MUSIC IN SCHOOLS WARRNAMBOOL - Orff 1 ORFF APPROACH - PLAYING IN THE CLASSROOM TEACHER INTRODUCTION

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1 MUSIC IN SCHOOLS WARRNAMBOOL - Orff 1 ORFF APPROACH - PLAYING IN THE CLASSROOM TEACHER INTRODUCTION Music Strands Developing practical Knowledge in Music Developing ideas in Music Communicating and interpreting through music Success criteria Able to maintain steady beat; distinguish between beat and rhythm. Experience meter in 2/4 and 6/8 Recognise rhythm patterns that use ta and ti- ti, Perform rhythm ostinato Play on a range of tuned and un- tuned percussion. Develops, refines and shares performance skills Curriculum Levels Levels 2-3 (easily adapted to lower levels) Orff - Feeling precedes Understanding The Orff Method is a way of teaching children about music that engages their mind and body through a mixture of singing, dancing, acting and the use of percussion instruments (i.e. xylophones, metallophones, glockenspiels). Lessons are presented with an element of "play" helping the children learn at their own level of understanding. What is Orff- Schulwerk? Also known as the Orff Approach or Music for Children; it is a way of introducing and teaching children about music on a level that they can easily comprehend. Musical concepts are learned through singing, chanting, dance, movement, drama and the playing of percussion instruments. Improvisation, composition and a child's natural sense of play are encouraged. Orff- Schulwerk is not a method No fixed, standardized steps prescribed for the curriculum Teacher develops curriculum and adapts it to situation - in this way it is very much a differentiated and responsive approach Interaction between teacher and student leads to a work process that can produce new or individual results every time Stimulate elemental music making

2 Who created the Orff Approach? This approach to music education was developed by Carl Orff, a German composer, conductor and educator whose most famous composition is the oratorio "Carmina Burana." It was conceived during the 1920s and 1930s while he served as music director of the Günther- Schule; a school of music, dance and gymnastics that he co- founded in Munich. His ideas were based on his belief in the importance of rhythm and movement. Orff shared these ideas in a book titled Orff- Schulwerk which was later revised and then adapted into English as Music for Children. What types of music and instruments are typically used? Folk music and music composed by the children themselves are mostly used in the Orff classroom. Xylophones (soprano, alto, bass), Metallophones (soprano, alto, bass), glockenspiels (soprano and alto), castanets, bells, maracas, triangles, cymbals (finger, crash or suspended), tambourines, timpani, gongs, bongos, steel drums and conga drums are but some of the percussion instruments used in the Orff classroom. Other instruments (both pitched and unpitched) that may be used include: afuches claves cow bells djembe rainmakers rhythm sticks sand blocks shakers tap- a- tap What is a typical lesson like? Although Orff teachers use many books as frameworks, there is no standardized Orff curriculum. Orff teachers design their own lesson plans and adapt it to suit the size of the class and the age of the students. For example, a teacher may choose a poem or a story to read in class. Students are then asked to participate by choosing instruments to represent a character or a word in the story or poem. As the teacher reads the story or poem again, students add sound effects by playing the instruments they selected. The teacher then adds accompaniment by playing Orff instruments. As the lesson progresses, students are asked to play Orff instruments or add other instruments. To keep the whole class involved, others are asked to act- out the story.

3 MUSIC IN SCHOOLS WARRNAMBOOL - Orff 3 What about songs and notation? In the Orff classroom, the teacher acts like a conductor who gives cues to her eager orchestra. If the teacher selected a song, some students will be chosen as instrumentalists while the rest of the class sings along. Parts may or may not be notated. If notated, it should be simple enough for the students to understand. The teacher then provides students a copy of the notes and/or creates a poster. What are the key concepts learned? Using the Orff approach, students learn about rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, form and other elements of music. Students learn these concepts by speaking, chanting, singing, dancing, movement, acting and playing instruments. These learned concepts become springboards for further creative pursuits such as improvisation or composing their own music. Sample Simplified Format This is a very simple lesson plan format that may be used for young children: Choose a poem. Read the poem to the class. Ask the class to recite the poem with you. Recite the poem together while keeping a steady beat (i.e. tapping hands to knees). Choose students who will play the instruments (i.e. xylophones and glockenspiels). Ask students to play certain notes on cue words. Instruments must match words. Add other instruments then choose students to play these instruments (i.e. Chinese bell). Discuss the day s lesson with the students (i.e. Was the piece easy or difficult?). Assess students' comprehension by asking relevant questions. Put away all instruments. Note: It's important that students maintain correct rhythm and learn proper mallet technique. Carl Orff Quotes Here are some quotes by Carl Orff to give you a better understanding of his philosophy: "Experience first, then intellectualize." "Since the beginning of time, children have not liked to study. They would much rather play, and if you have their interests at heart, you will let them learn while they play; they will find that what they have mastered is child's play. " Elemental music is never just music. It's bound up with movement, dance and speech, and so it is a form of music in which one must participate, in which one is involved not as a listener but as a co- performer."

4 Lesson Outline: Composing a simple four line rap Concepts: Duration, Structure, Tone colour, Dynamics. Step 1 Choose a topic e.g. Train Travel Step 2: Think of five or six key words the then build up rhyming- word banks, for example: train ticket Carriage tracks line rain Stick it Marriage stacks fine strain Lick it Barrage clacks mine lane Click it tacks shine cricket backs dine Step 3: Decide on one word to occur on the last beat at the end of the phrase e.g. line. An understanding of the underlying pulse and an ability to hear the relationship between the pulse and the rhythm is important to establish first Divide students into groups to create their own rhyming word walls and a repeated 4 beat phrase that they will perform under the rap created. Check that your first line has a 4 beat phrase by drawing an accent mark or stroke over the words or syllables the line up with the beats. We like to ride the Warrnambool line. (notice that there is a beat felt before we begin speaking the words. This gives the rhyme an upbeat feel. The words jump in fairly soon after this pulse.) Step 4: Create a 4 beat phrase that will rhyme with line 1 and once again highlight where the accents are. e.g. The tracks are down and the company s fine. (notice that this time there is a word before the first beat. ) Step 5: Complete the same action as for lines 1 & 2 but with a different word to rhyme with. e.g. You get on board with a first class ticket / / / and listen to the wheels singin click it ticket. Step 6: Check that the whole verse makes sense and you can say it in time to the underlying pulse (or beat)

5 MUSIC IN SCHOOLS WARRNAMBOOL - Orff 5 We like to ride the Warrnambool line. The tracks are down and the company s fine. You get on board with a first class ticket and listen to the wheels singin click it ticket. Step 7 Add some interesting riffs or ostinatos - words or phrases from the text (company s fine) - vocal punches (accents on the last words) - non- melodic percussion ostinato perhaps drawn from the words (click it ticket) - simple body percussion rhythm to assist with keeping the pulse. (This is what is often referred to as A Beat ) For ideas see Train Rhythms or Drum Kit in Singing More A resource of songs to sing. Step 8 Arrange and perform with an introduction, coda or even an interlude this could be an improvised section. Moving On to Instruments The Orff approach encourages smaller bits of music to be layered and arranged in order to end up with a piece. There are many pieces in the MISplays section of the resource, that can serve as starting points for exploration through playing.

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