at three. At eght, he was accepted as a pupl by Ernest von Dohnany, and at seventeen made hs professonal debut n Amsterdam, playng the Emperor Concerto under the drecton of Wllem Mengelberg. In 928, Kleny was selected to play the four-hand musc of Schubert, wth Dohnany, at the Schubert Centenary Festvals. Before returnng to hs natve land, Kleny bult a sold reputaton for genune artstry, both through hs rectals and hs orchestral performances under such dstngushed conductors as Karl Muck, Sr Thomas Beecham, Sr Henry Wood, Paul Paray, Phlppe Gaubert, and many others. In the followng conference, Mr. Kleny gves thoughtful expresson to certan of hs personal belefs about pano study. The value of pano study, says Mr. Kleny, grows chefly from two elements the ntellectual approach one brngs to hs work and the way n whch one practces. What one practces or the length of tme one devotes to practce must take secondary 728 makes practce as valuable as t should be. The Frst Requste The benefcal approach to practcng concerns tself *wth musc. It s to make musc that one plays not to demonstrate (or cultvate) fnger dexterty. Therefore, the frst requste for any panstc work s the understandng of musc that comes only through a devoted study of tradton and style. Smply as an example, let us consder the musc of Schumann. The student who s assgned one of the major works of Schumann s place. It s a mstake, I thnk, to place too much stress on the hours of practce. When pupls boast that they practce eght hours a day, I am tempted to thnk that they are really the lazy ones! Why? Because after half that tme, practce becomes Photo by DcBdls mechancal. Searchng EDWARD KILENYI concentraton of thought can be contnued not much above three hours at the most, dong hmself and hs studes a vast and dsservce such f practcng as s done after that tme he begns smply by sttng amounts down at the pano to lttle more than and a mere mechancal masterng the notes. The notes, as repetton such, of are notes. Students not who satsfy themselves wth that are Schumann lazy, n that they spare them- the great sprt and ntellect Schumann! They are merely notes. selves whose the necessary utterance concentraton our that alone hypothetcal student s attemptng to reflect "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC must be approached n the world n whch he hved- must be reconstructed and brought to lfe through hs musc. Only then can the student hone to offer an adequate nterpretaton of Schumann's work. To acheve ths, he must lve wth h mann! He must realze that Schumann was a great ntellect; and not only that hs musc * was romantc, but also that t was made so by the great florescence of romantc lterature n Germany at that tme. If the student reads that Schumann was enormously nfluenced by Jean- Paul Rchter and E. T. A. Hoffmann, he should be nspred (by enthusasm as well as by a desre for self-mprovement) to search out the works of those wrters and dscover fo hmself what they had to say. It s qute mpossble to play the Kreslerana, for nstance, wthout steepng one s self n the sprt of Hoffmanns mad Kapellmester, Johannes Kresler. Every composer must be approached, not as an solated phenomenon, but as the reflecton of the lfe, the movements, the tastes, even the fads of the epoch that bred hm. The student who msses these assocatons of hstory and tradton can brng from the prnted score nothng more than a seres of notes. Certanly, ths does not mply that a pano student must be a muscologst before he s ready to learn a smple pece! It does mean, however, that he must attune hs atttude of muscal approach to the (captvatng) dea of workng hs way along as he studes, and buldng hmself a background of assocaton and tradton as well as a fund of fnger dexterty. I prefer not to gve advce to other students, snce pano study s too ndvdual to permt of long-range counsels. On the other hand, I am happy to outlne my own system of work. I shall be glad If any of the devces I use may prove servceable to others; but I spea of them only as my own way of gong to work Dscplne the Memory In learnng a new pece, te rst thng I do s memorze Memoral) ; a w works Im- to t. medately Is, to my mnd, the b possble way to strengthen and develop the m< y to the pont where t s at all tmes certan M hancal memorzaton (the result of playng pece over from score so often that the fngers r the notes of themselves) s not a healthy -ess. It s not thorough and therefore not Actve and concentrated memorzaton s r h.smplfed, of course, by a knowledge of harm and of forms. It s precsely the conscous at. of what one plays that makes memory seen: >r the student who desres to dscplne hs n. d memory, t s an excellent exercse to torn a* some peces away from the keyboard, dols > playng untl the pece s surely and them dy learned. I know that many teachers ads te exactly the reverse of my process, advslm.f the memorzaton wat untl the pece s u nod order; and I can see many vrtues n feat hod, too. For my own work, however, I mem < mmedately, conscously, and analytcally. My next step s to select th-. dffcult passages from the wo:k,d to practce those, agan analyzng the c&u : t her dffculty and workng at exercses to con whatever that specal problem may be. The ous student wll enjoy devsng exercses of own. No two pansts have the same dffr k or the same correctve needs... whch n: t dffcult to speak n terms of ndvdual ex*.. I may say. however, that, whle I was «t; vng. I found t benefcal to strengthen the :.rth and ffth by Playn & my studes ver >wly, wth full weght, and wth suffcent Relax n to keep the hands completely free ( Contmu d on Page 782 ) THE ETUDE A Challenge for Younger Organsts Alexander McCurdy, Jr. teas born n Eureka, Calforna, August 8; 905. He studed pano, organ, harmony, and counterpont wth Wallace A. Sabn n Berkeley, Calforna; pano wth Edwn Hughes, and organ wth Lynnwood Farnam n Neto York Cty; and was graduated from the Curts Insttute of Musc n Phladelpha, n 934. He has held varous mportant organ postons on the West Coast, and snce 927, has been n Phladelpha, where he s organst and chormaster of the Second Presbyteran Church, and head of the Organ Department of the Curts Insttute. Sne? 940, Dr. McCurdy has been head of the Organ Department #f the Westmnster Chor College, Prnceton, Neto Jersey. He s much n demand as an organ rectalst. Edtor Note. N othng thrlls me more than to have some young man (or woman) sweep me off my feet by hs brllant playng of the organ. I hear a great many n the course of a year and t Is always a joy to hear them. When a boy or grl under eghteen plays three or four of the great Bach Preludes and Fugues or some other major work from memory, there s reason not only to be thrlled, but also to have much respect for hs ablty. There s always a desre, however, just as soon as possble, to fnd out whether or not that s all that he can do. Can he play a hymn? Can he plan an accompanment for a solo? Can he play an anthem or an oratoro chorus accompanment? Is he any knd of muscan? Most of them, unfortunately, are so excted about playng some brllant organ solos that they do not care whether they can play anythng but those solos. In the past there have been some organsts who NOVEMBER. 942 ^Alexander tons partcularly by those who can play a few dttes well and must fnd out the hard way. Not a Bed of Roses It s a long, hard road, but all who would be successful must traverse t. When I thnk of the tmes that my teachers have stood by me, fguratvely wth a stck, endeavorng to show how these thngs should be done, I wonder how they ever had patence enough to teach me. When I thnk of the chors and solosts who had to put up wth my accompanments and the congregatons that had to lsten to them, t s amazng that they ever were wllng to pay my salary. Much of my bad playng was qute unnecessary. I say that t s a long hard road, but t ca be travelled n not too dffcult a way, f begun early enough. It s mportant that every organst learn from the very begnnng how hymns are played. He must learn frst to play them on the manuals, wthout pedals, exactly as they are wrtten; then later, to play the soprano and alto wth the rght hand, the tenor wth the left hand and the bass wth the pedals, exactly where the notes are wrtten. Next he must llccrtly, play the soprano on one manual wth the rght hand, the alto and tenor wth the left hand on another manual and the bass wth the pedals. He must learn to play the soprano wth the left hand an octave lower on one manual, the alto and the tenor wth the rght hand on another manual, loco, and the have made a lvng from playng organ rectals, bass wth the pedals. Also he must play the soprano n the pedals at four foot ptch, whle and there are a few now, but they can be counted on the fngers of one hand. playng the alto, tenor and bass on the manuals. Every organst must have a poston of some Every organst should be taught to fll up" correctly and play the bass an octave lower. When knd, a church or a teachng poston. That beng the case, he must be prepared for t. Just because these thngs are mastered, there Is bound to be an organst can play a few very brllant peces some varety n the hymn playng. One should, s no guarantee that he s able to hold a good of course, study the texts of the hymns and be church poston or teach n a school or college able to apply the above systems wth proper of musc. So many of the students to-day have regstraton to ft the texts. So many of us play the dea that they must play a few peces and, hymns n such a stereotyped way as to run anyone's desre to sng. Consequently, much congre- when that s accomplshed, they are through and ready to go out and take any poston. One wonders what they are thnkng about. There are student has done well wth hs hymns, he should gatonal sngng s not as t should be. When a those who ask how I, so young, was able to get be taught to transcrbe smple accompanments. the experence that I have had? Where dd I I fnd that many organsts do not know the frst learn how to play hymns? How dd I learn to prncples of transcrbng easy pano accompanments for the organ. One young gentleman who play so many peces from memory? How dd I learn to conduct a chor? I am asked these ques- had graduated from a well known school of musc "FORWARD MARCH W Tll MUSIC Mus. Udc. Musc and Cultur DR. ALEXANDER McCURDY, JR.. Noted Amercan Or?antel told me that when he took h* frst poston h was totally at sea because the frst thng tha he had to do was to play an accompanlmen somethng he had never been called upon to d for h* teacher whle n school. I do not know of anythng that can run snger more quckly than a poor accompanlmen Some of the accompanment* that should b studed early wth a student are: He Shall Fee Hs Flock and Come Unto Hm from the "Mcs slah, If Wth All Your Hearts, and O Rest n th Lord, from the "Eljah." and so on. These mu; be done carefully n Just the same way that on would study any organ number a* a solo. H should learn where to "fll up" and where nc to, where conttnuo should be used and where : should not be used. Smple anthem accompanl ments also should be studed early. Examples c these are: He That Shall Endure to the End fror 'Eljah." How Lovely Are the Messengers fro St. Paul," Immortal, Invsble, by Erc H. Th man, and so on. It s amazng what result* ca be acheved when a person has studed thes thngs carefully and ( Contnued on Page 774 7

7 ptor Musc and Cultur Musc and Culture HAVE ALL HEARD PIANISTS perform who mght have been great artsts; but WE because of a lack of the rght knd of study and practce, and consequently lack of technque, they could not express themselves n what I call qualty n nstrumental playng and muscal nterpretaton. These people are automatcally relegated to the category of so-called unlucky artsts. It s unfortunate that there are so many wth talent who bungle ther careers, smply because they have never learned how to study and practce and be methodcal about t. I do not beleve n wastng tme n seekng a career, for sooner or later, f you do not work methodcally on every phase from the start, you wll fnd a gap n your educaton that wll gve you much trouble. People speak of quantty n pano playng nstead of qualty, and they wll try anythng that wll gve a quck result. The chld starts to study musc perhaps he s sent to a medocre teacher and must practce on a poor pano because hs parents, who would not gve ths same chld anythng but fresh mlk, do not feel the necessty of ther chld s practcng on a good pano from the start. The Basc Grammar of Musc Students and professonals have sad to me, I lke musc and I would lke to play the pano. The dffculty wth many of these asprants s the fact that n the begnnng they want to play melodes that mmedately sound, and they may even try to play a Chopn nocturne. My opnon and method s dametrcally opposed to ths. I say, I certanly lke musc and I chersh the pano, but how am I gong to attan perfecton n these two medums? I need two technques, one of musc and a pano technque; but frst of all I must study solfeggo. Dozens of tmes I have asked musc students who came to me for advce, Have you studed solfeggo? They say, Oh! yes, solfeggo, you mean harmony and counterpont. These people thnk that they are honest wth themselves and many are tryng to be px-ofessonals but I feel that they are followng a school of dlettantesm untl they have learned the basc technc and grammar of musc, solfeggo. Students must spend tme on t and learn all of the clefs, nstead of takng an elementary and superfcal course and learnng only a couple of the clefs. Here s another queston that comes to me frequently: I have done great deal of sght readng, a and much practce wth the metronome, and stll I have no rhythm. What should I do? When you practce and study solfeggo methodcally, t automatcally gves you sght readng and rhythm, provdng you do not help yourself by takng ad from the pano whle sngng the solfeggo, or help from a teacher who means well but steadly beats the tme wth a pencl. Musc and rhythm must come from the nsde to the outsde, and not from the opposte drecton. What s Qualty? Prom my pont of vew qualty s clarty n pano playng. At ths tme, I am 730 Keyboard Mechancs from A Vrtuoso s A Conference wth Jhurl Standpont Thu Famous Span!;h Panst.and Composur SECURED EXPRESSLY FOR TIIL ETUDE RY ANNABEL COMFOR IOSE ITURBI lookng at the pano from a mechancal pont of vew only, and I am not concerned wth nterpretaton. I wll try to show the student how to gan n technque and muscular control, so that he wll be techncally prepared to attempt any knd of pano playng that he desres. In Prase of Czerny When you reach the maxmum, you can easly attan the mnmum; so let us now consder the Czerny School of Velocty as an example of basc technc n pano playng. In the etudes of "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC that ndefatgable and malgned composer of pano studes, you have a pm: less feld for the practcng of pano technc whch wll acheve your goal, that of qualty. It has become fashonable amm some to decry Czerny. I have asked several pano students recently f they practce Czerny nvarably they wll answer, Oh! I dd that a lung tme ago and so they have dsmssed Iron lu-r repertores a composer from whom they d really learn. To-day I practce Czerny tn same as a boxer practces on hs punchng ba As he does t every day, I practce Czerny tw mr.s every day of my lfe. At ths pont I would lke to about a lady who traveled two hundred mle by ear to a mdwestern cty where I was sc: ded to play a concert. After the concert she me back stage and sad, "I enjoyed hearng u play tonght, but you have no dea what I v. t through ths afternoon. I was tred when I. rrved n town, and I took a hotel room for at : < moon's rest, and some slly person n the room practced the whole tme andtso w!y. lke ths -Cl-Cla-Cl-Cla. I smled but I not spol her lluson and tell her that t w had practced Czerny the whole after; as I always do before a concert. You can d vthng f you have control of the fngers, b f you do not have ths control you wll rjevt teh any pont n pano playng. How to Play Fast Through Slow Practce To acqure a so-called velvc r approach the keyboard the same as a. chsels a block of marble, but I chse! r mch through Czerny etudes n order to str my fngers. The attack on the keyboard mu. wth rounded fngers, and the attack must b>.ar. for qualty comes from defnte precson each fnger. I practce all of the studes vet;. each note recevng approxmately two and I make an effort to rase the fngers as as possble. On the fnger that s holdng key down, I use relaxed weght from the lder to the fngers but the rased fngers * be held up practcng ths way r have cor- ^ rected the poston and Cantr Page 786, THE ETUDE How to Improve Orchestral Playng A Conference wth Z^rcnh J). ELI Dstngushed Muscal Drector of the Natonal Broadcastng Company SECURED EXPRESSLY FOR THE ETUDE BY MYLES FELLOWES N THEORY, good orchestral playng requres the hghest degree of sound, sold muscanshp. In practce better, perhaps, n acton I t requres somethng more. That s the complete coordnaton of ear and eye. Through hs ear, the orchestral muscan perceves, measures, and mproves the degree of cooperaton he s able to acheve n playng wth the ffty (or more) other members of the orchestra. Ths cooperaton s of utmost mportance. The lstener mxst be aware of one unfed tonal result, exactly as though t were produced by a sngle nstrument nstead of by the blendng of many. Be they good or bad, no ndvdual effects may stand out to mar the unty of performance. Toward ths end, the orchestral player must be constantly on the alert to play wth hs colleagues. But all of the players must subject themselves to the drectons of the conductor. Hs muscal conceptons shape the performance; hs wshes gude t. And, just as the ndvdual player measures hs cooperatve blendng wth hs ear, he adjusts hmself to the wshes of the conductor through hs eyes. Thus, hs actve work conssts largely n watchng the conductor hs baton, hs free hand, hs expresson, everythng at the same tme that he lstens carefully to the sum-total of hs colleagues work plus hs own share n t. No matter how sound hs muscal tranng may be, a player cannot succeed n orchestral work untl he has, to some degree, mastered ths alert coordnaton of hs senses, whch, n the last analyss, s a matter of mental quckness and general ntellgence. The Need for Cooperaton Actually, there s no way of perfectng orchestral playng except by playng n an orchestra. Only there can sense coordnaton and cooperatve muscanshp be developed. Only there can the player test out hs capactes for orchestral work. There are many excellent performers who are not good orchestral muscans because they seem unable to rd themselves of ther ndvdualtes of muscal thought. They play as solosts; perhaps even as very capable solosts. And n ths they are defeatng the purpose of orchestral work, whch s that of unfed blendng. On the other hand, there are many frst-rate orchestral fngerng. All such problems must be solved by men who are equally successful as solosts but prvate practce. not n the same performance! Ther success n Assumng that our musc student Is truly a each feld derves from ther understandng of student n the best sense of the word, hs next the demands of each; they know, from exper- step should be the gradual acqurng of an or- ence, when to release ther own, ndvdual muscal thought, and when to subject t to the drectons of a conductor. And t s only by workng n an orchestra a school orchestra at the start that they learn to adjust themselves to the demands of group technc. It s of mmense beneft to play chamber musc wth unconducted groups. Ensemble work of ths knd develops cooperatve playng and sharpens the mnd to alertness for adjustments of tone qualty, technc, color, and phrasng. But t s not an adequate substtute for orchestral work Itself because t offers no dscplne n followng accurately the drectons of one responsble leader. The growth and development of school orchestras has been great durng the past few years. What can these student groups do to make ther work stll better? Frst of all, each ndvdual member of the group should strve to make hmself as good as he possbly can on hs own nstrument. Does there stll lurk a suspcon that a group player need not be qute as perfect as a solost? Get rd of the noton. Orchestral work, whether amateur or professonal, permts of no lowerng of standard. The demands of technc and of tone qualty n the great symphonc works are every bt as exactng as those of the solo show-pece. As a general thng, the strngs alone are n danger of fallng vctm to the Idea of a muscal double lfe, wth one set of standards for the solost and another for the group player. The other orchestral chors wnd, percusson Instruments, and so on are blendng Instruments and. by ther very nature, useful n group work only. Thus, these players study wth orchestral men and begn ther work wth a purely orchestral pont of vew. Wth the strngs, the earlest approach may easly be that of the solost. At all events, the player must speedly overcome the temptaton of thnkng that orchestral work can be done on a slmmer practce foundaton. Every competent orchestral muscan practces many hours a day, to make hmself as nearly perfect as he can ; to lay by a reserve supply of techncal and tonal skll that may be called on at the next rehearsal. The conductor has no tme to spend on clearng up ndvdual blurrness n technc and NOVEMBER, 942 "FORWARD MARCH WITH MUSIC" DR. FRANK BLACK chestral repertore. Ths Is best accomplsh e under the gudance of u conductor. True, ther are albums avalable that acquant the studen wth the most dffcult passages n the works o Wagner. Brahms, and Rchard Strauss, but t wser to go through them wth a leader who cax explan fngerngs and stumblng blocks at th same tme that he ponts the way to rounded well formed muscal nterpretaton*. Ths ncc< for an ntellgently drected probng of ne musc brngs up another problem. The Value o Sght Readng As a rule, the student orchestra s so busy pol shng up ts own repertore that there s lttl tme for anythng else. Ths. I beleve, s a pro found mstake. All orchestral drll, whether lx amateur or professonal groups, should lnclud< some work In drected sght readng. When Tos canlnl frst turned hs attenton to rado work some years ago. he sad that the best sght read ng orchestra he had ever worked wth was tha of the Brtsh Broadcastng Corporaton. Aftc workng wth the NBC Symphony Orchestra, h revlsed hs opnon and sad that the men of th NBC were the best sght readers! There s a val uable lesson to be learned from both hs judg ments. Both the orchestras mentoned are radl groups. Because of the very nature of rado work these men are constantly preparng new pro grams. A concert orchestra rehearses one pro gram a week and plays t two or three tmes l) publc: when t goes on tour, from cty to cty, may take no more than two or three program 73

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