1 Introduction to tense shifting GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Advanced C1_2021G_EN English
2 Goals Learn about tense shifting, using reported speech as an example. Practise tense shifting in various situations. Learn when tense shifting is not necessary. 2
3 I asked my student if he would like to study grammar during this lesson and he said yes. He told me that he loves studying English grammar and he was looking forward to it. 3
4 Introduction to tense shifting This is a grammar lesson about tense shifting. We use tense shifting most often during reported speech. Tense shifting refers to changing tenses, in this case from the present into the past. Julie said that she liked fast food. 4
5 Tense shifting in reported speech One of the most common ways we use tense shifting is in reported speech. We use reported speech when we want to tell someone what another person said. In order to do this, we usually must go back one tense. The reporting verb, i.e. say or tell, will be in the past, as with the action, i.e. was going home. Direct speech I m going home. I didn t enjoy it. John gave it to me. Reported speech Mary said she was going home. He said that he hadn t enjoyed it. He said that John given it to him. 5
6 Tense shifting in reported speech Look at these examples. This will make you familiar with the changes each tense undergoes during reported speech. Tense Direct speech Reported speech Present simple I eat meat. She said she ate meat. Present continuous Past simple Past continuous I am eating meat I ate meat. I was eating meat. She said she was eating meat. She said she had eaten meat. She said she had been eating meat. 6
7 Tense shifting in reported speech Look at these examples. This will make you familiar with the changes each tense undergoes during reported speech. Tense Direct speech Reported speech Present perfect Present perfect continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Future simple (will) I have eaten meat. I have been eating meat. I had eaten meat. She had been eating meat. I will eat meat. She said she had eaten meat. She said she had been eating meat. She said she had eaten meat. She said she had been eating meat. She said she would eat meat. 7
8 Tense shifting with modal verbs Modal verbs sometimes also change form during reported speech. Look at the examples below. Would I would go. She said she would go. Can I can go. She said she could go. Could I could go. She said she could go. Should I should go. She said she should go. Might I might go. She said she might go. Must I must go. She said she had to go. 8
9 The past perfect Did you notice that the past perfect and the past perfect continuous do not change form? They cannot shift backwards. I had always liked fast food, said James. James said that he had always liked fast food. 9
10 Tense shifting with time phrases Sometimes we have to change the pronoun in reported speech, depending on who we are reporting about, or who is doing the reporting. Direct speech Alice gave it to me, said Joan. Alice gave it to me, I said. Yuri told me, Marco said. Yuri told me, I said. Reported speech Joan said that Alice had given it to her. I said that Alice had given it to me. Marco said that Yuri had told him. I said that Yuri had told me. 10
11 Transform the sentences to reported speech using he/she 1. I am happy. She said that she was happy. 2. I am going home. 3. I went home. 4. He was speaking to Julia. 5. I have already eaten. 6. I will call you. 7. I can t eat gluten. 8. I had spoken to her already. 11
12 Read the dialogue between two friends I will give you a list of what we need for the party. Great. I have already bought some drinks. I don t know if it will be enough. Maybe we should buy more... No worries. I can buy more when I get the food. I bought everything for the main course already, so you just need to buy snacks. That s easy! I ll pick up some crisps and stuff. 12
13 Use reported speech??????????? what? the? Use reported?? speech to tell your teacher dialogue on the previous page says.?? 13
14 Reported questions When we want to report questions, we must follow the rules of tense shifting. There are two main ways to report questions depending on whether the question is yes or no, or a wh- question. With yes or no questions, we change do for if or whether. With wh- questions we must change the word order. Direct question Do you like chocolate? Do they eat meat? Where is he? Why did you do that? Reported question He asked if she liked chocolate. She asked whether they ate meat. She asked where he was. He asked why she had done that. 14
15 Reporting commands When we want to report commands we do not need to use tense shifting. We must use an appropriate reporting verb in the past tense, followed by a to infinitive. Direct command Stop smoking. Show me your ID. Be quiet, please! Don t cross the road here. Reported command The doctor told me to stop smoking. The police officer ordered me to show him my ID. She asked me to be quiet. He told us not to cross the road there. 15
16 Reporting verbs There are many verbs that we can use in reported speech besides say. There are some examples below. It is important to remember that these reporting verbs should be in the past tense. It is also important to think about verb patterns, i.e. whether the verb is followed by ing, or to, or something else. He asked if we could go to the cinema. She suggested going to the cinema. They decided to go to the cinema. He told me to meet him at the cinema. He explained that he couldn t come to the cinema. She mentioned that she would like to go to the cinema 16
17 Questions Think of some people who ask you questions, and of the questions they might ask. Make the questions as obscure as possible, and don t tell your teacher yet. your grandmother a bouncer in a club a teacher your boss a taxi driver 17
18 Reporting questions Now report the questions to your teacher. Your teacher has to guess who asked. She asked me if I had a girlfriend. Was it a girl in your class? No, guess again. 18
19 Reporting commands Think about three times in your life when someone told you to do something. What was your response? Tell your teacher using reported speech. 19
20 Time phrases when tense shifting Certain time phrases must also change when we use reported speech. Direct speech Today, tonight Yesterday Tomorrow Last night (week, month) Next week (month, year) Reported speech That day, that night The day before The next day, the following day The night (week, month) before, the previous night The following week (month, year) 20
21 More changes when tense shifting Here are some more time and place phrases which change when we use reported speech. Direct speech Ago In two hours Here This Come Reported speech Before Two hours later There That Go 21
22 Tense shifting with time phrases Look at these examples of tense shifting with time phrases. Direct speech Tom is coming here tomorrow. Tom came yesterday. Tom is coming tonight. Tom will come next year. Tom came last night. Reported speech She said that Tom was going there the next day. She said that Tom had come the previous day. She said that Tom was coming that night. She said that Tom would come the following year. She said that Tom had come the night before. 22
23 When not to tense shift Tense shifting is not always necessary in reported speech, though it is never wrong to do so. These are the main occasions when back shifting is not necessary. When we are talking about a universal truth. When something is still true. When something has yet to happen still. Direct speech The earth goes around the sun. I drive a red Honda. Lunch will be at 1pm. Reported speech Copernicus said that the earth goes around the sun. Harry said that he drives a red Honda. She said lunch will be at 1pm. 23
24 When not to tense shift Here are some more examples of when tense shifting is not necessary. She said that the sun sets in the west. He told me that smoking is bad for my health. She said she will arrive on time. They said that their flat is hard to find. He told me he likes coffee. 24
25 Fill in the gaps Change the words in brackets so they fit in with the sentences. The first one is an example. 1. She said that he would arrive the following day (tomorrow). 2. He said he hoped he would finish (next year). 3. She told me the letter came two days (ago). 4. I told him to come home early (last night). 5. She asked if she could bring it (next week). 6. They said they couldn t come (yesterday). 25
26 Back shift or not? Decide whether or not you need to use back shifting in these sentences. Tell your teacher the reason for each answer. 1. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. 2. I have two children. 3. Dinner will be served from 7pm. 4. I went to the shop yesterday. 5. Work hard and you will be successful. 26
27 Write a dialogue Write a dialogue in direct speech between two people about a story you heard on the news recently. Try to use questions and time phrases as well as ordinary speech. Hey, Susan... 27
28 Reporting your dialogue Now, tell your teacher in reported speech what the dialogue is about. 28
29 Reflect on the lesson Take a moment to review any new vocabulary, phrases, language structures or grammar points you have come across for the first time in this lesson. Review them with your teacher one more time to make sure you don t forget! 29
30 Answer key Exercise p He said he was going home. 3. He said he had gone home. 4. He said he had been speaking to Julia. 5. He said he had already eaten. 6. He said he would call me. 7. He said he couldn t eat gluten. 8. He said he had spoken to her already. Exercise p The following year, 3. before, 4. the night before/the previous night, 5. the following week, 6. the day before Exercise p. 26 Accept any answer you think is appropriate. Remember that back shifting in never strictly wrong, though sometimes it isn t natural. 30
31 Homework 31
32 Transform the direct speech to reported speech 1. Can you help Jim? He asked if I could help Jim. 2. Should Jack come? 3. I must do my homework. 4. Is there any milk? 5. Would you like a coffee? 6. Where is the station? 7. Stop eating junk food! 8. Give this to your mum. 32
33 Reporting a conversation Write a report of a conversation between you and a friend. 33
34 Homework answer key Exercise p He asked if Jack should come. 3. He said he had to do his homework. 4. He asked if there was any milk. 5. He asked if I would like a coffee. 6. He asked where the station was. 7. He told me to stop eating junk food. 8. He told me to give that to my mum. 34
35 About this material This material is proudly provided by and can be used by anyone for free and for any purpose. Who are we? Why learn English online? What kinds of English classes do we offer? Who are our English teachers? How do our English certificates work? We also have a language blog! 35
MODAL VERBS The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should, have to, need. They take no s in the 3 rd person singular except for have to and need. They come before
The present perfect: Key (pp.14-18) C. You are asking someone about things he has done in his life. Use the words in brackets to make your questions. Example: (you ever/be/to Italy?) Have you ever been
CHUYÊN ðề 3: NON FINITE VERBS GV hướng dẫn: Thầy ðặng Thanh Tâm Question 1: Put them in the right column. ( Phần này các em xem lý thuyết ñể kiểm tra lại) - enjoy want avoid it s no use / good can t help
The indefinite articles 1. We use the article a / an when we are talking about something for the first time or not specific things. I've got a new job. (the listener doesn't know what the job is) Would
TEST ONE Paper 1 Reading AND WRITING (1 hour 10 minutes) Part 1 Before you answer the questions for this part, do the Further Practice and Guidance pages on page 5. Questions 1 5 Which notice (A H) says
EXERCISES 1) PASSIVE vs. ACTIVE 2) PAST SIMPLE vs. PAST PERFECT 3) REPORTED SPEECH 4) MUST/HAVE TO Choose past simple or past perfect 1 Choose the past simple or the past perfect tense 1) We had already
SZAKASZVIZSGA ANGOL NYELV A CSOPORT 2009/2010. Tanuló neve és osztálya: Tanára: Elért eredménye: Írásbeli: / 60 Szóbeli: /40 Összes: /100 Végső osztályzata: 1. Write questions for these answers. / 5 a.?
8 1 My interests Vocabulary Free-time activities 1 Look at the pictures and complete the words with vowels and the letter y c h a t o n l i n e 2 p l y t n n s 4 g t t h g m 6 p l y n n s t r m n t 1 r
Modals 8 Is it all right if I use your phone? 9 Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 10 Maybe she'll move to London. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled. 12 Maybe she'll be elected.
Reported Speech (Junior Secondary) Worksheet 1: What did Noby say? Poon, Ka Chun Jason; Lee, Fung King Jackie The Education University of Hong Kong Name: Class: ( ) Date: 1. The following shows the conversations
8 HERE AND THERE 2 1 4 6 7 11 12 13 68 30004_OUT_BEG_SB.indb 68 13/09/2018 09:41 IN THIS UNIT YOU LEARN HOW TO: talk about what people are doing explain why someone isn t there talk about houses and rooms
17 THE 'ZERO' CONDITIONAL 1. Form In 'zero' conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present: 'IF' CLAUSE (CONDITION) MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT) If + simple present If you
GERUND & INFINITIVE Compiled by: Catharina Awang Wara Kinanthi S.Pd. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject,
What Clauses What clauses is a part of a noun clause. It is used as a subject or an object of the sentence. For example: What he said was interesting. What he said is a noun clause. It is used as the subject
INSTITUTO NACIONAL Teacher: Paz Cepeda WORKSHEET 8 TH GRADE UNITS 6 7 8 UNIT 6 COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS I. Read the nouns and say if they are countable (C) or uncountable nouns (U) 1. Egg meat oil
3 Reading A Read the. Do you need to match all of the sentences to gaps for the long dialogue? B Now complete the. Part 1 Complete the five conversations. Choose a, b or c. 1 Are you cooking spaghetti?
Heal h ma ers 1 Read Stella s diary. Friday I had a busy day. In the morning I ate a big breakfast and drank a lot of milk. I went to school with Suzy. Before lunch I had my favourite lessons, Maths and
S. 2 English Revision Exercises Unit 1 Basic English Sentence Patterns A. When we make simple English sentences, we usually follow the Subject-Verb-Object patterns. Steps: 1. Put the subject and the adjectives
Changing to Direct and The mode of narration of a sentence can be either in direct speech or indirect speech. A change in the mode of narration depends on: i. the tense of the reporting verb; ii. who is
1 Family and friends 1 Play the game with a partner. Throw a dice. Say. How to play Scores Throw a dice. Move your counter to that You square and complete the sentence. You get three points if the sentence
The infinitive of purpose GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Beginner A2_2037G_EN English Goals Learn how to use the infinitive of purpose Practice using the infinitive of purpose to make plans www.english-maestro.mn
Simple past vs. past continuous GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Intermediate B1_1022G_EN English Goals Learn the past continuous and review the past simple Learn the difference between the past continuous
ENGLISH MODULE CONDITIONAL AND MIXED CONDITIONAL Grade X Semester 2 Academic Year 2016-2017 Learning Objectives: Students are able to identify some types of conditionals Students are able to make conditional
3 rd CSE Unit 1 mustn t and have to 1 Write sentences about the signs. 1 2 3 4 5 You mustn t smoke. 1 _ 2 _ 3 _ 4 _ 5 _ should and must 2 Complete the sentences with should(n t) or must(n t). I must get
Level 1 Lesson 8 EDIFY CAMBODIA EDIFY CAMBODIA LEVEL 1 LESSON 8 Page 1 LEVEL 1: LESSON 8 8.1 Gerunds and Infinitives 1) A gerund is a verb in its -ing form, used as a noun. For example, verbs like eating,
The First Time/Last Time Past Tenses- Extended Speaking & Review Student A The person speaking Talk about the first or last time you did something, e.g. one of the things below, for as long as you can.
Reported () Speech: Discovering the rules from Practical English Usage First, do Discovering the Rules. Then, read the explanations. You can find the explanations from Practical English Usage below this
Conditionals and Modal verbs GRAMMAR Content Modal verbs can be used in the main clause of conditionals. This can be used to talk about certain choices you make - for example, 'If I have time, I can go
Unit 1 Language at work Present simple Present simple Positive: Add -s or -es after the verb with he / she / it. I / you / we / they specialize in Latin American music. He / She / It specializes in high-tech
QualityTime-ESL Podcasts Oral Grammar Exercises to Learn English or Perfect Your Skills Pack 1-5.2 Scripts Version for Mobile Devices (free) Audio available on itunes or on www.qualitytime-esl.com QualityTime-ESL
Inglés. 5Primaria PRESENT CONTINUOUS Affirmative Negative Interrogative I am (I m) playing. You are (you re) eating He is (He s) reading. She is (She s) sleeping. It is (It s) running. We are (we re) speaking.
2015-2016 A TURNO MATUTINO MADE BY LUCÍA GUERRERO PACHECO COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Complete the sentences with some or any. 1 Have you got sugar for my coffee? 2 I don t need fruit juice for the
Key stage 2 - English grammar, punctuation and spelling practice paper First name... Middle name... Last name... Date of birth Day... Month... Year... School name... www.teachitprimary.co.uk 208 3074 Page
PREFACE LEARNING GRAMMAR WORKBOOK 6 is specially designed to assess and expand the student s usage of grammar in the English Language. The contents of the book are meant to supplement the language structures
A: Asks B where B usually goes on holiday. B: Cheltenham, England / end of June / camping in August with family A: Shows surprise and says he/she goes to England too during the summer to attend a language
UNIT Business & Pleasure Part 1 Speaking & Travelling for business Numbers over 100 Reading Eurostar in numbers Listening A business trip Present continuous Functional language Buying a ticket a timetable
GUIA DE ESTUDIO PARA EL ETS DE SEGUNDO SEMESTRE. UNIDAD 7. 1 Underline the correct word or phrase. Example: We was / were at school yesterday. 1 Was / Were Jack and Elaine on holiday last week? 2 The shops
UNIT 1 Present simple and present continuous OJ Cross out the wrong words in bold. Write the 1 We are always making our homework together because we are in the same class. 2 You can walk around your town
ENGLIGH REVIEW Am, is or are? Write the correct word in the gaps. Then make the sentences negative. a. I a student. b. My brother a teacher. c. We from Madrid. d. My brother and father English. e. That
WWW.INTERCAMBIOIDIOMASONLINE.COM FCE (B2): REPHRASING 50 PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR THE CAMBRIDGE FIRST CERTIFICATE EXAM WWW.INTERCAMBIOIDIOMASONLINE.COM Marc Andrew Huckle Rephrasing (transformation) types
2018-1 TURNO MATUTINO MADE BY LUCÍA GUERRERO PACHECO & PATRICIA CASALES ZEPEDA PRESENT SIMPLE Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs. 1 We... coffee and toast for breakfast. (have) 2
Descriptive adjectives: - ed vs -ing GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Intermediate B1_2055G_EN English Goals Learn the difference between descriptive adjectives: -ed vs -ing Learn how and when to use them
GRAMMAR 1 Complete the dialogue with words from the list. You can use the words more than once. there s are it a some any an Dan Maya Dan Maya Dan Maya Do you live in a town or 1 village, Maya? Oh, 2 s
BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Present tenses This is not a word-for-word transcript Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me,. And me,. Hello. In this programme we're talking about present
Intermediate three Additional Grammar Made for you in order to help you to understand grammar in intermediate three I 3 INFOP Virtual UNIT 1 Modals Should Have / Could Have Past Forms 4 UNIT 2 Conditionals
11 Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation A GRAMMAR 1 Complete the sentences with a, an, the, or (no article). Example: I read an interesting book last week. 1 I never eat meat because I m a vegetarian.
1 Prepositions of time Presentation I study Geography on Monday and on Wednesday. I study Drama in the afternoon. I go swimming in summer. I play tennis at six o clock. We finish school in June. Remember!
PRESENT FORMS Correct the sentences. 1 Does he lives in Scotland? 2 Do she have a car? 3 He work in Moscow. 4 Where does you live? 5 He doesn't has a dog. 6 She comes from England PAST FORMS 1 What were
Adverbs of manner GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Beginner A2_2067G_EN English Goals Learn about adverbs of manner Learn about the importance of placement of adverbs of manner 2 Some people have many talents.
Structuring a sentence: inversion GRAMMAR LEVEL NUMBER LANGUAGE Advanced C1_1041G_EN English Goals Review basic uses of inversion Learn advanced inversion and when to use it Practise using advanced inversion
Grammar Appendix Present Simple and Continuous PRESENT SIMPLE bare infinitive (-s / -es) (-) do / does + not + bare infinitive (?) Do / Does + subject + bare infinitive PRESENT CONTINUOUS am / is / are
I'm thinking of you 1 A song: Lemon Tree A pre-watching Look at these pictures. Talk about the pictures. Which words, feelings come to your mind? 1 2 B boring sad uncertain lonesome.....................
Exercise 1: Tick (P) the suitable answer. - ENGLISH TEST - 1. Wait a minute. I'm finishing an important letter. A finish B R 'm finishing C will finish 2. Children's books are in the other part of this
1 Unit friendship 1-16: For these questions, choose the best option to fill in the blanks. 1. We re organizing a party for mum but it is a... for now. You shouldn t tell anyone. secret buddy ticket mate
PRONOUNS We use the following PRONOUNS before the verb as the subject: I am at school. We are football players. You (singular) are a student. You (plural) are students. He wants a pencil. They are teachers.
a I love this job! Grammar: Present simple and present continuous Match the questions ( 0) to the answers (a j) MY LIFE What does your dad do? Where do you usually go on Fridays? Do you often read in bed?
CURSO:3º ESO ASIGNATURA:INGLÉS NO BILINGÜE PROFESORA: BEATRIZ MANSO CAPILLA Grammar & vocabulary Unit 1 Adverbs of degree 1 Tick (") the correct sentences. I get good marks. I m quite intelligent. 1 Joe
STYLE School Tests for Young Learners of English Level 1 Sample Test Form A Hellenic American University, Office for Language Assessment. Distributed by the Hellenic American Union. FREE OF CHARGE LISTENING
LIKE, LOVE, HATE +ING Ex.1. Fill in the gaps with the verbs in brackets: 1. I like (go) out with friends. 2. She doesn t like (play) any sport. 3. He hates (cook). 4. She loves (swim). 5. I like (dance).
10 Present perfect simple You use the present perfect simple to express passed actions linked to the present You use it to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before: - to talk about experiences
TEST THREE PAPER 1 PART FOUR 75 Part 4 Questions 21 27 Read the article about a man who opened a restaurant, and then answer the questions. For questions 21 27, mark A, B or C on your answer sheet. OPENING
1. Before you listen: Vocabulary match up 2. Audio script 3. Comprehension Task 4. Grammar Task 1 5. Grammar Task 2 6. Vocabulary Task Introduction This support pack accompanies: Big City Small World Series
Countable (Can count) uncountable (cannot count) I have one cat. ( I have a cat. ) I have one milk. I have one of milk (I have a of milk) I have three cats I have three milk s (I have three of milk) examples
8 Either... or / neither... nor Date: Grammar Station We can use either... or / neither... nor to connect two things or ideas. We use either... or to talk about choices and possibility. We use neither...
ASOCIACIÓN EX ALUMNOS DEL PROFESORADO EN LENGUAS VIVAS JUAN RAMÓN FERNÁNDEZ PRE-ADOLESCENTS 1 NEW TASKS & MARKING SCHEME A B C D E F Total A) Read the text and answer the questions below. (25) The life
Past Simple Questions Find your sentence: Who? What? Janet Chris Mary Paul Liz John Susan Victor wrote a letter read a book ate an apple drank some milk drew a house made a model plane took some photos
4 The good things in life? a d e 1 Look at the photos. Do you like the foods? 2 a Complete A in the Key vocaulary panel. 4.1 Listen and point to the foods in the photos. Are the foods good for you or ad
Lesson 12: Infinitive or -ING Game Show (Part 1) When you construct a sentence, it can get confusing when there is more than one verb. What form does the second verb take? Today's and tomorrow's lessons
Look at the pictures and the prompts and make sentences using present simple passive, as in the example. 2. A lot of rice is eaten in India. 3. Snals are eaten in France. 4. Coca Cola is produced in the
Language Awareness Grammar is the nuts and bolts of a language. We follow certain rules and conventions which allow us to achieve our purpose of communication wh another person. You will find that many
27 PREPOSITIONS 225 Prepositions of place 1 Basic meanings There are some people in/inside the cafe. The man is waiting outside the cafe. There's a television on the table. There's a photo on top of the
Introducing your students to spoken grammar The term 'spoken grammar' is used to describe features of English that are common in the informal or conversational language, but normally absent from conventional
Name: N o : English Quiz Quiz 3/ March 2016 Class : Grade 9 Duration : 50min Obj: Tenses/Modals English Quiz I-READING COMPREHENSION: Objectives: - Read a text and answer questions in complete sentences.
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Definition of Gerund Michael Swan (2005:19), a linguist who is more likely to pay attention to the original English, defines grammar as the following: Grammar is the
ENGLISH - 3rd ESO NAME and SURNAMES:----------------------------------------------------------------------------- IES Ramon Turró i Darder - Dossier de recuperació 1r TRIMESTRE READING 1 Read the text.
Episode 1 Happy Birthday! (scene 1) 1 These people present Take a Look. Read the questions and complete the answers. 1 What s his name? His. 2 What s his name? Her. 2 Complete the months of the year in