# A Euclidic Paradigm of Freemasonry

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 A Euclidic Paradigm of Freemasonry Every Mason has an intuition that Freemasonry is a unique vessel, carrying within it something special. Many have cultivated a profound interpretation of the Masonic work that they indeed, find useful in navigating their way through the tumult of daily living. Still, many others ponder the symbols and contemplate the allegories only to find themselves more perplexed. The Euclidic Paradigm is an effort to explain an overall pattern contained within just one example of Masonic symbolism, though the paradigm is repeated in many different forms throughout Masonry. The right angle triangle described to us as the 47th Problem of Euclid is a multi-layered geometric symbol that summarizes much of what Masonry has to teach, and it will suffice as our basis to explain the tiers of the Euclidic Paradigm of Freemasonry. The right angle triangle is composed of three parts, the base, the perpendicular, and the hypotenuse.the 47th Problem of Euclid defines these parts as 3, 4, and 5 respectively, and repeats the Pythagorean Theorem as stating that the sum of the square of the base (3 3=9), plus the sum of the square of the perpendicular (4 4=16) is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. The addition of the sum of the square of the base to the sum of the square of the perpendicular is equal to 25, i.e = 25. The square root of 25 is obviously 5 and as such represents the hypotenuse. The theorem has specific applications in building and construction insomuch as it is used to square buildings and used for defining certain distances. Operative Masons must certainly have used the theorem in medieval constructions, and it was likely an important secret that elevated them to a privileged class of workers. By the seventeenth century additional speculative layers of a more esoteric nature had been realized in the theorem. Here we find the second layer of meaning added to this geometrical symbol. Let us replace the base and the number 3 with the term Entered Apprentice; replace the perpendicular and the number 4 with the term Fellow Craft, and replace the hypotenuse and the number 5 with term Master Mason. Can we create a definition whereby these terms have substance in the context of the geometrical design? How might the Entered Apprentice correlate with the base, the Fellow Craft with the perpendicular, and the Master Mason with the hypotenuse?

2 Clearly the base is the shortest of the three lines and accordingly is assigned the shortest of the three dimensions. In this respect it correlates with the lowest degree in Symbolic Masonry. The perpendicular is in length assigned the number 4 and represents a measurement that is between the Entered Apprentice (the base) and the Master Mason (the hypotenuse) degree and therefore the perpendicular clearly represents the Fellow Craft in this paradigm. The hypotenuse is presented in the theorem as the number 5 representing the longest or greatest measurement of the right angle triangle. The theorem states that the determination of the hypotenuse is dependent on the base and the perpendicular. Within the ritual the third degree is clearly dependent upon the candidate being initiated and passed before he can attain the most valuable third degree. Thus, we can with confidence transpose each of the three degrees for the assigned numerical measurements given in the theorem, and thereby represent the three degrees of Freemasonry. The transposition model enhances the 47th Problem of Euclid considerably from the perspective of a ritualistic assignment where we find it described within the work and apparent in how the Lesser Lights are laid out upon the floor of the Lodge. It still however, leaves us with a cloudy understanding of the meaning imparted in this important symbol. Therefore, the terms Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason must still be expanded further in the crafting of the Euclidic Paradigm. In considering the term Entered Apprentice we come to appreciate the Entered Apprentice as the lower form of the Masonic mystery. In the operative period the Entered Apprentice was the physical laborer, the bearer of burden, the mason that worked with his back rather than his brain. He was given orders and expected to submit to the lower levels of labor and required direct supervision due to his lack of knowledge. His degree of understanding for the theory of masonry was little to none. Considering these characteristics, we might easily today represent the Entered Apprentice as the physicality, the body, or the brawn, one without a depth of knowledge, at least as far as the mysteries of the Craft are concerned. We can associate the Entered Apprentice in allegorical form as that which is focused on the vanity of physical appearance and demands, the needs and drives of the body, the contentiousness of mankind, and the self-focus. This is not to be thought of as a negative in anyway since it is the physical body as the ignorant laborer that houses that higher component, which we call the intellect. It is a third of the components that comprise the divine creation of humanity and a needed component in an understanding of who we really are. Given our physical natures we are all sometimes still, Entered Apprentices. Examination of the Fellow Craft indicates that these were Masons of the operative period that could think and plan, make decisions without over the shoulder supervision, that were not yet masterful, but could nonetheless combine the talents of mind with those of body to accomplish a masonry construction. Within the speculative form, the Fellow Craft degree represents an unequivocal intellectual capability as is defined in the components of the Stairway Lecture. The Fellow Craft has learned to subordinate his physical demands and direct himself in an intelligent manner in order to accomplish some particular end. Within the speculative framework, the Fellow Craft unequivocally represents the uprightness of the perpendicular. The geometrical theorem tells us that the hypotenuse is the combination of the sum of the square of the base plus the sum of the square of the perpendicular. If the hypotenuse does in truth represent the third degree or the Master Mason then we can inferentially reason that a Master Mason is one

3 who has learned to perfectly couple his physicality with his intellectual skills and can arrive at the theoretical square of his whole self, but moreover can distill that down to his true identity, which is his own divinity represented by the inducted square root. The true Master Mason moves masterfully within his temporal existence, which is to say that he is in perfect balance in his own duality. It is apparent from the transposition model that a substantive transition can be made from the geometrical theorem to a Masonic degree diagram. In expanding order then, we have a right angle triangle represented by the numerical values of 3, 4, and 5, followed by the terms base, perpendicular, and hypotenuse, which can be transliterated into Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. By characterizing the degree names with terms inherent in each of the three degrees we begin to see the components of the Masonic characterization of our human sojourn, those being the physical, the intellectual, and the spiritual element or divinity of man. The Euclidic Paradigm of Freemasonry then, qualifies for each Mason the components of temporal life. It would seem that sometimes we are in the mode of the Entered Apprentice when we are me focused. When the various passions of life dictate one s behavior or interpersonal transactions, we are likely being ruled as the Entered Apprentice. Most conflicts are the result of two or more people focused on what they individually want. Their view is circumscribed solely to themselves in blindness to their brotherhood as originating from the One. A basis in fact can be presumed here as the Entered Apprentice degree teaches first and foremost the need to subdue one s passions. This does not solely imply the passions as so often interpreted to mean sexuality, but in a much broader sense the passions of all physicality, the assumptions of the validity of material existence. When the self is demanding and unyielding, it is almost a certainty that the Entered Apprentice is ruling, lacking in awareness and understanding that this world is largely transitory and some would say fully illusionary, and insisting on a materialistic one-dimensional view with the self view as the foremost objective. Balance between physicality and reason is woefully lacking. Within the paradigm it is clear with even a casual notice that he who considers carefully, expresses thoughtfully, and calms conflict is one who has learned to balance the physical nature with intelligent reasoning. He is representative of the sum of the square of his laborer self plus the sum of the square of his intellectual or thoughtful self, and is more of a two dimensional expression within the temporal experience. Occasionally, we can succumb to pure intellectualization just as we repeatedly fall into the trap of the me-focus. Therefore, even in the mode of Fellow Craft, we can become one dimensional as the expression indicates, all talk, no action. The true Fellow Craft has a comfortable balance between thought (intelligence) and action (labor) and is therefore bi-dimensional. The ritual informs us that it is unknown as to whether or not any of us will ever truly be a Master Mason. How can this be? In understanding the Euclidic Paradigm we of necessity must understand the geometrical theorem first. From the calculation of the sum of the square of the base plus the sum of the square of the perpendicular, we only arrive at the square of the hypotenuse, not the hypotenuse per se, that requires yet another step, i.e. solving for the square root. There is nothing in the theorem that advises us to calculate the square root of that square, which in esoteric terms, must be self-evident. He who explores must choose to take the final step. The ritual work gives us all three dimensions as 3, 4, and 5, but in fact the theorem requires that we actually find the square root in order to calculate the hypotenuse. Within the Euclidic Paradigm it is a clear suggestion that

4 each Master Mason must find it for himself as the total sum of all his parts. At best, most Masons may only achieve mastery but for a momentary time. Such momentary experience is analogous to the square of the hypotenuse not the hypotenuse itself. This occurs when the lower physical being is coupled with the higher intelligent being in perfect unity and balance, perfectly balanced thought and action understood in its duality. When we learn to maintain perfection of that balance, the square root must become readily apparent. These are the ones who have found the essence of their duality and become the teachers and examples to their brothers.the Euclidic Paradigm of Freemasonry is the vessel, which carries the composite fragments of truth expounded by the world s great religions, but which has become obscured through dogmatic insistence on being the one sole truth for all mankind. From the Judaic we learn of the equilibrium of certain contraries as infinite attributes of Deity. From Christianity we learn of the hope of redemption, and from Islam we gain deeper insight into the oneness of God. Taken in the context of the 47th Problem of Euclid we can then appreciate the contraries of mercy and justice. Here is a clear reference to the nature of cause and effect as manifested within the concept of the base, the Entered Apprentice, the physicality, and the world of temporal conflict and the single dimensionality of labor alone. Yet it is part of the whole of the infinite oneness and cannot be dismissed, as it is a part of the divine exercise of creation. By examining the idea of hope of redemption we must necessarily conclude an intellectual process, since there cannot be a concept of hope without some contemplation of a need for something better. By implication we surmise that one has then determined through thought, that something has been analyzed or considered and therefore, hopes for something more. Therefore in the Christian model we find the second component of the paradigm consisting of the intellectual process deemed within the ritual work of Masonry as the Fellow Craft and corresponding to the geometrical perpendicular. Islam assists us in gaining insight into the oneness of God, and here we find an example where the concepts of the base and the perpendicular become united as represented by the sum of the squares of the base and the perpendicular. Stated according to the Euclidic paradigm, it is a unification and perfect balance of the physicality, intellectual reasoning, and the spirituality of man all clearly recognizable as the greater and lesser mysteries or capacities contained within man and yet established in perfect balance. The paradigm is further supported by the additional hidden mysteries of Masonry, which inform us of our true origin and destination, the reasons for our presence here, and the explanations for the Masonic tools and skills, which we must learn to use and understand in order to perfect the unity and balance of a coherent disequilibria in a tri-fold humanity. The Euclidic Paradigm then consists of five overlapping right angle triangles. The first provides the numerical sequence 3, 4, and 5. The second defines the terms base, perpendicular, and hypotenuse. The third transposes those terms to Enter Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. In the fourth, the degree names are defined by their nature. In the fifth and last, three of the world s major religions, all originating with Abraham and defining the balance and duality necessary to attaining the degree of Master Mason are identified. By definition of language, a Master Mason is one who is masterful, meaning masterful of the self as the great end of our Order. Mastery may only be achieved through a realization of our tri-fold humanity, body, mind, and spirit with spirituality being that part for which we solve in identifying the hypotenuse. Given the number of sides in the right

5 angle triangle and the number of triangular layers within the Euclidic Paradigm, it becomes apparent that the paradigm also represents for us the symbolic name of Deity, which in this interpretation is taken to represent the divine spark within each Mason and therefore, qualifies the paradigm even further. Through an understanding of the underlying symbolism contained within a simple geometrical form, the Master Mason can come to a realization of his identity in appreciating who he really is while ever continuing to use all the tools given him in order to integrate his thoughts and actions for the sacred purpose to which he has been initiated, passed, and raised. That purpose is without doubt stated and enacted within our ritualistic portrayals and symbols of ancient truths which tell us that we are spiritual beings first and come here of our own free will and accord to create. We are given the tools to navigate the temporal world while simultaneously told the means to remain connected to our source. All then concludes with that heinous culmination feared by the unenlightened and which is the grand fiction made horrid by the ignorance of the multitude when in truth, it is a mere return to place from which we came.

### Conclusion. One way of characterizing the project Kant undertakes in the Critique of Pure Reason is by

Conclusion One way of characterizing the project Kant undertakes in the Critique of Pure Reason is by saying that he seeks to articulate a plausible conception of what it is to be a finite rational subject

### 2 Unified Reality Theory

INTRODUCTION In 1859, Charles Darwin published a book titled On the Origin of Species. In that book, Darwin proposed a theory of natural selection or survival of the fittest to explain how organisms evolve

### Unified Reality Theory in a Nutshell

Unified Reality Theory in a Nutshell 200 Article Steven E. Kaufman * ABSTRACT Unified Reality Theory describes how all reality evolves from an absolute existence. It also demonstrates that this absolute

### Plotinus and the Principal of Incommensurability By Frater Michael McKeown, VI Grade Presented on 2/25/18 (Scheduled for 11/19/17) Los Altos, CA

Plotinus and the Principal of Incommensurability By Frater Michael McKeown, VI Grade Presented on 2/25/18 (Scheduled for 11/19/17) Los Altos, CA My thesis as to the real underlying secrets of Freemasonry

### SYSTEM-PURPOSE METHOD: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS Ramil Dursunov PhD in Law University of Fribourg, Faculty of Law ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

SYSTEM-PURPOSE METHOD: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS Ramil Dursunov PhD in Law University of Fribourg, Faculty of Law ABSTRACT This article observes methodological aspects of conflict-contractual theory

### Necessity in Kant; Subjective and Objective

Necessity in Kant; Subjective and Objective DAVID T. LARSON University of Kansas Kant suggests that his contribution to philosophy is analogous to the contribution of Copernicus to astronomy each involves

### Immanuel Kant Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel Kant Critique of Pure Reason THE A PRIORI GROUNDS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF EXPERIENCE THAT a concept, although itself neither contained in the concept of possible experience nor consisting of elements

### Humanities as Narrative: Why Experiential Knowledge Counts

Humanities as Narrative: Why Experiential Knowledge Counts Natalie Gulsrud Global Climate Change and Society 9 August 2002 In an essay titled Landscape and Narrative, writer Barry Lopez reflects on the

### 13 René Guénon. The Arts and their Traditional Conception. From the World Wisdom online library:

From the World Wisdom online library: www.worldwisdom.com/public/library/default.aspx 13 René Guénon The Arts and their Traditional Conception We have frequently emphasized the fact that the profane sciences

### 1/8. The Third Paralogism and the Transcendental Unity of Apperception

1/8 The Third Paralogism and the Transcendental Unity of Apperception This week we are focusing only on the 3 rd of Kant s Paralogisms. Despite the fact that this Paralogism is probably the shortest of

### Plato s work in the philosophy of mathematics contains a variety of influential claims and arguments.

Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Spring 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #3 - Plato s Platonism Sample Introductory Material from Marcus and McEvoy, An Historical Introduction

### SocioBrains THE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ART

THE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ART Tatyana Shopova Associate Professor PhD Head of the Center for New Media and Digital Culture Department of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Arts South-West University

The Object Oriented Paradigm By Sinan Si Alhir (October 23, 1998) Updated October 23, 1998 Abstract The object oriented paradigm is a concept centric paradigm encompassing the following pillars (first

### 1/9. Descartes on Simple Ideas (2)

1/9 Descartes on Simple Ideas (2) Last time we began looking at Descartes Rules for the Direction of the Mind and found in the first set of rules a description of a key contrast between intuition and deduction.

### The Universality of Sacred Art

The Universality of Sacred Art Titus Burckhardt From Sacred Art in East and West. Republished in The Essential Titus Burckhardt, World Wisdom, 2003 When historians of art apply the term sacred to any and

### Culture and Art Criticism

Culture and Art Criticism Dr. Wagih Fawzi Youssef May 2013 Abstract This brief essay sheds new light on the practice of art criticism. Commencing by the definition of a work of art as contingent upon intuition,

### The poetry of space Creating quality space Poetic buildings are all based on a set of basic principles and design tools. Foremost among these are:

Poetic Architecture A spiritualized way for making Architecture Konstantinos Zabetas Poet-Architect Structural Engineer Developer Volume I Number 16 Making is the Classical-original meaning of the term

### Existential Cause & Individual Experience

Existential Cause & Individual Experience 226 Article Steven E. Kaufman * ABSTRACT The idea that what we experience as physical-material reality is what's actually there is the flat Earth idea of our time.

### Philosophical Background to 19 th Century Modernism

Philosophical Background to 19 th Century Modernism Early Modern Philosophy In the sixteenth century, European artists and philosophers, influenced by the rise of empirical science, faced a formidable

### BOOK REVIEW. William W. Davis

BOOK REVIEW William W. Davis Douglas R. Hofstadter: Codel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid. Pp. xxl + 777. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1979. Hardcover, \$10.50. This is, principle something

### 2 nd Grade Visual Arts Curriculum Essentials Document

2 nd Grade Visual Arts Curriculum Essentials Document Boulder Valley School District Department of Curriculum and Instruction February 2012 Introduction The Boulder Valley Elementary Visual Arts Curriculum

### A Study of the Bergsonian Notion of <Sensibility>

A Study of the Bergsonian Notion of Ryu MURAKAMI Although rarely pointed out, Henri Bergson (1859-1941), a French philosopher, in his later years argues on from his particular

### Humanities 4: Lecture 19. Friedrich Schiller: On the Aesthetic Education of Man

Humanities 4: Lecture 19 Friedrich Schiller: On the Aesthetic Education of Man Biography of Schiller 1759-1805 Studied medicine Author, historian, dramatist, & poet The Robbers (1781) Ode to Joy (1785)

### The purpose of this essay is to impart a basic vocabulary that you and your fellow

Music Fundamentals By Benjamin DuPriest The purpose of this essay is to impart a basic vocabulary that you and your fellow students can draw on when discussing the sonic qualities of music. Excursions

### CRAFTING THE MASONIC VISION Presented to Barron Barnett Research Lodge No 146 UGLQ on 17 th July 2013 by V W Bro Tony Tabrett PGLib This Paper is an

1 CRAFTING THE MASONIC VISION Presented to Barron Barnett Research Lodge No 146 UGLQ on 17 th July 2013 by V W Bro Tony Tabrett PGLib This Paper is an abridged version of my 2012 Kellerman Lecture on the

### What do our appreciation of tonal music and tea roses, our acquisition of the concepts

Normativity and Purposiveness What do our appreciation of tonal music and tea roses, our acquisition of the concepts of a triangle and the colour green, and our cognition of birch trees and horseshoe crabs

### Impact of the Fundamental Tension between Poetic Craft and the Scientific Principles which Lucretius Introduces in De Rerum Natura

JoHanna Przybylowski 21L.704 Revision of Assignment #1 Impact of the Fundamental Tension between Poetic Craft and the Scientific Principles which Lucretius Introduces in De Rerum Natura In his didactic

### Truth and Method in Unification Thought: A Preparatory Analysis

Truth and Method in Unification Thought: A Preparatory Analysis Keisuke Noda Ph.D. Associate Professor of Philosophy Unification Theological Seminary New York, USA Abstract This essay gives a preparatory

### Response to Bennett Reimer's "Why Do Humans Value Music?"

Response to Bennett Reimer's "Why Do Humans Value Music?" Commission Author: Robert Glidden Robert Glidden is president of Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Let me begin by offering commendations to Professor

### On The Search for a Perfect Language

On The Search for a Perfect Language Submitted to: Peter Trnka By: Alex Macdonald The correspondence theory of truth has attracted severe criticism. One focus of attack is the notion of correspondence

### Steven E. Kaufman * Key Words: existential mechanics, reality, experience, relation of existence, structure of reality. Overview

November 2011 Vol. 2 Issue 9 pp. 1299-1314 Article Introduction to Existential Mechanics: How the Relations of to Itself Create the Structure of Steven E. Kaufman * ABSTRACT This article presents a general

### The Discussion about Truth Viewpoint and its Significance on the View of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy

Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 4(21): 4515-4519, 2012 ISSN: 2040-7467 Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012 Submitted: May 15, 2012 Accepted: June 15, 2012 Published:

### 7. This composition is an infinite configuration, which, in our own contemporary artistic context, is a generic totality.

Fifteen theses on contemporary art Alain Badiou 1. Art is not the sublime descent of the infinite into the finite abjection of the body and sexuality. It is the production of an infinite subjective series

### Louis Althusser, What is Practice?

Louis Althusser, What is Practice? The word practice... indicates an active relationship with the real. Thus one says of a tool that it is very practical when it is particularly well adapted to a determinate

### Heideggerian Ontology: A Philosophic Base for Arts and Humanties Education

Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education ISSN: 2326-7070 (Print) ISSN: 2326-7062 (Online) Volume 2 Issue 1 (1983) pps. 56-60 Heideggerian Ontology: A Philosophic Base for Arts and Humanties Education

### The University Gallery is pleased to present Shirazeh Houshiary; Turning Around the Centre, an exhibition of recent sculpture and drawings by an

The University Gallery is pleased to present Shirazeh Houshiary; Turning Around the Centre, an exhibition of recent sculpture and drawings by an Iranian-born artist who has lived in London since 1973.

### According to you what is mathematics and geometry

According to you what is mathematics and geometry Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEKKOYUN ISBN: 978-605-63313-3-6 Year of Publication:2014 Press:1. Press Address: Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Economy

### Musical Sound: A Mathematical Approach to Timbre

Sacred Heart University DigitalCommons@SHU Writing Across the Curriculum Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) Fall 2016 Musical Sound: A Mathematical Approach to Timbre Timothy Weiss (Class of 2016) Sacred

### Nature as a substitute for human social intercourse in Emily Dickinson's poetry

Jeff Tibbetts: 00134815 Bluford Adams 008:105:001 November 14, 2005 Nature as a substitute for human social intercourse in Emily Dickinson's poetry Emily Dickinson's poetry is populated with few human

### The Teaching Method of Creative Education

Creative Education 2013. Vol.4, No.8A, 25-30 Published Online August 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ce) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.48a006 The Teaching Method of Creative Education

### High School Photography 1 Curriculum Essentials Document

High School Photography 1 Curriculum Essentials Document Boulder Valley School District Department of Curriculum and Instruction February 2012 Introduction The Boulder Valley Elementary Visual Arts Curriculum

### Università della Svizzera italiana. Faculty of Communication Sciences. Master of Arts in Philosophy 2017/18

Università della Svizzera italiana Faculty of Communication Sciences Master of Arts in Philosophy 2017/18 Philosophy. The Master in Philosophy at USI is a research master with a special focus on theoretical

### Tokyo Story was directed by Yasujiro Ozu and released in Japan in It is about an old married couple that travels to Tokyo to visit their

Tokyo Story was directed by Yasujiro Ozu and released in Japan in 1953. It is about an old married couple that travels to Tokyo to visit their children. They are greeted warmly, but are treated as if they

### Notes on a Visual Philosophy. by Agnes Denes. Hyperion, Volume I, issue 3, October 2006

Notes on a Visual Philosophy by Agnes Denes Hyperion, Volume I, issue 3, October 2006 Notes on a Visual Philosophy by Agnes Denes 1 H y p e r i o n N o t e s o n a Vi s u a l Philosophy INTRODUCTION There

### The Greatest Invention in the World. Marshall High School Mr. Cline Western Civilization II Unit TWO JA

The Greatest Invention in the World Marshall High School Mr. Cline Western Civilization II Unit TWO JA The State of Literacy in Medieval Europe The rise of Christianity in the West was terrible news for

### Excerpt: Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

Excerpt: Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/epm/1st.htm We shall start out from a present-day economic fact. The worker becomes poorer the

### Correlation to the Common Core State Standards

Correlation to the Common Core State Standards Go Math! 2011 Grade 4 Common Core is a trademark of the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers.

### The Doctrine of the Mean

The Doctrine of the Mean In subunit 1.6, you learned that Aristotle s highest end for human beings is eudaimonia, or well-being, which is constituted by a life of action by the part of the soul that has

### Confronting the Absurd in Notes from Underground. Camus The Myth of Sisyphus discusses the possibility of living in a world full of

Claire Deininger PHIL 4305.501 Dr. Amato Confronting the Absurd in Notes from Underground Camus The Myth of Sisyphus discusses the possibility of living in a world full of absurdities and the ways in which

### The Senses at first let in particular Ideas. (Essay Concerning Human Understanding I.II.15)

Michael Lacewing Kant on conceptual schemes INTRODUCTION Try to imagine what it would be like to have sensory experience but with no ability to think about it. Thinking about sensory experience requires

### LANGUAGE THROUGH THE LENS OF HERACLITUS'S LOGOS

LANGUAGE THROUGH THE LENS OF HERACLITUS'S LOGOS NATASHA WILTZ ABSTRACT This paper deals with Heraclitus s understanding of Logos and how his work can help us understand various components of language:

### mcs 2015/5/18 1:43 page 15 #23

1.7 Proof by Cases mcs 2015/5/18 1:43 page 15 #23 Breaking a complicated proof into cases and proving each case separately is a common, useful proof strategy. Here s an amusing example. Let s agree that

### Aristotle on the Human Good

24.200: Aristotle Prof. Sally Haslanger November 15, 2004 Aristotle on the Human Good Aristotle believes that in order to live a well-ordered life, that life must be organized around an ultimate or supreme

### Aesthetics Mid-Term Exam Review Guide:

Aesthetics Mid-Term Exam Review Guide: Be sure to know Postman s Amusing Ourselves to Death: Here is an outline of the things I encourage you to focus on to prepare for mid-term exam. I ve divided it all

### Chapter 2: Karl Marx Test Bank

Chapter 2: Karl Marx Test Bank Multiple-Choice Questions: 1. Which of the following is a class in capitalism according to Marx? a) Protestants b) Wage laborers c) Villagers d) All of the above 2. Marx

### 1/8. Axioms of Intuition

1/8 Axioms of Intuition Kant now turns to working out in detail the schematization of the categories, demonstrating how this supplies us with the principles that govern experience. Prior to doing so he

### why? (tehran lecture)

why? (tehran lecture) why? tehran lecture The criterion for acceptance 10. Do not go upon what has been acquired by repeated hearing; nor upon tradition; nor upon rumor; nor upon what is in a scripture;

### Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, DC ) ) ) ) ) ) ) OPPOSITION OF PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE PETITION FOR RECONSIDERATION OF

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, DC 20554 In the Matter of Revision of Part 15 of the Commission s Rules to Permit unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII Devices

### Observations on the Long Take

Observations on the Long Take Author(s): Pier Paolo Pasolini, Norman MacAfee, Craig Owens Source: October, Vol. 13, (Summer, 1980), pp. 3-6 Published by: The MIT Press http://www.jstor.org Observations

### A Comparative study of vocal music education between China and the United States

Advances in Educational Technology and Psychology (2018) 2: 200-204 Clausius Scientific Press, Canada A Comparative study of vocal music education between China and the United States Yuhang Zhang Conservatory

### Emília Simão Portuguese Catholic University, Portugal. Armando Malheiro da Silva University of Porto, Portugal

xv Preface The electronic dance music (EDM) has given birth to a new understanding of certain relations: men and machine, art and technology, ancient rituals and neo-ritualism, ancestral and postmodern

### Hegel's Absolute: An Introduction to Reading the Phenomenology of Spirit

Book Reviews 63 Hegel's Absolute: An Introduction to Reading the Phenomenology of Spirit Verene, D.P. State University of New York Press, Albany, 2007 Review by Fabio Escobar Castelli, Erie Community College

### Categories and Schemata

Res Cogitans Volume 1 Issue 1 Article 10 7-26-2010 Categories and Schemata Anthony Schlimgen Creighton University Follow this and additional works at: http://commons.pacificu.edu/rescogitans Part of the

### Comparing Neo-Aristotelian, Close Textual Analysis, and Genre Criticism

Gruber 1 Blake J Gruber Rhet-257: Rhetorical Criticism Professor Hovden 12 February 2010 Comparing Neo-Aristotelian, Close Textual Analysis, and Genre Criticism The concept of rhetorical criticism encompasses

### Learning Objectives Lower Grammar Stage. Kindergarten: The Cradle of Civilization Year First Grade: The Greek Year Second Grade: The Roman Year

Learning Objectives Lower Grammar Stage Kindergarten: The Cradle of Civilization Year First Grade: The Greek Year Second Grade: The Roman Year History Objectives Understand history and culture as human

### No (I, p. 208f)

No. 230.1 (I, p. 208f) 1. It is straightforward to specify and distinguish the sciences, just like all habits and powers, by their formal objects. 2. But the difficult thing is the way in which this object

### 2007 Issue No. 15 Walter Benjamin and the Virtual Politicizing Art : Benjamin s Redemptive Critique of Technology in the Age of Fascism

2/18/2016 TRANSFORMATIONS Journal of Media & Culture ISSN 1444 3775 2007 Issue No. 15 Walter Benjamin and the Virtual Politicizing Art : Benjamin s Redemptive Critique of Technology in the Age of Fascism

### Here s a question for you: What happens if we try to go the other way? For instance:

Prime Numbers It s pretty simple to multiply two numbers and get another number. Here s a question for you: What happens if we try to go the other way? For instance: With a little thinking remembering

### INTUITION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS

INTUITION IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS MATHEMATICS EDUCATION LIBRARY Managing Editor A. J. Bishop, Cambridge, U.K. Editorial Board H. Bauersfeld, Bielefeld, Germany H. Freudenthal, Utrecht, Holland J. Kilpatnck,

### Relational Logic in a Nutshell Planting the Seed for Panosophy The Theory of Everything

Relational Logic in a Nutshell Planting the Seed for Panosophy The Theory of Everything We begin at the end and we shall end at the beginning. We can call the beginning the Datum of the Universe, that

### STUDENTS EXPERIENCES OF EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

STUDENTS EXPERIENCES OF EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS Amir H Asghari University of Warwick We engaged a smallish sample of students in a designed situation based on equivalence relations (from an expert point

### CAROL HUNTS University of Kansas

Freedom as a Dialectical Expression of Rationality CAROL HUNTS University of Kansas I The concept of what we may noncommittally call forward movement has an all-pervasive significance in Hegel's philosophy.

### Complimentary Dualism

Metaphors of Transformative Change Colloquium, University College Cork, 15 th September 2017 Complimentary Dualism as Metaphor for Sustainability, Progress and Reality Edmond Byrne Professor of Process

### A Guide to Paradigm Shifting

A Guide to The True Purpose Process Change agents are in the business of paradigm shifting (and paradigm creation). There are a number of difficulties with paradigm change. An excellent treatise on this

### 13th International Scientific and Practical Conference «Science and Society» London, February 2018 PHILOSOPHY

PHILOSOPHY Trunyova V.A., Chernyshov D.V., Shvalyova A.I., Fedoseenkov A.V. THE PROBLEM OF HAPPINESS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE Trunyova V. A. student, Russian Federation, Don State Technical University,

### Lisa Randall, a professor of physics at Harvard, is the author of "Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions.

Op-Ed Contributor New York Times Sept 18, 2005 Dangling Particles By LISA RANDALL Published: September 18, 2005 Lisa Randall, a professor of physics at Harvard, is the author of "Warped Passages: Unraveling

### Kant IV The Analogies The Schematism updated: 2/2/12. Reading: 78-88, In General

Kant IV The Analogies The Schematism updated: 2/2/12 Reading: 78-88, 100-111 In General The question at this point is this: Do the Categories ( pure, metaphysical concepts) apply to the empirical order?

### IMAGINATION AT THE SCHOOL OF SEASONS - FRYE S EDUCATED IMAGINATION AN OVERVIEW J.THULASI

IMAGINATION AT THE SCHOOL OF SEASONS - FRYE S EDUCATED IMAGINATION AN OVERVIEW J.THULASI Northrop Frye s The Educated Imagination (1964) consists of essays expressive of Frye's approach to literature as

### Myvoicegoesafterwhatmyeyescannot. reach, WiththetwirlofmytongueIencompass. worldsandvolumesofworlds. Speechisthetwinofmyvision...

the music We know that as he wandered the streets, as he rode in the omnibuses, probably as he sat in lectures and in the opera, he scribbled in small notebooks and on scraps of paper he stuffed in his

### The Nature of Time. Humberto R. Maturana. November 27, 1995.

The Nature of Time Humberto R. Maturana November 27, 1995. I do not wish to deal with all the domains in which the word time enters as if it were referring to an obvious aspect of the world or worlds that

### In his essay "Of the Standard of Taste," Hume describes an apparent conflict between two

Aesthetic Judgment and Perceptual Normativity HANNAH GINSBORG University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. Abstract: I draw a connection between the question, raised by Hume and Kant, of how aesthetic judgments

### Action Theory for Creativity and Process

Action Theory for Creativity and Process Fu Jen Catholic University Bernard C. C. Li Keywords: A. N. Whitehead, Creativity, Process, Action Theory for Philosophy, Abstract The three major assignments for

### Guide to the Republic as it sets up Plato s discussion of education in the Allegory of the Cave.

Guide to the Republic as it sets up Plato s discussion of education in the Allegory of the Cave. The Republic is intended by Plato to answer two questions: (1) What IS justice? and (2) Is it better to

### THE VALUE AND LIMITATIONS OF FROEBEL'S GIFTS AS EDUCATIVE MATERIALS PARTS I, II

THE VALUE AND LIMITATIONS OF FROEBEL'S GIFTS AS EDUCATIVE MATERIALS PARTS I, II PATTY SMITH HILL Teachers College, Columbia University This article will attempt to treat Froebel's gifts from the following

### CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, scope and limitation, significance

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this chapter the writer would like to present the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, scope and limitation, significance of the

### that would join theoretical philosophy (metaphysics) and practical philosophy (ethics)?

Kant s Critique of Judgment 1 Critique of judgment Kant s Critique of Judgment (1790) generally regarded as foundational treatise in modern philosophical aesthetics no integration of aesthetic theory into

### Mind, Thinking and Creativity

Mind, Thinking and Creativity Panel Intervention #1: Analogy, Metaphor & Symbol Panel Intervention #2: Way of Knowing Intervention #1 Analogies and metaphors are to be understood in the context of reflexio

### Chudnoff on the Awareness of Abstract Objects 1

Florida Philosophical Society Volume XVI, Issue 1, Winter 2016 105 Chudnoff on the Awareness of Abstract Objects 1 D. Gene Witmer, University of Florida Elijah Chudnoff s Intuition is a rich and systematic

### Spatial Formations. Installation Art between Image and Stage.

Spatial Formations. Installation Art between Image and Stage. An English Summary Anne Ring Petersen Although much has been written about the origins and diversity of installation art as well as its individual

### The Precious Jewels THE MEANING OF THE WORD

The Precious Jewels By BROS. A. L. KRESS AND R. J. MEEKREN THE Masonic usage of the word jewel has doubtless struck many a brother as not a little peculiar upon his first introduction to the traditional

### 124 Philosophy of Mathematics

From Plato to Christian Wüthrich http://philosophy.ucsd.edu/faculty/wuthrich/ 124 Philosophy of Mathematics Plato (Πλάτ ων, 428/7-348/7 BCE) Plato on mathematics, and mathematics on Plato Aristotle, the

### Medieval Art. artwork during such time. The ivory sculpting and carving have been very famous because of the

Ivory and Boxwood Carvings 1450-1800 Medieval Art Ivory and boxwood carvings 1450 to 1800 have been one of the most prized medieval artwork during such time. The ivory sculpting and carving have been very

MICHAEL RICE ARCHITECT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The Design Process The desire to create is utterly fundamental to our nature. All life seeks to optimise its potential, balance its energy with the environment

### Reviewed by Ehud Halperin

Making Faces: Self and image creation in a Himalayan valley by Alka Hingorani, Honolulu: University of Hawai i Press, 2013, 160 pp., 134 illus., 128 in colour, ISBN 978-0-8248-3525-5, Price \$45.00 Reviewed

### 206 Metaphysics. Chapter 21. Universals

206 Metaphysics Universals Universals 207 Universals Universals is another name for the Platonic Ideas or Forms. Plato thought these ideas pre-existed the things in the world to which they correspond.

### Truth, American Culture, and Fuzzy Logic

Truth, American Culture, and Fuzzy Logic Dan Simon Cleveland State University NAFIPS Conference June 4, 2006 Outline 1. Premodernism Modernism Postmodernism 2. Why is fuzzy logic true? 3. The fuzzy logic

### The Human Intellect: Aristotle s Conception of Νοῦς in his De Anima. Caleb Cohoe

The Human Intellect: Aristotle s Conception of Νοῦς in his De Anima Caleb Cohoe Caleb Cohoe 2 I. Introduction What is it to truly understand something? What do the activities of understanding that we engage