Chapter III. Research Methodology. A. Research Design. constructed and holistically as stated by Lincoln & Guba (1985).

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1 19 Chapter III Research Methodology A. Research Design This is a qualitative research design. It means that the reality is multiple, constructed and holistically as stated by Lincoln & Guba (1985). There are some implicit meanings behind the use of politeness in the conversation. Every person has different reason when they execute politeness in conversation which is related to the context. The use of politeness can be caused by the interlocutor, the objective of the conversation, the situation of the conversation, etc. From the explanation above, it shows that the reality of politeness is multiple which is constructed holistically. Moreover, this research uses descriptive design. According to Strauss and Corbin in Santosa (2012), descriptive method displays the data and also aids the development of a conceptual framework of particular cultural phenomena derived from observation, classification, and interpretation. This research analyzed how minimizing and maximizing expression (politeness maxims) play a role in building politeness in the film entitled Beauty and the Beast. Afterwards, this research classified the data based on the politeness maxims by Leech. Furthermore, it interpreted the result to get conceptual framework what kind of politeness maxims, the factors and the goals of executing politeness which can produce a sense of politeness in the conversation. 19

2 20 The study also employes case study design which means research that provides a detailed account and analysis of one or more cases (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). The researcher explored a bounded system (a case) with detailed source of data. It is usually called as single instrumental case study. In this case, the study observed the case of the usage of politeness in the conversation taken from film entitled Beauty and the Beast. Furthermore, the study uses pragmatics as the approach. Pragmatics is the study of the use and meaning of utterances to their situations (Leech, 1983). The study took one of pragmatics theory which is called Politeness Principle by Leech. This theory becomes the underlying theory to analyze the use of politeness maxims in the film entitled Beauty and the Beast. B. Research Location The location of the study was in the form of media, especially the film entitled Beauty and the Beast. The reason why the research used Beauty and the Beast as the research location was because the setting of Beauty and the Beast took place in France (1700) which the characters applied politeness value, especially in speech. Moreover, there were also reasons why the study used animation movie as the object study. Animation movie is categorized as a part of visual communication because of its use of drawings and sketches, and the drawing is usually accompanied by some words, phrases or sentences which are the form of verbal communication. It was

3 21 concluded that animation movie is adjudged as discourse (Emezue, 2013). Emezue adds that animation movie constitutes an analyzable discourse because they have goal-directed, schematic structure by which news, events, ideas, opinions, etc. Furthermore, the environment of animation could be correlated to realism theory. Paul Wells (1998) argues that the animated depiction of reality resembles the actual physical world. In other words, the environment of animation was a representation of the real world. Therefore, it was summarized that animation film was significant to be studied. It was also supported by some previous researches which uses animation film as an object, such as Rismawati (2014) analyzing commanding utterances in Tangled animated movie, Burhan (2013) analyzing flouting maxim in the UP! animated movie, Apriani & Wulandari (2014) discussing verbal humor in the cartoon film Cluody with Chance of Meatballs and Lifiora (2013) discussing conversational implicature in the An Alchemist s Anguish animated series. Lincoln and Guba (1985) state that research location is focus determined boundary. The focus determined boundary of this research was politeness maxims executed by the characters film entitled Beauty and the Beast. The other scholar, Spradley (1980) argues that research location has three aspects. They are setting, participants and event. The setting of this study was cartoon film entitled Beauty and the Beast distributed by Walt Disney Picture which took the setting in France (1700s). The participants were all the characters in the film entitled Beauty and the

4 22 Beast. The event was taken from the daily life of the main character Belle (interaction between Belle and the other characters). C. Source of Data and Data Source of data is the source which from the data is acquired. It may appear in the form of place, informant, event, document, or site (Patton in Santosa, 2012). The source data of the study were document because the data were taken from the dialogue of the film entitled Beauty and the Beast which was taken from Meanwhile, data are object of research, reality which becomes focus of research (Santosa, 2012). Moreover, there are two kinds of data, primary data and secondary data. Primary data is the data collected in the location by the researcher directly. Besides, secondary data is the data collected by the other scholar as the supported data (Blaxter et al., in Santosa, 2006). In this study, the primer data was the dialogues containing types of Leech maxims executed by the characters in the film Beauty and the Beast. D. Sampling The research employed purposive sampling which means that the sampling was based on the objective of the research. The objective of this research was to analyze the use of politeness principles in the film entitled Beauty and the Beast. In

5 23 getting purposive sampling, the researcher also took criterion-based sampling. The sampling was based on criteria which was taken from the objective and the theory of the study. Therefore, this sampling was called as theoritical-based sampling. There were some criteria to take data from the object of research. First, the data contained the types of politeness principles by Leech, namely tact maxim, the generosity maxim, the approbation maxim, the modesty maxim, the agreement maxim and the sympathy maxim. Then the data also included the goal of executing politeness principles by the characters and implicated social background which influences the use of politeness. This is the example of sampling data: BELLE : Oh, I don't know. It's just I'm not sure I fit in here. There's no one I can really talk to. MAURICE : What about that Gaston? He's a handsome fellow! BELLE : He's handsome all right, and rude and conceited and...oh Papa, he's not for me. From the text above, it can be seen that Belle answers Maurice s question politely. In fact, Belle disagrees with Maurice s argument then she applies agreement maxim to make the answer sound polite. Firstly, Belle shows her agreement with her father s argument about Gaston but then she tells her father that Gaston is not a good man. After that Belle refuses Gaston by saying Oh Papa, he's not for me to make the refusal sound smoother. In politeness maxim, this kind of politeness is usually

6 24 called as agreement maxim which means minimizing disagreement between self and other or maximizing agreement between self and other. E. Technique of Collecting Data There are five kinds of techniques in collecting data which are observation, interview, questionnaire, group discussion, and content analysis (Santosa, 2012). This research employs the content analysis method because the source of data is document. The document is taken from the dialogues of cartoon film entitled Beauty and the Beast. F. Procedure of Data Analysis Through content analysis, the data of this research were analyzed qualitatively and inductively. According to Grbich (in Santosa, 2012), content analysis is for knowing the pattern, meaning and social function in its context, including coding and categorizing. Meanwhile, Spradley (in Santosa, 2012) argues that there are four stages of content analysis, such as domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis and finding cultural value. Thus, based on the stages of content analysis, the procedure of data analysis in this research is as follows. 1. Domain Analysis Domain analysis is used to differentiate between data and not data, Santosa (2012). In linguistics, analysis domain includes discourse, semantics, syntaxes, morphology, phonology, etc. Furthermore, domain analysis is an essential domain

7 25 because it is the basic domain to continue in analyzing taxonomy domain, componential domain and finding cultural value. In this research, the domain analysis was conducted by examining all type of politeness principles in the film entitled Beauty and the Beast. Moreover, this research also analyzed the factors and goals which saw in some aspects. The example of domain analysis can be read below. Table 3.1 Example of domain analysis (The types of politeness principles) Domain Type of Politeness Principles Data In a village Tact Maxim Generosity Maxim Approbation Maxim Modesty Maxim Agreement Maxim Sympathy Maxim Datum 2 - Datum 1 - Datum 3 - Based on the table above, it can be seen that tact maxim, approbation maxim and agreement maxim are found in the village domain.

8 26 Table 3.2 Example of domain analysis (The factors influencing the use of politeness principles) Data Power Social Distance Ranking of Imposition Legitimate Power Referent Power Expert Power Far Close High Low Datum 1 Total Number The example of data is given above. The data is analyzed in three factors, which are power, social distance and ranking of imposition. From the data above, it can be seen that the conversation happens between someone who has less power to someone who has more power. The power in this case is legitimate power influenced by status. The degree of imposition in the data is categorized as high imposition. Table 3.3 Example of domain analysis (The goals of executing politeness principles) The Goal The Type of Politeness Data Principles To refuse Agreement Maxim Datum 3, Datum 4 Modesty Maxim Datum 9

9 27 The table above shows that to refuse is one example of goal of executing politeness in conversation. Agreement maxim and modesty maxim are used to refuse something in polite. 2. Taxonomy Analysis Taxonomy analysis is used to classify the data based on the categories (Santosa, 2012). In this research, the data was classified by several categories, including the type of politeness principles, the factors influencing the use of politeness principles and the goals of executing politeness principles. Some examples are given below. Table 3.4 Example of Presence of Types of Politeness Principles Domain Type of Politeness Principles Ʃ Tact Gen App Mod Agr Sym In a village Table 3.5 Example of Presence of the Factors Influencing the Use of Politeness Principles The Factors Power Legitimate Power 18 Referent Power 4 Expert Power - Ʃ

10 28 Table 3.6 Example of Presence of the Goals of Executing Politeness Principles The Goal Type of Maxims Ʃ To refuse Agreement Maxim 2 Modesty Maxim 1 3. Componential Analysis Componential analysis is used to link one component or aspect to another which have been classified in the taxonomy analysis Santosa (2012). The type of politeness principle, the factors and the goals was linked through componential analysis in this research. Table 3.7 The example of componential analysis The Goals Type of The factors Domain Maxims In a In In a village Belle s castle house To refuse Agreement Legitimate Far High 1 Maxim Power Close High 1 Modesty Legitimate Far High 1 Maxim Power

11 29 4. Finding Cultural Values Finding cultural values is an analysis to look for a theory which can be grounded from the research, (Santosa, 2012). In general, this analysis is undertaken by linking the pattern of componential analysis with the context and reflecting to supporting theory and previous researches. Through finding cultural value, the research showed how the characters in Beauty and the Beast employed politeness principle and why it is executed. Furthermore, it also saw the relation between the use of politeness principle and the setting of the film. The process of finding cultural values is illustrated below. Figure 3.1 Finding Cultural Values Context Context Politeness Principle The Goals The Factors (Taken from Santosa, 2012)

12 30 G. Data Coding To make easier the classification and analysis, the data will be marked by code. The coding of data in this research can be seen below: Datum 02/TM/F-LP-H/TA (00:06:12) It can be identified as follow: 02 : Refers to number of datum TM : Refers to type of politeness principles by Leech TM Tact Maxim MM Modesty Maxim GM Generosity Maxim AgM Agreement Maxim AM Approbation Maxim SM Sympathy Maxim F : Refers to social distance of the participants (Far and Close) LP : Refers to type of power LP Legitimate Power RP Referent Power EP Expert Power H : Refers to rank of imposition (High and Low)

13 31 TA : Refers to the goal of using politeness principles TR To Refuse TP To praise TA To ask someone for doing something TB To beg TO To offer something TI To invite 00 : Refers to hour 06 : Refers to minute 12 : Refers to second

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