# Music theory B-examination 1

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1 Music theory B-examination 1 1. Metre, rhythm 1.1. Accents in the bar 1.2. Syncopation 1.3. Triplet 1.4. Swing 2. Pitch (scales) 2.1. Building/recognizing a major scale on a different tonic (starting note) 2.2. Minor scales/relative relationship 2.3. Special minor scales 2.4. Parallel relationship 2.5. Chromatic C-scale 3. Pitch (melody, harmony) 3.1. Intervals in C major 3.2. Major and minor triad 3.3. Determination of key 4. Abbreviations 5. Terms (articulation, dynamics, tempo, Italian musical terms)

2 Music theory B-examination 2 1. Metre, Rhythm 1.1. Accents in the bar Simple: every beat can be divided in 2 Compound: every beat/pulse (a dotted note) can be divided in 3 duple: 2 beats in a bar triple: 3 beats in a bar quadruple: 4 beats in a bar 2: 1 2 (simple duple) 3: (simple triple) 4: (simple quadruple) 5: or (odd metre) 6: (compound duple) 9: (compound triple) 12: (compound quadruple) 1.2. Syncopation (hemiola) Syncopation is shifting the accentuation by tying 1.3. Triplet Three notes in the time of 2 notes of the same duration

3 Music theory B-examination Swing Swing is a way of playing the uneven eighth notes longer than the even ones. There are 3 notation styles: 2. Pitch (scales) 2.1. Building/recognizing a major scale on a different tonic (starting note) All major scales follow the pattern of the natural c-scale: half-steps between 3-4 and ^ ^8 c - d - e^f - g - a - b^c Starting on g there is a half-step between the 6 th and 7 th note. By raising the f to f# you will get a whole step there, as well as a half-step between the 7 th and the 8 rh note ^ ^ ^ ^8 g - a - b^c - d - e^f - g g - a - b^c - d - e - f #^g Starting on f there is a whole step between the 3 rd and 4 th note. By lowering the b to bb you will get a half-step there, as well as a whole step between the 4 th and the 5 rh note ^ ^ ^ ^8 f - g - a - b^c - d - e^f f - g - a^b b - c - d - e^f

4 Music theory B-examination Minor scales/relative relationship By starting a major scale 2 steps lower you get a minor scale. These 2 scales are in relative relationship. They have the same notes (the same key signature). All minor scales follow the pattern of the natural a-scale: half-steps between 2-3 and ^ ^ a - b^c - d - e^f - g - a 2.3. Special minor scales Harmonic: raise 7th step Melodic: raise 6th and 7th step, only rising (ascending) 2.4. Parallel relationship Parallel relationships means that a major and a minor scale start on the same note. The third, sixth and seventh change from major to minor.

5 Music theory B-examination 5 Chromatic C-scale (12 notes in half-steps) Ascending: fill the whole steps by raising the note in between Descending: fill the whole steps by lowering the note in between 3. Pitch (melody, harmony) 3.1. Intervals in C major All intervals are major or perfect By lowering major intervals they become minor (m) 3.2. Major and minor triad Major minor

6 Music theory B-examination Determination of key In most cases a piece ends on its tonic (starting note of the scale that is used). If there are more notes (for example a chord or when another part has a bass note) pick the lowest note. Then find out if the third of the tonic is major or minor. So: 1. Lowest ending note 2. Third on that note major or minor? G major g minor 4. Abbreviations

7 Music theory B-examination 7 5. Terms: articulation, dynamics, tempo, metronome, Italian musical terms Term Sign Meaning Articulation (playing the notes separated or slurred) Staccato short Legato slurred Dynamics (volume) pianissimo pp very soft piano p soft mezzo piano mp moderately soft mezzo forte mf moderately loud forte f loud fortissimo ff very loud crescendo cresc. or < get louder decrescendo/ diminuendo Tempo (speed) Mälzels metronome decresc./ or > dim get softer 120 quarter notes per minute Largo very slow Adagio slow Andante easy going Moderato moderately Allegro fast Vivace lively Presto very fast Ritenuto/Ritardando rit. slow down accelerando accel. gradually speed up a tempo initial tempo More terms molto very poco a little da capo D.C. from the beginning dal segno D.S. from the sign segno sign to coda è - è skip and to end piece ottava 8 va play one octave higher chromatic with half-steps

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