1 Running head: AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 1 Example of an Intermediate-Level APA Style Paper Justine Berry Austin Peay State University
2 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 2 Abstract APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association (APA) and is commonly used to cite sources in the fields of Natural and Social Sciences, Business, and Nursing. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, dated 2010, provides the best reference for formatting and citing in APA Style. The mechanics of basic writing and citing sources are the same in all academic writing; however, formatting papers in styles such as APA, MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago, ASA (American Sociological Association), Turabian, among others, are different. Thus, this example paper focuses on the basic guidelines for formatting papers and citing sources in APA Style. Keywords: APA, formatting, citing, References
3 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 3 Example of an Intermediate-Level APA Style Paper American Psychological Association (APA) is the style of formatting that is commonly used in courses in the fields of Nursing, Education, and Natural and Social Sciences, such as Psychology, Linguistics, Sociology, and Economics (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). Students in these fields are generally required to format papers and document sources using this style. The manual that outlines the guidelines for formatting and citing is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition revised in Figure 1 illustrates the front cover of this style guide. General APA Formatting Guidelines Margins According to the LB Brief: The Little, Brown Handbook, Brief Version, APA Style dictates the top, bottom, left, and right margins are one inch on all sides (Aaron, 2011, p. 509). Thus, on all pages, the text in the body begins one inch down from the top of each page. The alignment of the left and right margins should be flush left, which means the right margin is not blocked, i.e., set as justified (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Therefore, the contents of the paper should be staggered at the right margin rather than aligned at the right. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association explains, uniform margins enhance readability (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Font Size and Type The preferred typeface for APA publications is Times New Roman, with 12 point font size (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 228). However, other similar font is acceptable typefaces, depending upon professor s specifications. In addition, the font size and type must be the same in the running head on all pages. For figures, A sans serif type may be
4 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 4 used to provide a clean and simple line that enhances the visual presentation (p. 229). Line Spacing Double-spacing. Double-space throughout the entire paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, references, footnotes, block quotes, appendixes, and figure captions (Aaron, 2011, p. 509; American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Default settings. Microsoft Word 2007 and 2010 include an additional horizontal spacing between paragraphs and after titles and headings that are not in accordance to APA style; thus, the default settings in spacing must changed to present true double-spacing in an APA Style paper. Exceptions. However, triple- or quadruple-spacing may be used in special circumstances, such as immediately before and after a displayed equation (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Moreover, single-spacing and one-and-a-half spacing should not be used except in tables or figures (p. 229). Otherwise, double-spacing should always be maintained in an APA style paper. Spacing after Punctuation APA Style dictates spacing once after all punctuation except the end punctuation (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 87). Therefore, two spaces follow punctuation marks at the ends of sentences (pp ). Paragraph Indentation The indentation of each paragraph is 5-7 spaces (Aaron, 2011, p. 509); however, this spacing can be best accomplished through the use of the tab key, which should be set at 1/2
5 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 5 in[ch] (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229) rather than pressing the Spacebar of the keyboard approximately 10 times. Tone and Style Depending on the type of assignment, as a general rule, use the active voice rather than the passive voice (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 66). For example, use We predicted that... rather than It was predicted that.... Moreover, avoid the use of secondperson pronouns you and your and first-person pronouns that refer to the self, such as I, me, we, us, etc. The tone and style should be formal, rather than informal or conversational. Ensure word choices are clear and correct so meanings, definitions, descriptions, analyses, etc., do not confuse the reader. Therefore, avoid the use of slang language and colloquial expressions in an APA style paper. Major Paper Sections and Order of Pages The order of major paper sections and order of pages in an APA Style document are the following: Title Page, Abstract, Body, and References (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). Other additional paper sections are included after the References page and consist of the following order: Footnotes, Tables, Figures and Captions, and Appendices (American Psychological Association, 2010, pp ). These additional sections are usually included for an extensive research paper rather than a shorter assignment. Running Head and Pagination A page header, called the running head, is inserted at the top of every page. To create a page header, insert page numbers flush right against the right margin in the header section of each page. Then type the TITLE OF YOUR PAPER in all capital letters, flush against the left
6 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 6 margin. Using most word processors, the manuscript page header and page number can be inserted into a header, which then automatically appears on all pages (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). In fact, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association dictates, Do not type these manuscript page headers repeatedly in [the] word-processing file (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 230). Instead, establish the running head before typing the document so the pages automatically number themselves and the running head is thus maintained. Purpose The running head is a shortened version of the paper s full title, and it is used to help readers identify the titles for published articles (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Even if the document is not intended for publication, the paper should still have a running head. Pagination The pages are numbered one inch from the right upper edge of the paper on the first line in the header portion of every page, beginning with the title page (Aaron, 2011, p. 509). Moreover, pagination of the document should continue when additional components of the paper, such as Tables, Figures, Footnotes, and Appendices, are included after the References page. Format The running head cannot exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). The running head s title is typed in all uppercase (capital letters) after typing, Running head in lowercase letters, followed by a colon. According to the example of the title page in the Publication Manual of the American
7 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 7 Psychological Association, the word head is not capitalized (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 41). (The words Running head and the colon are included in the header only on the Title Page. Thereafter, these two words and the colon are removed, and the subsequent pages of the document consist of only the document s title and page number in the header.) Again, the running head is typed flush left, and page numbers should be flush right. Page header on title page. The running head on the title page should look like this: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 1 Page header on subsequent pages. The running head on all pages that follow the title page should look like this: TITLE OF THE PAPER 2 Title Page APA Style requires the use of the Title Page, which is numbered as page 1. The minimum key elements of this page consist of the running head, title of the paper, author s name, and institutional affiliation (Aaron, 2011, p. 510; American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 229). Running Head and Body The running head goes in the header portion of every page, and the text consists of the title of the paper, the author s name, and the institutional affiliation on three separate lines. Spacing and Centering The title page is double-spaced, and the font size and type are 12- pt font, Times New Roman. The three lines of text must be vertically centered from the halfway point of the page upwards (Aaron, 2011, p. 510; American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 23). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, provides an example of the title page on page 41.
8 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 8 Title The purpose of the title is to summarize the paper s main idea. APA recommends the title be no more than 12 words in length (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 23), and it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. The title should only take up one line, but if it is long, a second line may be needed. The title is centered in the upper half of the page and typed in upper and lowercase letters. All key words, such as nouns and proper names, need to be capitalized. Moreover, the title should not be annotated as bold-faced, underlined or in italicized font. Author s Name The author is the individual who wrote the paper. The author's name is centered and typed in uppercase and lowercase letters on the line following the title. According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, The preferred form of an author s name is first name, middle initial(s), and last name to [reduce] the likelihood of mistaken identity (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 23). Moreover, titles (such as Dr.) and degrees (such as Ph.D.) should not be used (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 23). Institutional Affiliation The institutional affiliation indicates the location where the author or authors wrote the paper and/or conducted the research (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 23). The institutional affiliation is thus centered and typed in uppercase and lowercase letters on the line following the author's name. No portion of the name of the institution should be abbreviated. Other Information Any additional information, such as the name and number of the course, professor s
9 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 9 name(s), and date, are noted only if the professor requires it. This information is thus placed at the bottom of the page or where indicated by the professor. These contents are centered and typed in the same fashion as the three lines of text. If a date is required, it is formatted by name of the month, date, and year (Aaron, 2011, p. 510). Abstract Not all assignments require the Abstract for an APA Style paper. Depending on the nature of the assignment, the paper may not need the Abstract. If one is not needed, begin writing the body of the paper on page 2. However, if an Abstract is needed, it is included before the body of the paper. Purpose The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper. It allows readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper and provides a brief [and] comprehensive summary of the contents of the article (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 25). The abstract is especially important because this portion of the paper may be all that many people will read if the work is a comprehensive study (p. 25). Therefore, the abstract needs to be well written. Pagination The abstract begins on a new page and is numbered as 2 along with the title of the paper in the running head. However, the words, Running head and the colon need to be removed from the header. Format The word Abstract is typed in regular font and centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. It should not be annotated as bold-faced, underlined or in italicized
10 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 10 font. The entire page is double-spaced and typed in 12-point Times New Roman. Unlike the body of the paper, the abstract is written in block format, which means this paragraph is not indented (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012), but the right margin remains as unjustified. The text of the abstract immediately begins on the line following the Abstract heading. Length, Numbers, Abbreviations, and Acronyms The abstract should be between 150 and 250 words (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 103). Abbreviations and acronyms that are used in the body of the paper should be defined in the abstract (p. 105). How to Write an Abstract According to Kendra Cherry (2012), First, write the paper. While the abstract will be at the beginning of the paper, it should be the last section that is written. Once the final draft has been completed, use it as a guide for writing the abstract. Cherry (2012) explains, Keep it short. An abstract should be no longer than 120 words and should be written as only one paragraph. In order to succinctly describe the entire paper, the most important elements need to be determined. Structure. The structure of the abstract should be in the same order as the paper. It should begin with a brief summary of the introduction, and then continue on with a summary of the major sections of the paper (Cherry, 2012). It should be accurate (do not include information in the abstract that is not in the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out abbreviations), concise ( between 150 and 250 words [Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012]), and specific (begin this section with the most important information and limit it to the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of the study [Cherry, 2012]). The
11 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 11 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association states an abstract needs to be dense with information (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 26). Other key points. Cherry (2012) suggests, Other key points for writing the Abstract are the following: Avoid citing references in the abstract. Paraphrase rather than quote. Use active rather than passive voice (but avoid the use of personal pronouns). For example, write, Researchers instructed participants to..., rather than, Participants were given instructions to.... Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results (Cherry, 2012). Keywords. Keywords from the paper s body can be listed in the Abstract. Listing keywords will help researchers find the paper s work in databases (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue, 2012). To include keywords, indent the text and type the word Keywords in italics and follow with a colon as thus shown: Keywords: Follow this word with the list of keywords typed in regular font but do not end this list with a period. Body of the Paper The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3), and follows the Title Page (page 1) and Abstract (page 2), if the latter is required. Like the Title Page and Abstract, the body of the paper is double-spaced, typed in Times New Roman, 12-pt font, and maintains the one-inch margins at the top, left, right, and bottom. The running head maintains its page numbering and title placement that was established on the Abstract page. Unlike the Abstract, which does not require the use of indentation of its paragraph, the paragraphs in the body of the paper should be indented by the use of the tab key, or 5-7 spaces (Aaron, 2011, p. 509). Title The body of the paper begins with typing the title. The title is typed in uppercase and lowercase letters and is centered on the first line below the running head. Although the running
12 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 12 head shows the title of the paper, the title still must be typed to begin the body of the paper, especially if the title in the running head is a shortened version of the original. Moreover, the title is not underlined, boldfaced, written in italics, or typed in larger font than Times New Roman 12-pt size. Introductory Paragraph The introduction of the paper (which is not labeled with a heading, Introduction ) begins on the line following the paper title. This paragraph provides background information about the paper s topic, its purpose, a main idea (the thesis statement), and an overview of the major points of discussion that will be addressed in the body of the paper. This introduction sets the foundation for the information that follows. Furthermore, for papers that provide complex and detailed information, the body of the paper can be broken down into subsections that are separated by headings and continue discussion in a smooth, transitional pattern. Headings Headings are used to organize the document through separating and classifying paper sections according to their relative importance. There are 5 heading levels in APA. Regardless of the number of levels, the headings must always be used in order, beginning with level 1. Table 1 illustrates the format of each level according to the American Psychological Association (2010, p. 62). In-text Citing Ideas, tables, graphics, researched information, and all other data that are not the writer s must be cited wherever included in the paper. Failing to cite constitutes plagiarism, regardless of whether this was the writer s intent. Thus, all sources must be cited in accordance to APA Style. For citing sources within the body of the paper, consult the Publication Manual of the
13 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 13 American Psychological Association, 6th edition, dated Generally, sources are cited at the point where the information is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. The LB Brief: The Little, Brown Handbook, Brief Version states, In your text, a parenthetical citation near the borrowed material directs readers to a list of all the works you refer to (Aaron, 2011, p. 491). In accordance to APA style, if the author(s) name(s) and year of publication of a source are known, the author s last name(s) and year are cited in the body of the paper. Thus, two ways a writer can cite in the body of an APA style paper are the following: author s name is cited within the parenthetical citation, or author s name is used to introduce the quote, paraphrase, or summary. Author s name cited within parenthesis. If the author s name is not included in the phrase that introduces a quote, paraphrase, or summary, cite the author s last name, year of publication, and page number (if document is paginated), within the parenthesis (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 174). For example, the name of the author is not named in the previous sentence of the paraphrase; thus, the author s last name, year of publication, and page number of the book are cited within the parenthesis, separated by commas. The end punctuation follows the citation. (In this example the name of the organization that wrote the manual is the author.) Author s name used to introduce quote, paraphrase, or summary. On the other hand, if the author s name is used in the text, repeat it in the reference (Aaron, 2011, p. 492), as in the following example: Jane Aaron (2010) explains, In your text, a parenthetical citation contains the year of the borrowed material and directs readers to a list of all the works you refer to (p. 491). This previous citation is thus shown without the author s name since the author was introduced before the quote.
14 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 14 Multiple authors and use of word and. For a work with two authors, if the names are used in the text, separate their last names with the word and, as shown in this example: Pepinsky and DeStefano (1997) demonstrated that a teacher s language often reveals hidden biases (Aaron, 2011, p. 492). This basic rule differs from the use of the symbol ampersand, &. Multiple authors and use of symbol ampersand. However, if the authors names were not used in the text, the names are connected by an ampersand, & (Aaron, 2011, p. 492) within the parenthesis that cites the source. Writers need to learn the difference between the use of the word and versus the use of the ampersand, & while in-text citing within the body of the paper. However, this rule does not apply for citing authors on the References page. Unknown author and annotating titles. For a work that has no named author or organization that collectively serves as the author, the title of the source is used. Aaron (2011) explains, use the first two or three words of the title in place of an author s name, excluding an initial The, A, or An (p. 431). An example of citing an unnamed source in the body of the paper is shown as thus: One article, ( Right to Die, 1996) noted that a death-row inmate may crave notoriety (Aaron, 2011, p. 493). Note the title of the article is written within quotation marks because shorter works in APA style are noted in this fashion. However, titles of books, journals, and other similar longer works are written in italics in the body of the paper (Aaron, 2011, p. 493). Use of et al. When a source was written by three, four, or five authors, all of the authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author's surname and the Latin abbreviation "et al." are used (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 177). Note that et requires no punctuation because it is the Latin word for and; al. is an abbreviation for the word others and requires a period (American Psychological Association,
15 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER , p. 108). Further notes of et al. The Latin term et al. is not written in italics or capitalized (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 108). In addition, a comma is not inserted after the author s name, but is instead annotated as in this example: Berry et al. (2012) state, The correct use of et al. is crucial for citing correctly. However, it is not used on the References page (p. 49). Six or more authors. For a source that cites six or more authors, list the only the first author's surname. Shorten any remaining authors to "et al." (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 108). This citation is thus used every time the source is cited in the body of the paper, including the first time. Subsequent references, same paragraph. If a subsequent reference is in the same paragraph as the first citation, the year and page number need not be listed (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 108). For example, Berry et al. (2012) state, The correct use of et al. is crucial for citing correctly. However, it is not used on the References page (p. 49). Berry et al. adds, The use of et al. in the body of the paper saves distraction of the reader and time of writing for the author. Subsequent references, different paragraph. However, if the subsequent reference is in a different paragraph, the year must be listed as well as the page number, if appropriate (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 108). Year of publication. After the author s name, whether in parenthesis or when introduced in the sentence, annotate the source s year of publication. However, if the source has no date, annotate as n.d., the abbreviation for no date (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 185). Note this abbreviation is not capitalized, and periods are used without spacing
16 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 16 between the letters. For example, Berry et al. (n.d.) state, The correct use of et al. is crucial for citing correctly. However, it is not used on the References page (p. 49). Quoting. Direct quoting of sources entails writing passages word for word from the original. Quotes less than 40 words in length. Use quotation marks before and after quotes less than 40 words in length. The period follows the citation as though the citation is part of the sentence (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 171). Example. Lewis and Johnson s (2006) study found, Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources (p. 64). Quotes more than 40 words in length. Quotes longer than 40 words in length must be written in block style. Instead of a comma before the quote, use a colon. In addition, quotation marks are not used. To write the quote block style, indent the quote one inch from the left margin (usually with the use of the tab key) and block the entire quote. The period follows the quote, not after the citation. For the entire quote, maintain 12-pt font size, double-spacing, and unblocked right margin (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 171). Example. Lewis and Johnson s (2006) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 64) References Page Every source cited in the body of the paper should have a referenced entry, and every source listed on the References page should be cited in the body of the paper. This list includes full publication information on every source cited in the paper (Aaron, 2011, p. 494). After the
17 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 17 conclusion paragraph, a reference list of all of those sources needs to be established. This biographical list is called the References page. Purpose Two purposes of the References page is to provide a list of the sources the writer used in the body of the paper and to enable readers to retrieve and use the[se] sources (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 180). Procedure Start the reference list (also known as the Bibliography, but called References in APA Style) on a new page following the body of the paper, regardless of any available space on the last page of the body. Center the heading, References. Do not write this heading in larger font or boldface, underline or italicize it. Like the rest of the entire paper, all entries are doublespaced on this page. In addition, there should be no additional horizontal space between each listed source. The reader should be able to determine where one citation ends and the next begins because of the indentation. Therefore, each source begins at the left margin, while second and subsequent lines of the same citation (if needed) need to be indented, called a hanging indent format (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 37). Basic Structure Although the APA style of listing sources on the References page depends on types, the basic structure of elements is the same:...author, year of publication, title, and publishing data all the information necessary for unique identification and library search (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 180). Order of References Sources are not listed on the References page by the order used in the body of the paper.
18 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 18 Instead, they are arrange[d] in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 181). Authors and unknown authors. Aaron (2011) instructs, alphabetize the sources by the author s last name. If there is no author, alphabetize by the first main word of the title (p. 494). The author is listed as last name, initial of first name, and middle initial (if one is present) rather than by full name. Moreover, for sources that have more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the last author s name (Aaron, 2011, p. 494). Unlike when in-text citing in the body of the paper, the word and is not used. Titles of sources. Although titles of sources are capitalized and written in italics or within quotation marks in the body of the paper (depending on the type of source), titles on the References page are written differently. For titles of books and articles, capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and proper nouns; all other words begin with small letters (Aaron, 2011, p. 495). Aaron (2011) adds, In titles of journals, capitalize all significant words (p. 495). Regarding the use of italics and quotation marks for titles on the Reference page, titles of articles are not annotated with either, but titles of books and journals are italicized (Aaron, 2011, p. 495). Types of sources. The overall citation of a source on the References page depends on the type of source, such as book, journal, electronic sources, etc. Thus, each type of source is listed in different formats. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, dated 2010, Chapter 7, lists the correct templates for listing different types of sources. Electronic sources and locator information. Chapter 6 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides guidance for listing the URLs (uniform
19 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 19 resource locators) and DOIs (digital object identifiers) that provide electronic location of sources. The 6th edition expounds more on the use of these locators and identifiers than the 5th edition of this style guide. (The Appendix stresses why the use of the latest edition of this manual is more beneficial for writers.) Nevertheless, writers should provide as much electronic retrieval information as needed so readers can locate the sources [that were] cited (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 187). Uniform resource locators (URLs). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association explains, The URL is used to map digital information on the Internet (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 188). While listing the URL on the References page, if the URL will not fit on the rest of the line of citation, avoid breaking it with a hyphen. Instead, break the URL before most punctuation [except after] (p. 188). The next line of the citation thus begins with the punctuation and the rest of the URL is typed. In addition, the URL should not end with a period so the reader will not mistakenly assume the period is a part of the address. APA style shows the URL as annotated in black font instead of blue, and the underline is removed. Digital object identifiers (DOIs). Since all content on the Internet is prone to being moved, restructured, or deleted, resulting in broken hyperlinks or nonworking URLs, scholarly publishers assign[ed] a DOI to journal articles and other documents (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 188). Each DOI number begin[s] with a 10 and contain[s] a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash (p. 189). The format begins as shown: doi:xxxxxxx (p. 191). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommend[s] the use of DOIs when they are available (p. 189). DOIs should be typed exactly as published in the article (American Psychological
20 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 20 Association, 2010, p. 191); therefore, in order to enable the reader s retrieval of corresponding sources, DOIs should not be broken apart on the References page. Moreover, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) recommends, Because the DOI string can be long, it is safest to copy and paste whenever possible (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 191). However, its font type and size should be Times New Roman, 12- point on the References page and changed if the DOI is cut and pasted in another size or type. Like the URL, a period is not added at the end of the DOI so the reader will not believe that period is part of the reference number. Additional Components of an APA Style Paper After the References page, additional components of the document can be added as needed. Therefore, Chapters 2 and 8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association depicts the order of additional pages in an APA-formatted paper as consisting of the following components: Footnotes, Tables, Figures and Captions, and Appendices. Footnotes The purposes for footnotes in an APA style paper are the following: provide[s] additional content, acknowledge[s] copyright permission, and supplement[s] or amplifie[s] substantive information (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 37). Use. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition dictates, the use of footnotes should not contain complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential information and is included only if they strengthen discussion (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 37). Moreover, each footnote should convey only one idea (p. 37). Procedure. Footnotes should begin on a separate page after the References page. However, more than one footnote can be listed on this page. Footnotes are listed in the same
21 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 21 order as annotated within the body of the paper. The running head, pagination, and double spacing are maintained from the body of the paper (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 38). In Times New Roman, 12-point font, center the heading Footnotes after the running head. Like the headings Abstract and References on their respective pages, this heading is not typed in large font, boldfaced, underlined, or in italics. However, unlike the References page, the first lines on the Footnotes page are indented but subsequent lines are flush against the left margin. Moreover, each footnote should begin with the same superscripted Arabic number that was used in the body of the paper (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 38). Tables and Figures If a writer plans to publish his or her work, he or she needs to ensure tables and figures that were used do not violating copyright laws (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 37). Tables and figures should not duplicate the same information with one another or the body of the document; instead, they should supplement information that is within the text of the manuscript (p. 130). In addition, both must be referred to in the text (main body) of the paper and included as separate attachments after the footnotes page, if there is one. Tables. The purposes of tables are to show something specific (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 128), such as present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses and other pertinent quantitative data (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue & Purdue University, 2012). Tables also present other information, such as textural information, design or a theoretical schema (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue & Purdue University, 2012). Function. Not all data need be presented in a table. If there is little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of the paper. A table should be able to stand alone;
22 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 22 therefore, the manuscript need not to be read in order to understand a table (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 128). However, the table needs to be referenced in the body of the paper so the reader can later refer to it at the end of the document. A major help regarding self-explanation of the table and its reference is development of the table s title. Table title and numbering. The title explains what is going on in the table. For developing a title, be brief, but clear and explanatory (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 133). In order to avoid confusion if the document includes more than one table, all tables should be numbered. For example, Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3. The table s title subsequently follows the number and is double-spaced on the next line of the Tables page. All key words are capitalized and the title is written in italics. Both lines are flush against the left margin. Example. Table 1 Percentage of Students Unfamiliar with APA Style Format. Begin the Tables on a separate page after the Footnotes page (if there is one). Maintain the running head and pagination and double-space all elements of the table. Avoid placing more than one table on the same page; therefore, each table should begin on a separate page. Structure. Chapter 5 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provides detailed guidelines for establishing tables. Essentially, a table should be presented in a row-column structure. Headings and horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. However, APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines; therefore, do not draw them in or use a word processor to generate them.
23 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 23 Each column should be identified with a brief, descriptive heading. Capitalize the first letter of each heading. In addition, table headings should be located flush right. When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 135). Abbreviations and notes. Abbreviations for standard terms can be used without explanation (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 133). However, uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. If notes will be included, type the word Note in italics after the table, flush against the left margin and follow with a period. Follow with the notes, written in regular font, with the same type and size as the body of the paper (p. 140). Figures The use of Figures in an APA Style paper follows the same principles as Tables. According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, the purposes of Figures are the following: present results, illustrate complex rhetorical formulations, represent a theoretical graph, show sampling[s] and flow[s] of subjects and participants, and present other visual information (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 151). General information. Figures is the technical term for graphs, charts, maps, drawings and pictures (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 151). Its common use is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). Like tables, figures should be introduced in the text of the paper, cited by the Figure number, and described what should be seen in it. For example: Figure 1 displays the... (Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue & Purdue University, 2012).
24 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 24 Guidelines. Figures (other than pictures) may be drawn in black and white only (using a ruler and preferably on graph paper). However, if they are intended for publication in scholarly journals, they should be generated with a computer graphics program (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 161). Regardless, the Figures page should be able to stand alone; the paper need not be read to be able to understand a figure (p. 151). Although figures must be able to be understood on their own, [they should be] label[ed] clearly [through the] use [of] detailed figure legends [and captions] (p. 151). Legends and Figure Captions The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association defines the legend s purpose as explain[ing] the symbols used in the figure and is therefore placed within the figure (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 158). They should reflect the same font size and type that appears in the figure (p. 159). Moreover, a legend must be presented within the dimensions of the figure, not outside it. On the other hand, figure captions accompany figures and explain them; thus, they serve as the figure s title. Since the caption is placed directly below the figure, the figure itself does not need a title (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 159). In addition, captions should be comprised of a brief but descriptive phrase (p. 159). Procedure. Chapter 5 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association displays detailed illustrations and provides guidelines for preparing figures and establishing the Figures page. Essentially, Figures are numbered like tables. A Figure starts with 1. Continue to label additional figures in whole numbers throughout the text, such as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Format. After the Tables page, begin a new page with the usual running head. Double-
25 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 25 space the entire page and maintain the page header. Below the figure, type Figure 1. (or 2 or 3, etc.), flush left and italicized. Center the heading Figure and its number in italics. Subsequently, center each figure on the page vertically as well as horizontally, and arrange the figure to occupy the bulk space of the page (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 161). Appendices The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition outlines the purposes of Appendices as used to present unpublished tests, describe complex equipment or stimulus materials, and present brief, but detailed information that would otherwise be distracting in the body of the paper (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 39). Labeling Appendices When the paper contains only one appendix, refer to it simply as Appendix. However, if more than one appendix is included, label each Appendix by a capital letter, such as Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. Each appendix should include a brief and descriptive title, but each is referenced in the body of the paper by the word Appendix and its corresponding capital letter (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 39). Formatting the Appendices Page Although each appendix is referenced by its label (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) in the body of the paper, on the Appendixes page, an appendix is referenced by letter and title. Moreover, appendices are included in the document in the same order as referenced in the body of the paper, and each should be presented on a page of its own. After the Figures and Captions page, begin a new page with the usual running head and pagination. Double-space the entire page. Center the heading as Appendix. On the next line, center the appendix s title. Like the headings Abstract and References on their respective pages,
26 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 26 this heading and title are not typed in large font, boldfaced, underlined, or in italics. Next, begin the text at the left margin and type in paragraphs with an indentation of the first line 5-7 spaces. After the Appendices page, the APA style paper should thus be complete. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association (APA) and is commonly used for writing psychology, education, and social sciences papers. Although the mechanics of basic writing and citing sources are the same in all academic writing, students who major in these fields should learn how to format papers and cite sources in APA style. If they follow the basic guidelines that are outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition or other reliable sources such as the LB Brief: The Little, Brown Handbook, Brief Version by Jane Aaron, they will successfully write their papers and cite all types of print and Internet sources in APA Style.
27 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 27 References Aaron, J. (2011). LB Brief: The Little, Brown handbook, brief version. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Longman. American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Publisher. Cherry, K. (2012). How to write an abstract. Retrieved from /apastyle/ht/abstract.htm Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue & Purdue University. (2012). The Purdue OWL family of sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue University.
28 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 28 Footnotes 1 The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., was originally printed in 2009 when the style was revised. However, when mistakes were discovered, the manual was revised again in Thus, the 2010 version should be used, not the 2009.
29 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 29 Table 1 APA Format of each Heading Level APA Headings Level Format 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading, ending with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading, ending with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading, ending with a period. Note. This example APA Style paper uses all of these levels to organize the main points of formatting.
30 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 30 Figure 1. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., dated 2010.
31 AN INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL APA STYLE PAPER 31 Appendix APA Style Use The 6th edition of APA Style was revised during the summer of 2009, the same time the Modern Languages Association (MLA) of documenting and formatting was revised. However, that version was replaced by the 2010 version of which the cover appears exactly the same. The difference between these two versions is mainly the headings. The 2009 version incorrectly bold faces the words Abstract, References, and the title of the paper; therefore, this version should not be used. Moreover, students should be aware that the 5th edition should not be used and ensure references besides the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., should be reliable and up to date. Academic Support Center Writing Center Created by Austin Peay State University, 8 August 2014; revised 11 March 2015
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