Accepted Manuscript. An improved artificial bee colony algorithm for flexible jobshop scheduling problem with fuzzy processing time


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1 Accepted Manuscrpt An mproved artfcal bee colony algorthm for flexble obshop schedulng problem wth fuzzy processng tme Ka Zhou Gao, Ponnuthura Nagaratnam Suganthan, Quan Ke Pan, Tay Jn Chua, Chn Soon Chong, Tan Xang Ca PII: DOI: Reference: S (16) /.eswa ESWA To appear n: Expert Systems Wth Applcatons Receved date: Revsed date: Accepted date: 15 October May July 2016 Please cte ths artcle as: Ka Zhou Gao, Ponnuthura Nagaratnam Suganthan, Quan Ke Pan, Tay Jn Chua, Chn Soon Chong, Tan Xang Ca, An mproved artfcal bee colony algorthm for flexble obshop schedulng problem wth fuzzy processng tme, Expert Systems Wth Applcatons (2016), do: /.eswa Ths s a PDF fle of an unedted manuscrpt that has been accepted for publcaton. As a servce to our customers we are provdng ths early verson of the manuscrpt. The manuscrpt wll undergo copyedtng, typesettng, and revew of the resultng proof before t s publshed n ts fnal form. Please note that durng the producton process errors may be dscovered whch could affect the content, and all legal dsclamers that apply to the ournal pertan.
2 Hghlght Improved ABC algorthm s proposed for FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. A heurstc, named MInEnd, s proposed to ntalze populaton. New strateges are proposed to generate new solutons. The obectves are fuzzy maxmum completon tme and maxmum machne worload. Benchmars and realstc remanufacturng nstances are solve by IABC.
3 An mproved artfcal bee colony algorthm for flexble obshop schedulng problem wth fuzzy processng tme Ka Zhou Gao a, b, Ponnuthura Nagaratnam Suganthan b, Quan Ke Pan c*, Tay Jn Chua d, Chn Soon Chong d, Tan Xang Ca d a School of computer, Laocheng Unversty, Laochheng, , P. R.Chna b School of Electrcal and Electronc Engneerng, Nanyang Technologcal Unversty, , Sngapore c State Key Lab of Dgtal Manufacturng Equpment & Technology n Huazhong Unversty of Scence & Technology, Wuhan, , P. R. Chna d Sngapore Insttute of Manufacturng Technology, Nanyang Drve , Sngapore Emal: (Kazhou Gao), (Suganthan), (Pan), (Chua), (Chong), (Ca). A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Artfcal bee colony algorthm Flexble obshop schedulng Fuzzy processng tme Heurstc 1. Introducton A B S T R A C T Flexble ob shop schedulng problem (FJSP) s a generalzaton of the classcal ob shop schedulng problem (JSP). An operaton can be processed on more than one machne n FJSP. To solve FJSP problem, two subproblems have to be solved, machne assgnment and operaton sequencng. Machne assgnment s to assgn a processng machne for each operaton. Operaton sequencng s to schedule all operatons on machnes to obtan feasble and qualty schedulng soluton. FJSP s an NPhard problem (Bruer & Schle, 1990). The frst study to research FJSP was by Bruer and Schle (Bruer & Schle, 1990) who proposed a polynomal algorthm for two obs and dentcal machnes FJSP problem. In recent years, many heurstcs and metaheurstcs are employed for solvng FJSP problem. These algorthms nclude tabu search (TS) (Brandmarte, 1993), genetc algorthm (GA) (Gao, Sun, & Gen, 2008), partcle swarm optmzaton (PSO) (Zhang, Shao, L, & Gao, 2009), parallel varable neghborhood search (PVNS) Ths study addresses flexble obshop schedulng problem (FJSP) wth fuzzy processng tme. An mproved artfcal bee colony (IABC) algorthm s proposed for FJSP cases defned n exstng lterature and realstc nstances n remanufacturng where the uncertanty of the processng tme s modeled as fuzzy processng tme. The obectves are to mnmze the maxmum fuzzy completon tme and the maxmum fuzzy machne worload, respectvely. The goal s to mae the schedulng algorthm as part of expert and ntellgent schedulng system for remanufacturng decson support. A smple and effectve heurstc rule s developed to ntalze populaton. Extensve computatonal experments are carred out usng fve benchmar cases and eght realstc nstances n remanufacturng. The proposed heurstc rule s evaluated usng fve benchmar cases for mnmzng the maxmum fuzzy completon tme and the maxmum fuzzy machne worload obectves, respectvely. IABC algorthm s compared to sx metaheurstcs for maxmum fuzzy completon tme crteron. For maxmum fuzzy machne worload, IABC algorthm s compared to sx heurstcs. The results and comparsons show that IABC algorthm can solve FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme effectvely, both benchmar cases and reallfe remanufacturng nstances. For practcal remanufacturng problem, the schedules by IABC algorthm can satsfy the requrement n reallfe shop floor. The IABC algorthm can be as part of expert and ntellgent schedulng system to supply decson support for remanufacturng schedulng and management. (Yazdan, Amr, & Zandeh, 2010), artfcal bee colony (ABC) ( L, Pan & Gao, 2011), dscrete harmony search algorthm (DHS) (Gao, Suganthan & Pan, 2014a; Gao, Suganthan & Pan, 2014b), and hybrd algorthms based on dfferent heurstcs and metaheurstcs. At the same tme, many researchers focus on FJSP wth dfferent constrants or practcal characterstcs, for example fuzzy processng tme (Le, 2010; Le, 2012; Wang & Zhou, 2013; Wang & Wang, 2013), energy consumpton (Jang & Zuo, 2014), mantenance actvty (Wang & Yu, 2010), new ob nserton (Gao, Suganthan & Chua, 2015), lmted resource (Kartheyan, Asoan & Ncolas, 2014), overlappng operatons (Demr & İşleyen, 2014), sequencedependent setup and transportaton tme (Ross, 2014), etc. Among the metaheurstcs for FJSP, artfcal bee colony (ABC) algorthm s a relatvely recent metaheurstc method developed by Karaboga (Karaboga, 2005). Orgnally, ABC algorthm was developed for solvng the multvarable and multmodal contnuous functons. Many researches show ABC algorthm s compettve performance for contnuous and dscrete
4 optmzaton problems. In recent years, ABC algorthm s appled to solve shop schedulng problems successfully. Huang and Ln proposed an dle tme based bee colony algorthm to solve open shop schedulng problems. Banharnsaun et al. (Banharnsaun, 2012) employed the bestsofar ABC (BABC) to solve ob shop schedulng problem. Zhang (Zhang & Wu, 2011) proposed an ABC algorthm for ob shop schedulng problem wth random processng tmes. Wang (Wang & Zhou, 2012a; Wang & Zhou, 2012b) desgned two effectve ABC algorthms for monoobectve and multobectve FJSP. Thammano (Thammano & Achara, 2013) desgned a hybrd ABC algorthm wth local search to solve FJSP. L ( L, Pan & Gao, 2011) proposed a Paretobased dscrete ABC algorthm for multobectve FJSP problem. Pan (Pan, Tasgetrern & Suganthan, 2011) proposed a dscrete ABC algorthm for the lotstreamng flow shop schedulng problem. A selfadaptve strategy was employed n the study to mprove algorthm s performance. Among practcal characterstcs, fuzzy processng tme s consdered n FJSP by many researchers. Le proposed a decompostonntegraton genetc algorthm (DIGA) (Le, 2010) and a coevolutonary genetc (CGA) (Le, 2012) algorthm to mnmze maxmum fuzzy completon tme. In these two papers, trangular fuzzy number (TFN) s used to represent the fuzzy processng tme. Three TFN operators are employed to encode soluton to a feasble schedulng soluton. Wang and Zhou (Wang & Zhou, 2013) proposed a hybrd artfcal bee colony (HABC) algorthm for fuzzy flexble ob shop schedulng problem. Several strateges are employed to ntalze populaton. Leftshft decodng scheme, explotaton search procedures and varable neghborhood search (VNS) are used to mprove performance. Wang et al (Wang & Wang, 2013) developed an effectve estmaton of dstrbuton algorthm (EDA) for fuzzy processng tme FJSP problem. A probablstc model s proposed to descrbe the probablty dstrbuton of the soluton space. In both above lteratures, Taguch method s used to nvestgate the nfluence of parameters settng for algorthm performance. Compared to other algorthms, the EDA algorthm has the best compettve solutons for FJSP problem wth fuzzy processng tme. In ths study, we consder the remanufacturng schedulng problem wth uncertanty n processng tme of returns. Remanufacturng s the process of dsassembly and recovery at the module level and, eventually, at the component level (Lund, 1984). Junor (Junor & Flho, 2012) revewed the lteratures on producton plannng and control n remanufacturng. Seventysx papers were examned and classfed. However, there are few lteratures on processng schedulng n remanufacturng. The uncertanty processng tme of returns s one of seven maor complcatng characterstcs n remanufacturng (Krupp, 1993; Ferguson, 2009). The uncertanty n processng tme of returns cannot be controlled by remanufacturers. It s therefore mportant to handle ths uncertanty n remanufacturng schedulng. Exstng ABC algorthms for FJSP do not solve remanufacturng schedulng wth uncertanty n processng tme. Buldng on the successful applcaton of ABC for solvng FJSP, we propose an mproved artfcal bee colony (IABC) algorthm to solve remanufacturng schedulng problem wth uncertanty n processng tme of returns. As many dscrete manufacturng systems, we model remanufacturng processes as FJSP problem and the uncertanty n processng tme of returns s modeled as fuzzy processng tme of FJSP. The obectves are to mnmze the maxmum fuzzy completon tme and the maxmum fuzzy machne worload, respectvely. A smple and effectve heurstc, named MnEnd, s proposed to ntalze the populaton. To test performance, MnEnd s compared to several exstng heurstcs. IABC algorthm s tested usng fve benchmar cases and eght real nstances from remanufacturng. The expermental results and comparsons show the compettveness of IABC algorthm. The rest of ths paper s organzed as follows: Secton 2 brefly descrbes FJSP problem and fuzzy processng tme constrant. Secton 3 presents the basc ABC algorthm and the IABC algorthm n detal. Secton 4 dscusses the expermental results and comparsons. We conclude ths study n Secton FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme 2.1 Problem descrpton In FJSP, each ob conssts of a sequence of operatons. An operaton can be executed by a set of canddate machnes. Each operaton of a ob must be processed only on one machne at a tme, whle each machne can process only one operaton at a tme. The followng notatons and assumptons are used for the formulaton of FJSP. 1. Let J { J}, 1 n, ndexed, be a set of n obs to be scheduled. 2. Let M { M }, 1 m, ndexed, be a set of m machnes. 3. Each ob J operatons. Let conssts of a predetermned sequence of O, be operaton h of J. h total number of operatons of ob J. q denotes the 4. Each operaton O, can be processed wthout nterrupton on h one of a set of canddate machnes M ( O,h). Let P, h, be the processng tme of O, on machne M. 5. Decson varables h 1,f machne sselected for the operaton O, h x, h, (1) 0, otherwse c, denotes the completon tme of the operaton h O, h denotes the completon tme of ob J 6. The obectves are to mnmze the Maespan and the maxmum machne worload, respectvely. Maespan denoted by C M, can be calculated by formula:, c Mn C M max{ c } (2) 1 n
5 where c s the completon tme of ob. of c equals the value c, h when the value of h s the q.maespan s related to completon tme of all obs and the machne effcency. If maespan value s reduced, t can shorten the ob completon tme and mprove machne effcency. Maxmum machne worload, denoted byw, can be calculated by formula: Mn W M w 1 m M max (3) where w s the worload of machne M. w equals the sum of c, h where the value of x, h, s 1. It means that the operaton O, h s processed on machne. The FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme means that the operaton processng tme s not an exact value and the processng tme s shown as a trangular fuzzy number (TFN) as follows: 1 3 where t and t,,,, 1 2 3,,,,,,,, t ( t, t, t ) (4) determne an nterval of processng tme whle t 2 s the most probable processng tme of operaton,, O, on machne M. The fuzzy completon tme of operaton where 1 2 C and C,, O, s a TFN as follows: C ( C, C, C ) (5),,,, are the mnmum and maxmum probable completon tmes of operaton O,. 3 C s the most probable completon tme of operaton O,. The fuzzy machne worload of machne follows:, M s also a TFN as w ( w, w, w ) (6) where 1 2 w and w are the mnmum and maxmum probable machne worload of worload of machne M. 3 M. w s the most probable machne 2.2 Operatons on fuzzy processng tme Addton operaton, max operaton and the ranng operaton are three most mportant operatons for TFNs. To compare and order TFN, these three operatons are used n FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. The addton operaton s to compute fuzzy completon tme. The max operaton and the ranng operaton are used to compare TFNs and obtan the maxmum fuzzy completon tme. The three operatons are computed as follows: ' ' ' ' Addton operaton: two TFNs, t t, t, ) and t ( t, t, t ), ther addton s as follows: ( 1 2 t3 ' ' ' ' t t ( t t, t t, t t ) (7) 1 Ranng operaton: three crtera are used to compare two TFNs ' ' ' ' t t, t, ) and t ( t, t, t ). ( 1 2 t ' ' ' 1. If ( t 2t t ) / 4 ( )( t 2t ) / 4, then ' t ( ) t t3 2. If ' ' ' ( t 2t t ) / 4 ( t1 2t 2 3) / 4, then t and ' 2 t t compared. If ' t ( t 2, then ' t ( ) t. 2 ) ' 3. If t 2 t 2, then the spreads of two TFNs are compared. If 3 t1 ) ' 3 ' 1 t ( t t, then ' t ( ) t. Max operaton: Le (Le, 2010) defned a membershp functon t t' ( z) of t t' : t t' ( z) sup mn( t ( x), t' ( y)). In the lterature, z x y the max of two TFNs s approxmated wth the crteron: If s ' t t, then t t ' ' ' t ; otherwse t t t. In ths study, the max of two ' TFNs s approxmated wth the crteron: If t t, then t t ' t ; ' ' otherwse t t t. 3. IABC for FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme 3.1 ABC algorthm Artfcal bee colony (ABC) algorthm s a populatonbased metaheurstc proposed by Karaboga (Aay & Karaboga, 2012; Karaboga & Aay, 2009). ABC s nspred from the foragng behavor of a bee colony. There are three nds of bees, namely, employed bees, onlooer bees and scout bees n ABC algorthm. A bee that s currently explotng a food source s called an employed bee. A bee watng n the hve for mang decson to choose a food source s named as an onlooer. A bee carryng out a random search for a new food source s called a scout. Each soluton to the problem under consderaton s called a food source, whereas the ftness of the soluton corresponds to the amount of nectar of the assocated food source. The man steps of the basc ABC algorthm are shown. 1. Intalzaton of the parameters and populaton: The parameters of ABC are the number of food sources (SN), the number of trals after whch a food source s to be abandoned (lmt) and the termnaton crteron. The number of food sources s equal to the number of employed bees or onlooer bees. The ntalzaton of populaton s to fll the populaton wth SN number of randomly generated food sources, ndmensonal realvalued vectors. Let X x, x,..., x } represent the th food source n { 1 2 n the populaton. The food sources are generated as follows: x LB ( UB LB ) r 1,2,..., n, 1,2,..., SN (8) where r s a unform random number n the range [0, 1]; LB and UB are the lower and upper bounds for the dmenson, respectvely. The food sources are randomly assgned to employed bees and the correspondng fnesses are evaluated. 2. Employed bee phase:
6 In ths phase, each employed bee X generates a new food source X new n the neghborhood of ts present poston as follows: x x ( x x ) ' (9) where new( ) r { 1,2,..., SN} and { 1,2,..., n} are randomly chosen ndexes. r' s a unformly dstrbuted real number n [1, 1]. X new wll be compared to X. If the ftness of X new s equal to or better than that of X, X new wll replace X as a new food source; otherwse X s retaned. 3. Onlooer bee phase: An onlooer bee evaluates all the employed bees and selects a food source X dependng on ts probablty value p calculated by the followng expresson: p f SN f 1 (10) where f s the nectar amount or the ftness value of the th food source X. The hgher the f s, the more ablty that the th food source s selected. Once the food source X s selected, the onlooer bee wll execute the update X usng equaton (9). If the new food source has equal or better ftness value than X, the new food source wll replace 4. Scout bee phase If a food source X as a new member n the populaton. X can not be mproved through a predetermned number of trals lmt, the food source s to be abandoned and the correspondng employed bee becomes a scout. The scout produces a new food source randomly as follows: x LB ( UB LB ) r for 1,2,..., n (11) where r s a unform random number n the range [0, 1]. 5. Repeat steps 2)4) untl the termnaton crteron s satsfed. 3.2 Soluton representaton In the IABC algorthm, each employed bee or onlooer bee s put on a soluton. For example, a soluton of 4ob, 4machne remanufacturng nstance s shown n Fg. 1. Each element n soluton ncludes three values, ob number, operaton number and processng machne number. The frst element, (3,1,2), means that the frst operaton of ob 3 s processed on machne 2. The element number s the total operaton number of all obs. In ths codng rule, the order of operaton sequence and machne assgnment are consstent. Table 1 shows the fuzzy processng tme of each ob on correspondng machnes. For example, the frst fuzzy number (2, 4, 8) means that the most probable processng tme of operaton on machne s 4, whle the range of the processng tme s from 2 to 8. It means that the actual processng tme of operaton on machne n shop floor should be one value from 2 to 8, whle the most probable processng tme should be 4. If s selected for processng operaton, the most probable processng tme wll be 5 and the range of processng tme s from 4 to 7. The soluton n Fg. 1 can be decoded from left to rght. The operatons on the same machne are processed based on the order appearance n operaton sequence. For example, the thrd element, (4, 1, 4) and the ffth element, (3, 2, 4) n Fg. 1 have the same processng machne M 4. The operaton, (4, 1) wll be processed frst on machne M 4. The machne M 4 s avalable for operaton (3, 2) when the operaton (4, 1) s completed. In ths way, the soluton can be decoded to a schedule. The processng orders on all machnes are M1 O4,2, O3,3, O, 2, 3 M 2 O3,1, O2,1, O, 1,3 3 O1,1, O1,2, O2, 2 M and M4 O4,1, O3,2, O. 4, 3 The fuzzy completon tme can be computed and the value s (17, 27, 31). The Gantt chart wth fuzzy processng tme s called fuzzy Gantt chart. Fg. 2 shows the fuzzy Gantt chart of the soluton n Fg. 1. For the same operaton, the TFN under the lne s the fuzzy start tme whle the TFN above the lne means the fuzzy completon tme. To verfy the fuzzy schedule s feasble n actual remanufacturng processng shop floor, Fg. 3 shows a Gantt chart wth the actual processng tme (6,9,5; 6,6,4; 7,10,2; 2,6,4) of all operatons (O 11, O 12, O 13 ; O 21, O 22, O 23 ; O 31, O 32, O 33 ; O 41, O 42, O 43 ). These processng tme values are recorded n remanufacturng shop floor and all values are n the ntervals of the correspondng fuzzy processng tmes that are shown n Table 1. For the same operaton sequence n Table 1, the actual maespan n remanufacturng shop floor s 25 whle the fuzzy maxmum completon tme n Fg. 2 s (17, 27, 31). The actual maespan 25 s n the nterval of the fuzzy completon tme. Hence, the fuzzy schedule s feasble n reallfe shop floor and the fuzzy Gantt schedule can supply hgh qualty decson support for the practcal remanufacturng engneerng. Job number Operaton number Processng machne (3,1,2) (1,1,3) (4,1,4) (1,2,3) (3,2,4) (2,1,2) (2,2,3) (1,3,2) (4,2,1) (3,3,1) (4,3,4) (2,3,1) Operaton sequence Fg. 1 Illustraton of a soluton Table 1 Fuzzy processng tme Job Operaton Machne M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4
7 1 O 11 (2,4,8)  (4,5,7)  O 12 (6,8,12) (5,8,10) (6,7,10) (4,7,9) O 13 (8,9,12) (3,4,5) O 21 (5,9,10) (7,9,12) O 22 (2,4,5) (4,7,8) (1,2,4) O 23 (3,5,6) (1,3,4) (1,2,5) 3 O 31  (5,6,7)  (3,5,6) O 32 (1,2,3) (6,8,10) (5,9,11) (9,10,14) O 33 (1,3,4)  (4,6,8)  4 O 41  (5,7,9) (1,2,5) (1,2,3) O 42 (5,6,9) (4,5,7) (3,5,6) (1,2,3) O 43 (7,8,11)   (1,3,4) M4 M3 M2 M1 O 41 2 O 11 6 O 31 7 Fg. 2 The fuzzy Gantt chart of the example O 42 8 O O O O O O O Fg. 3 Gantt chart based on actual processng tme O 23 25
8 3.3 MnEnd heurstc The qualty of ntal populaton often affects the convergence of metaheurstc for FJSP problem. It s mportant to generate a good qualty ntal populaton. Many heurstc rules are proposed for machne assgnment and operaton sequencng n FJSP problem, such as, local mnmzng processng tme (LS) rule, global mnmzng processng tme rule (GS), most wor remanng rule (MReW) and most number of operatons remanng (MReO) rule (Pezzella, Morgant & Caschett, 2008). In ths study, we develop a new smple heurstc rule, named MnEnd heurstc, for ntalzng populaton. In ths rule, the operaton sequence s generated randomly. The processng machne s assgned based on the operaton order n operaton sequence. For each operaton, the machne wth the mnmum fuzzy completon tme wll be selected to process ths operaton. To show the MnEnd heurstc clearly, we tae the problem n Table 1 as an example. The soluton shown n Fg. 1 s used as operaton sequence. The processng machne s assgned based on the MnEnd heurstc. For the frst operaton ( 3,1 ), selectable machnes are M 2 and M 4. The fuzzy completon tme on machne M 2 s (5,6,7) whle the fuzzy completon tme on M 4 s (3,5,6). Based on the fuzzy TFNs ranng crtera, (5,6,7) s larger than (3,5,6). Hence, M 4 s selected for operaton ( 3,1 ). The avalable tme of M 4 for next operaton s (3,5,6). The second operaton s ( 1,1). The fuzzy completon on selectable machne M 1and M 3 are (2,4,8) and (4,5,7), respectvely. Machne M 1s selected and the avalable tme becomes (2,4,8). For thrd operaton ( 4,1), the Fg. 4 The fuzzy Gantt chart by MnEnd heurstc selectable machne are M 2, M 3 and M 4. The fuzzy completon tme on M 2 and M 3 are (5,7,9) and (1,2,5). Because the avalable tme of M 4 s (3,5,6), the fuzzy completon tme on M 4 s the addton of (3,5,6) and (1,2,3). Based on the TFNs addton operaton, the fuzzy completon tme s (4,7,9). Based on the TFNs ranng crtera, (1,2,5) s smaller than (5,7,9) and (4,7,9). So, M3 s selected for operaton ( 4,1) and the avalable tme becomes (1,2,5). All remanng operatons can be assgned one processng machne n the same way. The fnal operaton order on each machne are M1 O1,1, O3,2, O, 2, 2 M2 O2,1,O, 1, 3 M3 O4,1, O4,2, O3,3, O and 2,3 M4 O3,1, O1,2, O4, 3. The Gantt chart of fuzzy completon tme s shown n Fg. 4. Compare to the result (17,27,31) n Fg. 2, MnEnd heurstc gets better fuzzy completon tme (9,15,24). 3.4 Employed bee phase In ths phase, employed bee X generates a new food source X new. If the ftness of X new s equal to or better than that of X, X new wll replace X as a new food source; otherwse, X s retaned. To adapt FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme and encodng rule, the procedure for new food source s shown as follows: Procedure: Generatng new food source If (r1<p1) //r1 s a random value n [0,1], P1 s the probablty to generate new food source Select two employed bee X and p X, q X p X q X. If (r2<p2) If the ftness of X s better than that of p X, q X ; Else X p X. X q Else If the ftness of X s better than that of p q X, X X q ; Else X X p. For =1 to toper //toper s the total operaton number If (r3<p3) new X X Else X X new
9 Repar X new to mae sure the operatons of the same ob can satsfy the processng precedence. Else For =1 to toper //toper s the total operaton number If (r4<p4) If current machne has mnmum processng tme Select another machne randomly for Else Else X Select mnmum processng tme machne for Select two operatons If X a and X b a X a b and X, a b. are dfferent obs operatons X b Insert X at X poston. Repar X new to mae sure the operatons of the same ob can satsfy the processng precedence. End The repar operator for X new s to mae sure the same ob s operatons can be processed as sequental steps of operatons. The detal procedure of repar operator s shown as follows: Procedure: Repar operator for X new For 1 =1 to toper //toper s the total operaton number of all obs For 2=11 to 0 Two operatons O and 1, h O are selected. 1 2, h2 If 1 2 and h1 h2 Exchange the postons of operatons O and 1, h1 O 2, h2 Else Contnue End End Onlooer phase In onlooer bee phase, the ftnesses of all the employed bees are evaluated. A food source X s selected dependng on ts probablty value p calculated by expresson (10). The procedure to select a food source s shown as follows: Procedure: Select a food source Select two employed bee X and p X, q X p X q If (r2<p2) //r2 s a random n [0,1] If the ftness of X s better than that of p X q X X p Else X X q Else If the ftness of Else X X p X X q X s worse than that of p X, q End Once the food source X s selected, the onlooer bee wll update X usng the Procedure n Secton 4.3. If the new food source X new has equal or better ftness value than X, the new food source X new wll replace X as a new member n the populaton. 3.6 Scout bee phase If a food source X cannot be mproved through a predetermned number of trals Lmt, the food source s to be abandoned and the correspondng employed bee becomes a scout. A new food source wll be generated randomly. 3.7 Procedure of IABC In the IABC algorthm, the proposed MnEnd heurstc, GS heurstc rule, and random rule are used to ntal populaton. In the procedure to generate new food source, changng processng machne operator and operaton nsertng operator are employed for explotaton search. Better or worse food source selecton and scout bee operator are used for exploraton search. Based on the specal desgn above, the procedure of IABC algorthm s as follows: Procedure: IABC algorthm Step1: Set parameters, employed bee number, onlooer bee number, scout bee number. Step2: Intalze populaton usng MnEnd heurstc, global mnmzng processng tme rule and random rule. Step3: Perform employed bee phase. Step4: Perform onlooer bee phase. Step5: Update the best soluton. Step6: If Lmt s met, perform scout bee phase Step7: If the stop crteron s not satsfed, go to Step 3; else, output the best soluton Experment evaluaton and comparsons 4.1 Expermental setup To evaluate the performance of proposed IABC algorthm for mnmzng the maxmum fuzzy completon tme and the maxmum fuzzy machne worload crtera, experments and comparsons are conducted. Two sets of nstances are evaluated n ths study. Set one conssts of fve FJSP cases wth fuzzy processng tme. The szes are rangng from 10obs, 10 machnes and 40operatons to 15obs, 10machnes and 80 operatons. Set two ncludes eght nstances from one remanufacturng enterprse and the fuzzy processng tme are generated based on the hstorcal data of the correspondng
10 Maxmum fuzzy completon operatons and the experences of remanufacturng engneers. The sze s from 5obs, 4machnes and 23operatons to 20 obs, 15machnes and 355operatons. The proposed IABC algorthm s coded n C++ and run on Intel 2.40 GHz PC wth 2 GB memory. The parameters are set based on our prevous researched and compared algorthms as follows: employed bee 50; onlooer bee 100, scout bee 20, lmt 50, P1=0.8, P2=0.95, P3=0.2 and P4=0.5. For nstances n set one and the prevous four nstances n set two, the generaton s set to For the last four nstances n set two, the generaton s set to 4000 because the problem sze of these four nstances s larger than that of other nstances. All experments are carred out wth 30 replcatons. In IABC algorthm, the populaton s generated by MnEnd heurstc, GS heurstc and random rule. Sx groups wth dfferent number of solutons ntalzed by MnEnd and GS heurstcs are used to test results and convergence performance. MnEnd and GS heurstcs are for maxmum fuzzy completon tme obectve and maxmum fuzzy machne worload obectve. In ths test, MnEnd heurstc and GS heurstc ntalze the same number solutons for maxmum fuzzy completon tme obectve of nstance Reman 3. In sx groups, the solutons ntalzed by MnEnd and GS heurstcs are set to (2.5%, 2.5%), (5%, 5%), (10%, 10%), (20%, 20%), (30%, 30%), (40%, 40%). Average results and convergence curves by random ntalzaton (wthout MnEnd and GS heurstcs) are also presented. The average results n 30 runs for nstance Reman 3 are computed for the frst ranng crteron of TNF. The convergence curves and results of sx groups and random ntalzng are shown n Fg. 5. It can be seen clearly that all settngs wth MnEnd and GS heurstcs have better results than by random ntalzaton and the group wth (5%, 5%) settng has the best convergence curve and result. Hence, 5% solutons are ntalzed by MnEnd heurstc, 5% solutons are ntalzed by GS rule, and 90% solutons are ntalzed randomly. 4.2 Testng MnEnd heurstc Generaton To test MnEnd heurstc performance, fve cases n set one are evaluated by MnEnd heurstc, global mnmzng processng tme rule (GS), local mnmzng processng tme (LS), most wor remanng (MReW), most number of operatons remanng (MReO) and random heurstc rules. The maxmum fuzzy completon tme results are shown n Table 2 whle the maxmum fuzzy machne worload results are shown n Table 3. For the two obectves, best values, the average of the expected values and worst values n 30 runs are counted. 2.5%, 2.5% 5%, 5% 10%, 10% 20%, 20% 30%, 30% 40%, 40% Random Fg. 5 The convergence curves of sx group settngs and random ntalzaton Table 2 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme of fve cases by sx heurstcs Instance Algorthm Average value Best value Worst value Case1 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case2 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random
11 Case3 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case4 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case5 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Table 3 Maxmum fuzzy machne worload of fve cases by sx heurstcs Instance Algorthm Average value Best value Worst value Case1 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case2 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case3 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case4 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case5 MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Compared to random rule, MReW and MReO rules cannot mprove maxmum fuzzy completon tme and maxmum fuzzy machne worload results. MnEnd, GS and LS heurstc rules can yeld hgher qualty results than MReW, MReO and random rules. Among the sx heurstcs, MnEnd can fnd the best maxmum fuzzy completon tme results for all fve cases except the best value of case1. MnEnd heurstc get the best value (42,53,69) for case 1 whle LS heurstc rule obtans the best
12 value (22,46,58). GS rule can fnd the maxmum fuzzy completon tme results second only to MnEnd heurstc. For maxmum fuzzy machne worload obectve, GS heurstc rule obtans the best results for all fve cases except the best value of case 3. GS fnds the best value (32,44,55) for case 3 whle MnEnd heurstc fnds the best value (27,42,56). MnEnd heurstc can get the maxmum fuzzy machne worload results second only to the GS rule. To show the best results clearly, the best results data n Table 2 and Table 3 are n bold. Consderng the two obectves, MnEnd and GS are two effectve heurstc rules for FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. 4.3 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme obectve For the fve cases n set one, IABC algorthm s compared to sx exstng algorthms, EDA (Wand & Wang, 2013), HABC (Wang & Zhou, 2013), CGA (Le, 2010), DIGA (Le, 2012), PEGA (Pezzella, Morgant & Caschett, 2008) and PSO+SA (Xa & Wu, 2005). The results of average, best and worst values n 30 runs are shown n Table 4. The average CPU tmes of all the compared algorthms are lsted n Table 5. It can be seen from Table 4 that the proposed IABC algorthm performs better than EDA, HABC, CGA, DIGA, PEGA and PSO+SA algorthms. For fve cases, IABC algorthm can obtan better average results and best values than those of the sx compared algorthms. In 30 runs, IABC can fnd mnmum worst values for case 1, case 2 case 3 and case 4. EDA algorthm fnds mnmum worst value for case 5. The best soluton obtaned by IABC for case 1 s (19, 28, 39) and the Gantt chart of the best maxmum fuzzy completon tme s llustrated n Fg.6. Compared to the sx exstng algorthms, IABC has the mnmum average CPU tme. For case 1 to case 4, the average tme of IABC s less than 1.5 seconds. For the largest case, case 5, the average CPU tme s ust 2.41 seconds. Although the CPU frequences are dfferent among seven algorthms, we can conclude that the proposed IABC algorthm s the most effcent one. To further test the performance of the IABC algorthm, the eght remanufacturng nstances n set two are solved. The average, best and worst values by IABC algorthm and sx heurstcs are shown n Table 6. It can be seen from Table 6 that MnEnd heurstc obtans better results than other fve heurstcs. IABC can mprove MnEnd heurstc s results obvously for all nstances as shown n Table 4 and Table 6. IABC can mprove the average results by MnEnd more than 30% for all nstances. To show the schedulng results more clearly for eght nstances n set two, Fg.7 llustrates the best soluton s (26,38,54) fuzzy Gantt chart of nstance Reman 2 for maxmum fuzzy completon tme obectve. In addton, the average CPU tme and generaton for eght nstances n set two are shown n Table 7. It can be seen from Table 7 that average CPU tme for 1000 generatons s less than 3.5 seconds for nstance Reman 1 to Reman 4. For nstance Reman 5 and Reman 6, the average CPU tme s more than 30 seconds. The reason s that the nstances become larger and the generaton ncreases from 1000 to The nstance szes of Reman 7 and Reman 8 are 20obs, 10machnes, 308operatons and 20obs, 15machnes, 355operatons. The average CPU tme s seconds for Reman 7 and seconds for Reman8. Consderng the results and average CPU tmes, IABC algorthm s effectve for eght remanufacturng nstances wth maxmum fuzzy completon tme obectve. To show the convergence of IABC algorthm, Fg. 8 shows the convergence curves of three ranng crtera results by IABC for case 5 and Reman 8. For the same value of the frst ranng crteron, the values of the second and the thrd ranng crtera may become larger or smaller to show the change of results. For the same values of the frst and second ranng crtera, the thrd ranng crteron may become larger or smaller to show the change of results. Hence, the frst ranng crteron s nonncreasng for two nstances. The second and thrd ranng crtera may ncrease or decrease whle the thrd ranng crteron has larger fluctuatons than the second one. In summary, IABC algorthm s effect for fuzzy maxmum completon tme obectve of FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. In summary, IABC can obtan better fuzzy maxmum completon tme results than those by compared sx algorthms for fve benchmar cases n set one. For eght remanufacturng nstances n set two, ths study s the frst to solve them by ntellgent computaton algorthm. The results by IABC algorthm are compared to several smple heurstcs and MnEnd heurstc proposed n ths study. The comparsons and dscussons show that the IABC algorthm have better compettveness than smple heurstcs. The results for the remanufacturng nstances has been verfed n reallfe shop floor and the IABC algorthm has been ntegrated nto reschedulng system for fuzzy maxmum completon tme obectve. For the fuzzy maxmum completon tme obectve, IABC algorthm obtan hgh qualty schedulng solutons whch can guarantee the effectveness of reallfe remanufacturng management. The processng tme and the maxmum completon tme are presented usng trangular fuzzy number. The schedulng solutons are flexble to adapt to the feature of remanufacturng engneerng. It can mprove the controllablty of remanufacturng process. Table 4 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme by seven algorthms for fve cases Instance Algorthm Average value Best value Worst value Case1 IABC EDA HABC CGA
13 DIGA PEGA PSO+SA Case2 IABC EDA HABC CGA DIGA PEGA PSO+SA Case3 IABC EDA HABC CGA DIGA PEGA PSO+SA Case4 IABC EDA HABC CGA DIGA PEGA PSO+SA Case5 IABC EDA HABC CGA DIGA PEGA PSO+SA Table 5 CPU tme of seven algorthms for fve cases Algorthm Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 Case5 IABC a EDA b HABC c CGA d DIGA d PEGA d PSO+Sa d Notes: a 2.40GHz CPU, b 2.3GHz CPU, c 2.83GHz CPU, d 1.7GHz CPU Table 6 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme by IABC and sx heurstcs for eght Reman nstances Instance Algorthm Average value Best value Worst value Reman 1 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 2 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW
14 MReO Random Reman 3 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 4 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 5 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 6 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman7 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman8 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random
15 Fg. 6 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme Gantt chart of case 1 by IABC Table 7 CPU tme and generaton of IABC algorthm for eght Reman nstances Instance CPU tme Generaton Instance CPU tme Generaton Reman Reman Reman Reman Reman Reman Reman Reman Notes: 2.40GHz CPU
16 obectve obectve case 5 Fg. 7 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme Gantt chart of Reman 2 by IABC (t1+2*t2+t3)/ Generaton t2 t3t Reman 8 (t1+2*t2+t3)/4 t2 t3t Generaton Fg. 8 Maxmum fuzzy completon tme convergence curves of case 5 and Reman 8
17 4.4 Fuzzy maxmum machne worload obectve For maxmum fuzzy machne worload obectve, we compared IABC algorthm to sx heurstcs, namely MnEnd, GS, LS, MReW, MaxReO and random rule. To show IABC algorthm performance, the followng formula s employed: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (12) there, and are the results of heurstc represented by TFN;, and are the result of IABC algorthm represented by TFN. ( ) s the frst crteron to compare two TFNs. Snce the results by IABC algorthm are better than those by the sx heurstcs, the frst crteron s enough to compare them. It s clear that the larger the ( ) s, IABC algorthm s more compettve than heurstc. For fve cases nset one, the maxmum fuzzy machne worload results of IABC algorthm and ( ) values of sx heurstcs are shown n Table 8. It can be seen from Table 8 that the average results by sx heurstcs are larger than those of IABC by at least 10.6% for fve cases. The best values and worst values by sx heurstcs are larger than those of IABC by at least 4.6% and 14% for fve cases, respectvely. For eght nstances n set two, the maxmum fuzzy machne worload results of IABC and sx heurstcs are evaluated. The ( ) results of sx heurstcs to IABC algorthm are also computed. All the results are shown n Table 9. It can be seen from Table 9 that IABC algorthm can mprove the average result, best value and worst value results by sx heurstcs. For nstance Reman 1, IABC fnd the same result n 30 runs because ths nstance s a smallscale problem wth 5ob, 4machne and 23operaton. The average results of sx heurstcs are larger than those obtaned by IABC by at least 16.7% for eght remanufacturng nstances. The best values of sx heurstcs are larger than those obtaned by IABC by at least 8.0%. Except for nstance Reman 1, the best values by sx heurstcs are larger than those obtaned by IABC by at least 14.4%. The worst values of the sx heurstcs are larger than those of IABC by at least 20.3%. To show the maxmum machne worload results by IABC clearly, Fg. 9 and Fg. 10 show the best fuzzy Gantt charts of case 1 and nstance Reman 2. The maxmum fuzzy machne worload of case1 s (17,25,35) n the best soluton whle the maxmum fuzzy machne worload of nstance Reman 2 s (13,30,41). In addton, the CPU tme and generaton of IABC algorthm are shown n Table 10. For fve cases n set one and the prevous four nstances n set two, the generatons are 1000 and the CPU tmes are less than 3.5 seconds. For the last four nstances n set two, the generatons are 4000 and the CPU tmes are 25.23, 30.07, and seconds, respectvely. Wth respect to the scale of problems, the CPU tme s very short for all thrteen problems. To show the convergence of IABC for maxmum fuzzy machne worload obectve, Fg. 11 presents the curves of three ranng crtera results by IABC for case 5 and Reman 8. Smlar to convergence of maxmum fuzzy completon tme, the frst ranng crteron s nonncreasng for two nstances. The second and thrd ranng crtera may ncrease or decrease whle the thrd ranng crteron has larger fluctuatons than the second one. In summary, IABC algorthm has good performance for fuzzy maxmum machne worload obectve for FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. For fuzzy maxmum machne worload obectve, ths study s the frst to consder n FJSP wth fuzzy processng tme. To solve the fve benchmar cases n set one and the eght remanufacturng nstances n set two, we frst test the results by MnEnd, GS, LS, MReW, MReO and random heurstcs. The IABC algorthm s compared the above heurstcs by evaluatng the percentage mprovement. IABC algorthm can mprove the results by heurstcs for both fve benchmar cases and eght remanufacturng nstances obvously. The ABC algorthm has been ntegrated nto remanufacturng schedulng system for more reallfe nstances. Hence, IABC algorthm s feasble for fuzzy maxmum completon tme and fuzzy maxmum machne worload obectves. The schedulng solutons by IABC algorthm can match the practcal requrement n remanufacturng engneerng and can supply hgh decson support for remanufacturng management. For the fuzzy maxmum machne worload obectve, the hgh qualty schedulng solutons by IABC algorthm can balance and control the utlzaton of all machnes effectvely. It can effectvely avod machne breadown due to overload and guarantee remanufacturng smooth progress. Table 8 Maxmum fuzzy machne worload by IABC and mprovement to sx heurstcs for fve cases Instance Algorthm Average value % Best value % Worst value % Case1 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case2 IABC MnEnd
18 GS LS MReW MReO Random Case3 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case4 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Case5 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Table 9 Maxmum fuzzy machne worload by IABC and sx heurstcs for eght Reman nstances Instance Algorthm Average value % Best value % Worst value % Reman 1 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 2 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 3 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 4 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random
19 Reman 5 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman 6 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman7 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Reman8 IABC MnEnd GS LS MReW MReO Random Table 10 CPU tme and generaton of IABC algorthm for all nstances Instance CPU tme Generaton Instance CPU tme Generaton case Reman case Reman case Reman case Reman case Reman Reman Reman Reman Notes: 2.40GHz CPU
20 Fg. 9 Maxmum fuzzy machne worload Gantt chart of case 1 by IABC Fg. 10 Maxmum fuzzy machne worload Gantt chart of Reman 2 by IABC
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