Breakthrough - Additional Educational Material for the Exhibition in Chicago

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1 Breakthrough - Additional Educational Material for the Exhibition in Chicago I. Student Handout 1. Before the visit What are two or three things the artists say about themselves? Why are their pieces of art shown together in this exhibition? Do some research on the exhibition website. What are your expectations for the exhibition? What does freedom mean for you? Draw a picture sign for it and take it with you to the exhibition. 2. During the visit What do these works of art have in common? How do they differ? Discuss. These words could help you to talk about it: Symbols Freedom Colors Wall Hope Truth Self-Depiction Anxiety Protest 1

2 Find these works of art with the following symbols: symbol to be found in by Eagle Brandenburger Tor Bubble Gum Cross Tanks Why were these symbols chosen? Which symbols in all the pieces of art in the exhibition represent freedom? Is there a piece of art in the exhibition with your symbol for freedom? If so, what s its title? Which piece of art do you like best? Why? 2

3 3. After the visit What did you see in the photos of Gerald Adam Hahn or Harald Hauswald? What impression do you have from life in the GDR? The photos showed situations like: demonstrations, people at work, traffic, people who are shopping, children who were playing The people in the photos were: sad, proud, furious, melancholic, happy, jolly, angry, full of hope, thankful, in love, anxious, resigned, enthusiastic, reverent, jealous, helpless, desperate, curious, satisfied, I believe life in the GDR was difficult, interesting, constricted, dull, miserable, exciting Bring at least two photos from your family. Talk about them in teams in the class. Are the people sad, happy, shy, proud? Why? Compare the GDR photos with how you see the things and people in your own life. What does a person need to be happy? Please find more things. shelter work Do you think it was possible for anyone to lead a happy life in the GDR? Why or why not? 3

4 Look at the photographs in the exhibition again. Compare them with your own photographs. Could they be shown in an exhibition, too? Why or why not? When do you feel free? Circle your answers and add your own examples. saying what I like to say being outdoors reading sleeping sailing being alone playing traveling What might freedom mean for the artists of this exhibition? What might freedom mean in America? Compare your understanding of it with the artists statements. 4

5 II. Teacher Handout This educational material is designed to prepare students for their visit of Breakthrough and give them the opportunity to engage with the works of art as well as with the artists biographies. That way they can understand better what they will see and also gain knowledge about German and European history. The concept of living with the Berlin Wall and within a regime that restricts certain parts of life might be totally new to some students. The teacher will need to provide a certain amount of background information, additional material to support teachers with preparing lessons will be provided. If teachers have the opportunity, they could take the exhibition on board as a starting point for cross-curricular work. The content is very suitable for connecting German, History and Arts. The History teacher could provide additional information on World War II, the Allied Forces and the Marshall Plan and what happened in the German sectors after The Arts teacher could extend the students task on expressing what they understand by freedom to a real Art project. Answer Key for tasks 1. Before the visit All of the artists lived on both sides of the Berlin Wall and suffered disadvantages -- some were even imprisoned -- as a result of their free expression through art in the former East Germany. The universal values they have in common are such as freedom of expression, courage, optimism, endurance, commitment, risk-taking, and others. They explain the difficulties they faced finding their own way in life while refusing to accept what the GDR regime wanted them to do. The exhibition aims to support the understanding of German history and remembering the fall of the Berlin Wall 20 years ago. All the artists produced art works that deal with the time before and after the Wall or important events during the GDR era. Their works provide an excellent starting point for discussions and research. Being authentic material, the art works document what hardships the presence of the Wall caused. 2. During the visit The photos are all in black and white and depict a cheerless, grey or disillusioned world. The paintings and sculptures play with color. All of the art works are very intense; they show and call forth emotion. As authentic material, the viewer can see each of them as time capsules, capturing the truth of these very moments. The art works deal with protest in different ways. Some of them show protest scenes, some of them are means of protest. The artists did not intend to depict themselves but to keep pictures of their 5

6 environments which were shaped by a society living behind the Iron Curtain. By including symbols of freedom, the artists through their works expressed their hope for a better future and also give the viewers relief. Their lives prove that by being courageous and active, anxiety and restraint can be overcome. symbol Eagle Brandenburger Tor Bubble Gum Cross Tanks to be found in Painting by Frank Rödel: Bald Eagle II Painting by Reinhard Stangl: Brandenburger Tor Sculpture by Robert Weber: Relic Berlin Wall Photo by Harald Hauswald: Rock Concert in the Zion s Church, Berlin 1988 Photo by Harald Hauswald: Christmas Market Berlin 1984 Possible Interpretations why these symbols were chosen Eagle: It is a symbol for freedom. People like to be free and fly like an eagle, across borders, not having to ask anyone where they are allowed to go. Apart from that the eagle is part of the so-called state flag of the federal authorities of Germany or government flag. The coat of arms of Germany features an eagle. Its use goes back to the 8 th century and can even be seen on the German 1 Euro coin today. As the GDR had a different coat of arms, the eagle can also be seen as a symbol for West Germany. Brandenburger Tor: From 1961 to 1989 it symbolized the divided Germany and was part of the Berlin Wall. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, people celebrated that it was possible again to walk through the gate without being restrained by security. Thus it also represents a symbol of freedom today. Bubble Gum: Bubble gum was a product not generally available to the citizens of the former German Democratic Republic. It was sold only in the few shops which accepted payment in West German Marks the unit of currency which preceded the Euro. A longstanding complaint of communist and socialist propaganda was that the capitalist countries of the west manufacture and use products which have no real function, and then throw them away, thus polluting the world. Bubble gum is a perfect example of such a product. Moreover, the act of chewing gum was seen as very impolite behavior, especially when talking to people. It was strictly forbidden in schools. So if a piece of it shows up on the wall which kept this socialist world in, it marked the encroachment of the West. 6

7 Cross: Religion and churches were suppressed in the GDR. Nevertheless some young people turned to the church because they got the feeling that they could speak more freely there and that their interests were heard and supported. In the 1980 s, the church helped young people to organize rock concerts on their premises. Rock music was also seen as decadent by officials, not worth to be shown on stage. Tanks: People were used to a military presence and tanks represented strength and power. The officials of the GDR saw their territory in danger of being overtaken by the West. We need to defend our socialist homeland was a common slogan; thus military drills were part of everyday life and even school curricula. Workers in companies had to participate in camps and do military exercises a few times per year, and students had to as well. Not many different types of cars were driven in the streets and a tank was something like a cool car for boys and girls. The tanks seen in the photo are part of a merry-go-round and are Russian make. Germany was forbidden to produce weapons by the Allied Forces after World War II. For a short period not even cars could be manufactured. So tanks were something special. With the background described, a lot of parents would not hesitate to put their children into a tank and wouldn t think about the fact that growing up with weapons could turn them into people being in favor of war. (Individual solutions for the other questions of page 1.) 3. After the visit a) (Individual solutions with the help of the given expressions) b) What does a person need to be happy? Possible answers: love, family, food, drinks, education, freedom to decide what to do or where to go, security and no violence, health, creativity, money, If you think about the fact that people in the GDR didn t starve, people were not unemployed or homeless, there was a very low crime rate because of the system which watched people very closely, education was for free and even health care was for free, of course there were some people with a happy life in the GDR. Especially those who lived believing in the system or those who didn t get into trouble with it were unharmed. Gender equality was reached by the same income for men and women and by having enough child care facilities for all working mothers. People with academic jobs didn t earn much more than workers in factories. The social gap between rich and poor was not as wide as today s. What nearly no one could get was the permission to travel into Western countries. This was a fact of permanent criticism by everyone other than the socialist party. 7

8 c) Why can you call the photos art works? The photos incorporate all features of fine art. They use light and shadow in a balanced way. Most of the photos utilize the golden ratio so that the view is drawn to the edge. Some photos contrast content by using parallel lines vertically or horizontally. Some photos use unusual perspectives to cause emotions. d) (individual answers for their own photos) e) (individual answers for when someone feels free) f) What does freedom mean for the artists of this exhibition? Example: Frank Rödel I was not allowed to study in the German Democratic Republic and had to endure the complete loss of personal freedoms, individual rights and dignity for more than three years while a political prisoner. As a result of being completely stripped of my individuality and freedom, a counter-reaction developed: the complete focus on art which is the most individual of all lifestyles. The American way of life is, from a European point of view, the one that is the most intensely tied to the concept of freedom. g) What does freedom mean in America? Compare it with the artists statements. Looking at the First Amandment to the United States Constitution, freedom of religion, freedom of speech and press, the right to peacefully assemble and also the separation of church and state are proclaimed in the USA. People can travel wherever they want, they are allowed to say what they want and they are taught to respect each other at schools. People can found a business when they want to, they can freely choose their study subject or can be critical in art works if they like. In the GDR people were not allowed to assemble without permission of the Socialist Party. People couldn t say what they want, especially not when it was critical of society. The press was controlled by the officials. It wasn t always possible to choose careers because of the 5-year plans and because of the social background. There was a fixed percentage of how many children were allowed to study, which was about 10%. Children of the working class and party officials got special treatment in declaring majors in subjects one was generally not allowed to study; the number of students studying a particular subject was controlled and dependent on the five-year plan, art was seen as something unproductive if it didn t portray the working class and therefore it was not generally supported. To limit the total numbers of students was necessary to guarantee free education. More people were forced to work in production than there would have been without the plans. The artists experienced all these limitations and could see that a lot of the things they were longing for were possible in the USA. 8

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