MUSIC. 1st ESO CENTRO JUAN XXIII CARTUJA

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1 MUSIC 1st ESO CENTRO JUAN XXIII CARTUJA

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3 1st ESO Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja Music Department This bilingual music workbook has been created with notes taken from the AICLE project of the Junta de Andalucía, some translations from Música 1 (Anaya) and some of my own notes. There are some sections taken from Mr. Juan Ruíz Jiménez music bilingual project (IES Generalife) too. I want to thank him for his help in the first steps of this project. These notes are included in the bilingual project at Juan XXIII Cartuja coordinated by Mr. Pedro Díaz, and it is a result of the cooperation between the English and Music departments. The main goal is to give you all the contents that you will need during the course in one schoolbook. Welcome to the new course. We hope you will enjoy it. Alberto de Manuel Jerez Music teacher This is your notebook. Fill in the gaps below with your personal information. Name: Course: Group: Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 3

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5 UNIT 1: SOUND Sound, silence and noise. A traffic jam A classical music concert A desert 1. Look at the pictures above. What can you hear in them? Describe each one. For example: In a classical music concert, I can hear music. Sound: it s the physical phenomenon that happens because of the vibration of an object. Silence: it s the absence of sound. When music stops you can hear the silence. A sound has a regular wave pattern. The pattern is repeated over and over. The waves of a noise are irregular. They do not have a repeated pattern. Sound Noise 2. When can you listen to sounds, silence or noise? Write an example of each one in the box below. For example, a football match (noise). SOUND SILENCE 5 NOISE

6 Kinds of noises There are five different families of noises below: First Second Third Fourth Fifth Rumbles Whistles Whispers Noises obtained by percussion Voices of animals and men Shouts Screams Laughters Sobs Explosions Crashes Splashes 3. Match the words with the pictures and complete the table. Explosion Scream Whistle Crash Splash Laughter Sob Shout 6

7 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department Qualities of sound Pitch: make it possible to know if a sound is or. 4. Complete the sentences: All these sounds are... sounds. All these sounds are... sounds. We can write the notes on the staff in order to know if they are high or low. 7

8 Duration: It is the length of a sound or a silence ( or ). 5. Write the correct word for each picture: We can find long sounds and short sounds. Think of a long sound and a short sound and tell your partners. Do you agree with them? Beat: it is the rhythm of music. Like our heart, music has its own beat. We know the duration using the different notes and rests. Here you can see some notes and silences. The duration of all of them is one beat: American Quarter note Quarter rest Eighth notes Sixteenth notes British Crotchet Crotchet rest Quavers Semiquavers Symbol 8

9 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Intensity makes it possible to know how Loud sound: more amplitude Music Department or a sound is. Soft sound: smaller amplitude 7. Look at the following groups of pictures. Can you guess what they have in common? We write the intensity on the score with dynamic indications: 9

10 Tone or timbre: informs us about what instrument, person or object makes the sound. The composer chooses the tone, vocal or instrumental, that he wants in his work. Each instrument has a different tone or timbre. 8. Close your eyes and listen. Your teacher will play the sound of some musical instruments. Try to identify them. Refresh your ideas 1. Match the words with their definitions: Sound Silence Noise The absence of sound. It is an irregular wave. The vibration of an object. 2. Listen to the different sounds that your teacher makes. After each one, fill in the following chart. Write the name of the sound and identify its different qualities. SOUND PITCH DURATION INTENSITY TIMBRE 3. Let s go further. If you want to hear and practice the kind of noises we have studied in the classroom again, go to: 10

11 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department UNIT 2. MUSICAL FORM Song structure in popular music The musical form is the way that we order the different sections of a song. The structure or musical forms of songs in popular music are typically sectional, repeating forms. These are the principal elements of a song: Introduction. The introduction is a unique piece that comes at the beginning. Verse. When two or more sections of the song have basically identical music but different lyrics. Each section is considered one verse. Chorus. The chorus is the element of the song that is repeated at least once both musically and lyrically. Bridge. In song writing, a bridge is an interlude that connects two parts of a song and creates a harmonic connection between those parts. 1. Listen to Imagine by John Lennon and turn to page 34, in the Appendix of songs or use the link below to write in the missing words What elements can you recognize in this song? 11

12 Long notes Long notes have a duration superior to one beat. American Whole note Whole rest Half note Half rest British Semibreve Semibreve rest Minim Minim rest Symbol Whole notes have a duration of four beats, and half notes have a duration of two beats. Different names for these notes are used in the United Kingdom and in the United States. Semibreve notes have a duration of four beats and Minim notes two beats. Refresh your ideas 1. Write some of the notes you have learnt on the staff. Note that you can write the rest under any line of the staff. It just depends on where the other notes are. Try to write the rests in an easy place so you can read them. 2. Connect the words to the symbols. Minim Staff Whole note Quarter rest 12

13 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department UNIT 3. TIME SIGNATURES AND TEMPO TERMS 1. Work with the sentence above. Tap regular beats with your finger on the palm of your hand. Follow these steps: Step 1: Say the sentence with one syllable in each beat. When you finish the sentence, start again. Do not stop at the end of the sentence. Step 2: Repeat Step 1, but now mark a stronger beat every 4 beats, both with your finger and your voice. MU sic has a RE gu lar beat MU sic-has-a-re-gu-lar-beat... Step 3: Repeat step 2, but now mark a stronger beat every 2 beats. MU sic HAS a RE gu LAR beat MU sic-has-a-re-gu-lar-beat... Step 4: repeat Step 3, but now mark a stronger beat every three beats. MU sic has A re gu LAR beat mu SIC-has-a-RE-gu-lar-BEAT Listen to the following pieces of music. Mark the beat with your finger on the palm of your hand. The strongest beats appear at regular intervals (every 2, 3 or 4). Write your conclusions below. EXPRESSIONS TO USE I think the strongest beat comes every (two/three/four beats). I agree/disagree with you because... Music 1 The strongest beat comes every... Music 2 Music 3 13

14 When you listen to music, you can hear a regular beat. We organize beats in groups with the same number and we call them bars. The first beat of a bar is always stronger than the rest of the beats. If the strong beat comes every 3 beats, then the music you are listening to has three beats in every bar. We separate bars by bar-lines in written music. At the end of the composition, we use a double bar-line to show the end. There is always a time signature at the beginning of the piece. It goes to the right of the clef. We write it using two numbers. 3. Label each symbol with the words from the text in bold. We use the time signature to organize the beats in the piece. The top number tells us how many beats there are in each bar ( 2 means two beats in each bar and so on). The bottom number tells us what note completes a beat. Number 4 represents a crotchet or quarter note ( ). 2 4 It has 2 beats. A completes each beat. 3 4 It has 3 beats. A completes each beat. 4 4 It has 4 beats. A completes each beat. 14

15 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department 4. Look at these rhythms and put the bar-lines where they are needed: a) b) 5. Add the time signature at the beginning of the rhythm: a) b) 6. Add only one note or rest to complete each bar: a) b) 7. Create a four bar rhythm using only crotchets and quavers. 15

16 Tempo and dynamics 8. We use Italian musical terms to say how fast the beat is. Can you guess the meaning of these terms? Match the words with their definition: very slow, slow, calm, neither fast nor slow, fast, very fast. 9. Use the Italian terms to describe the speed of moving objects. For example, a snail moves lento. Refresh your ideas 1. Write the following symbols on the staff: a time signature, bar-lines, a double-bar line. 2. Write the Italian musical terms that we use for tempo, from the fastest to the slowest, in your notebook. 3. Counting the beats. Read the following rhythms, saying the number below each crotchet or quaver while marking the beat with your finger on the palm of your hand: and and and 2 16 and 3 and and and and and and 2 and 1 and 1 and 2 and 2 and 3 and 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and

17 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department UNIT 4. READING AND WRITING MUSIC 1. Complete the following text with the words below. Music is a kind of... It serves to express feelings and emotions without. Like other languages, music can be. It uses a specific that every musician should understand. We use different.. to represent the pitch,.., and dynamics of the.. A score is a piece of written music. Pitch symbols 2. Read the following definitions and find the symbols on the score. Do you know the names of these symbols in Spanish? - Stave: We write music on it. It consists of five lines and four spaces between the lines. - Treble clef: We place it at the beginning of every musical line. - Notes: Symbols to represent the different musical sounds. - Ledger lines: Short lines above or below the standard five lines to give more information. 17

18 Notes on the treble clef In English, every musical note has a letter name. The first 7 letters of the alphabet are used to name the 7 basic musical notes: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. These are the notes that we find within the stave. You can see the English names of the notes inside them. 3. Can you guess the names of the notes that are out of the stave? Be careful! In English, the sequence of notes doesn t start with the same sound as in Spanish. 4. Match the names of the English notes to the names of the Spanish notes. Use different colours to join them. A B C D E F G Sol Mi Re Fa La Si Do 18

19 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department So, now that you know the English name of the notes and where they are written on the staff, why don t you try to do the following exercises? 5. Think of some words that you can write with the letters of the musical alphabet. Translate the words into musical notation on these staves. Then write the musical notes for your partners on the whiteboard. They have to guess which word you have written. Remember! You can only use the first seven letters of the alphabet!!! Words: 6. These are the notes that are on the stave spaces. Write the names of the notes below them. What is the word? Now create a sentence of four words beginning with the letters of each note, in the same order as they appear here. Sentence: 7. Do the same with the notes on the stave lines. Sentence: 19

20 8. Complete the following story. First, write the names of the notes to form words. Then, listen to your teacher/assistant reading the story and fill in the gaps. John was walking when he saw a looking at him. It was a baby. He looked lost. I wonder what he is? John thought. The baby started to cry. Then, John saw a woman. She was shouting,!! John was so happy because the baby was not lost any more. Refresh your ideas 1. Write the names of the following symbols below: ledger line, note, clef, stave. 2. Name that note! Go to this site and choose treble clef and beginners. What s your best score? 20

21 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department UNIT 5. INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA 1. Ask a partner. Have you ever been to a concert? What type of music was it? Which instruments were played? You can use the following expressions: Expressions to use: * I went to a... (Example: classical/rock/pop...) concert. * There were the following instruments:.. (Example: a guitar/a piano...). * I liked/disliked it because. We perform music mainly by musical instruments and/or voices. We usually organize musical instruments into groups, depending on the type of music they play. In this unit, we are going to learn something about the largest instrumental group: the symphony orchestra. The symphony orchestra 2. Listen. Circle some of the instruments you hear. 21

22 3. Do you know how each instrument produces sound? Use one of the following words to fill in the gaps in the sentences below: Hit Air String Shake a) Some instruments make sound because of the we call them wind instruments.. inside them b) Some instruments make sound because of the we call them string instruments. they have c) Some instruments make sound when you or.. them we call them percussion instruments. The symphony orchestra is the largest instrumental group. It contains up to one hundred instruments from three different families: string, wind and percussion. Wind instruments are also divided in two groups: woodwind (instruments made of wood) and brass (instruments made of metal). The symphony orchestra usually plays classical music. There is also a person who organizes and directs the orchestra: the conductor, who marks the beat with a baton. Conductor 22

23 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department Stringed instruments 4. Here are the string instruments that appear in a symphony orchestra. Write the number that corresponds to each instrument in the circle. 1. cello 2. violin 3. double bass 4. viola 5. guitar 6. piano 7. harp 8. clavichord The String family is the largest of the orchestra. They are placed just in front of the conductor, forming a semicircle. String instruments can be played in different ways: - rubbing the strings with a bow (violin, viola, cello and double bass) - plucking the strings with fingers (harp and guitar) - pressing keys that pluck the strings (piano and clavichord) 5. Are these sentences true or false? Write T (true) or F (false) in the squares and correct the false sentences. The cello is played by plucking the strings with your fingers. The string family is the smallest of the orchestra. The piano has black and white keys that pluck the strings when you press them... The string family sits at the very back of the orchestra.. 23

24 6. Here is some information about the violin, but there are some words missing. Fill in the gaps with the words on the right. There is an extra word that you don t have to use: The violin is the. of the string instruments; it is also the.. )t has four.., and it is played by rubbing the strings with the. The violinist places the violin over his left shoulder, holding the violin with his left hand and the bow with the right... In an orchestra there are usually a lot of violins. They are normally divided into two groups, each playing different.. The principal first violin in an orchestra is called the leader. He or she is directly in front of the conductor, to the left. He or she is in charge of carrying out the conductor s instructions and leading the others. 7. Listen to the following instruments and try to guess what they are: Listen to the following piece of music. It is performed by string instruments. Use the following expressions to talk about which instruments you think you can hear and which ones you cannot hear in the music. Expressions to use: * I think I heard. (Example: violin/guitar...). * I don t think there is a (Example: cello/piano...). * When the melody is like this (sing ) I think I heard. (Example: a double bass). * The melody is performed by the (Example: viola/clavichord). 24

25 1st ESO Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja Music Department Woodwind instruments 9. Here are the woodwind instruments that appear in a symphony orchestra. Write the number that corresponds to each instrument in the circle. 1. Saxophone 2. Bassoon 3. Piccolo 4. Oboe 5. Flute 6. Recorder 7. Clarinet 10. What do you have to do to make sound with these instruments? 11. Listen to the following woodwind instruments. Can you name them? Which woodwind instrument does Lisa Simpson play? 13. Watch this video. It is a performance of Manuel de Falla s Fire Dance, by five wind instruments. Pay attention to the music and answer the following questions: trm8uarq - Which instrument plays the melody the first time?... - Which instrument plays the melody the second time?... 25

26 14. Watch the video of Manuel de Falla again. There is an intruder!!! Look at the five instruments in the video. There is one which is not a woodwind instrument!! Which one is the intruder? (If you don t know the name of the instrument, say which position it occupies in the group). Refresh your ideas 1. Match the instruments with their family. Bassoon Double-bass Piccolo Recorder Violin Clavichord Clarinet Stringed instruments Woodwind instruments 2. Complete the sentences: Wind instruments make sound because of the... inside them. String instruments make sound because of the... they have Percussion instruments make sound when you... or... them 3. How do you get sounds from these instruments? (plucking the strings, rubbing the strings or pressing the keys that plug the strings) Go to the next site. Choose Listen and By instruments. You can listen to some woodwind instruments to refresh your ideas. 26

27 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department UNIT 6. INSTRUMENTS OF THE ORCHESTRA II Brass instruments 1. Here are the brass instruments that appear in a symphony orchestra. Match each picture with the name of the instrument on the right. 1. Trumpet 2. Trombone 3. French horn 4. Tuba 2. Listen to the following brass instruments. Can you name them? Listen to this piece of music by Mussorgsky. The beginning is performed by brass instruments. There is one instrument playing the melody in a solo, and then the rest repeat what the first instrument played. Which brass instrument is the soloist? Circle it. 27

28 Percussion instruments 4. Here are some of the percussion instruments that appear in a symphony orchestra (there are others but these are the most common). Match each picture with the name of the instrument on the right. 1. Castanets 2. Sleigh bell 3. Timpani 4. Snare drum 5. Cymbal 6. Xylophone 7. Triangle The Percussion family contains instruments that are played by hitting, shaking or beating. The percussion family is placed at the very back of the orchestra. The instruments do not normally appear, all at the same time. Percussion instruments are usually classified into two groups: - Pitched instruments which can produce certain pitches (notes). - Unpitched instruments which produce sounds without a certain pitch. 5. Now, decide which instruments from activity 4 are pitched and which are unpitched. Give reasons. You can make sentences using the guide below. Write the number that corresponds with each option on the dotted lines: * It produces different 1 Castanets 2 Sleigh bell 3 Timpani I think (the) 4 Snare drum 5 Cymbal is notes (...) (...) pitch (...) are unpitched (...) (...) * It makes different because sounds but without a certain pitch (...) 6 Xilophone * It only makes one 7 Triangle sound (...) 28

29 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department 6. Write the instruments in the chart: Pitched Unpitched The layout of the orchestra We usually arrange the instruments in a symphony orchestra in a specific way: each instrument has its own place. We group them into families: first, the string family; behind them, the woodwind family; then the brass instruments, and finally, the percussion section. The piano and the harp do not always appear in the orchestra there are several pieces of music which do not need them. When they appear, they are normally behind the first violins. 7. Imagine that you are the conductor of an orchestra. You have to know where each instrument is. Work in pairs. You have a text explaining the place of each instrument, but there are words missing. There are two different versions of the text (A and B), one is for you and the other one is for your partner. Your teacher/assistant will read the text aloud while you fill in the gaps with the words you hear. Afterwards, compare your text with your partner and complete the words you didn t understand. TEXT A The just in front of the conductor is the family. It goes, from to right, from the to the lowest instrument of this family. are divided into two groups ( and seconds). Double basses sit behind the. The piano sits in the smallest place on the left, next to the violins. The is beside it. Percussion brass right. violas. sit at the very back of the orchestra. of them are the. A row in front of them, we find clarinets and from left to sit in front of the bassoons. are next to them, behind the 29

30 TEXT B The family just in front of the is the string. It goes, from left to, from the highest to the instrument of this. Violins are divided in groups (firsts and _). Double basses sit behind the cellos.the sits in the smallest place on the next to the first violins. The harp is beside it. instruments sit at the very back of the In front of them are the section. A row in front of them, we find and bassoons from left to right. Oboes sit in front of the. Flutes are next to them, behind the _. 8. Write the name of the instruments in the appropriate place, following the directions given in the text above with your partner. 30

31 Refresh your ideas 1. Work in pairs. One of you has to think of an orchestral instrument. The other one has to ask questions in order to guess which instrument their partner is thinking about. Be careful!!! The questions can only be yes or no questions. Example questions: Is it a brass instrument? Is it big? Is it the highest/lowest in its family? 2. You are going to listen to a piece of music called The Young Person s Guide to the Orchestra. Benjamin Britten composed the piece The Young Person s Guide to the Orchestra for a BBC educational documentary, to show and teach the instruments and family of instruments in a symphony orchestra. You are going to work on the two first sections of the piece: at the beginning, the main theme is presented six times by the different families of instruments. Then, each instrument performs a variation of the theme (we are going to listen to eight variations). 31

32 Listen to the music and write which family of instruments (in the theme) or which instrument (in the variations) is being played each time. The first one has been done to help you. Be careful! The music does not stop from one variation to the next so you have to listen for the change of instruments. THEME 1. Full orchestra VARIATIONS 1. Flutes and piccolo Listen to this other version of The Young Person s Guide to the orchestra. This time the narrator explains which family or which instrument is being played. Check the answers you wrote in activity 2 while listening. 32

33 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Appendix of songs 33 Music Department

34 Imagine Imagine It's easy if you No hell below us Above us only Imagine all the Living for no Heaven Imagine no It isn't to do Nothing to or die for And no religion too Imagine all the Living life in You say that I'm a But I'm not the only I hope someday you'll And the will be as us Imagine no possessions I wonder if you No need for greed or A of man Imagine all the Sharing all the You say that I'm a But I'm not the only I hope someday you'll And the will live as us John Lennon 34

35 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department Three little birds "Don't worry a thing Because every little thing gonna be all Singing: "Don't worry a thing Because every gonna be all right!" Rise up this morning Smiled with the rising sun Three little birds Pitch by my Singing sweet songs Of melodies pure and Saying "This is my to you-ou-ou:" Singing: "Don't worry about a thing Because every little thing gonna be all right." Singing: "Don't don't worry about a thing Because every little thing gonna be all right!" Rise up this morning with the rising sun Three little birds Pitch by my Singing songs Of pure and Saying, "This is my message to you-ou-ou:" Singing: "Don't about a thing, worry a thing, oh little gonna be all right. Don't worry!" Singing: "Don't about a thing", I won't worry! Because every little thing gonna be all right" Singing: "Don't worry about a_ Because every little thing gonna be all right", I won't worry! Singing: "Don't about a thing, Because every gonna be all right" Singing: "Don't worry about a thing, oh no Because every thing gonna be all right Bob Marley 35

36 I m a believer I thought love was Only true in fairy Meant for someone else But not for me Love was out to get to me That's the way it seems Disappointment haunted All my And then I saw her Now I'm a believer Not a trace Of doubt in my I'm in love I'm a believer I couldn't leave her If I I thought love was More or less a given thing The more I gave the less I got, oh yeah What's the use in trying All you get is pain When I wanted sunshine I got And then I saw her Now I'm a believer Not a trace Of doubt in my I'm in love I'm a believer I couldn't leave her If I The Monkees 36

37 Centro Juan XXIII Cartuja 1st ESO Music Department Cups I've got my for the way 'round Two bottle whiskey for the way And I would like some company And I m tomorrow d'you say? I'm gone, when I'm gone You're gonna miss me when I'm gone You're gonna me by my hair You're gonna miss me everywhere (oh) You're gonna me when I'm gone When I'm gone, when I'm gone... You're gonna me when I'm gone You're gonna miss me by my walk You're gonna miss me by my (oh) You're gonna me I m gone I've got my ticket for the long way 'round The one the of views It's got mountains, it's got rivers It's got sights to you shivers But it sure would be prettier with you When I'm gone, I m gone You're me when I'm gone You're miss me by my walk You're gonna miss me by my talk (oh) You're gonna me when I'm gone When I'm gone, I m gone You're miss me when I'm gone You're miss me by my hair You're gonna miss me everywhere (oh) You're sure miss me when I'm gone When I'm gone, when I'm gone You're gonna me when I'm gone You're gonna miss me by my walk You're gonna miss me by my talk (oh) You're miss me when I'm gone Anna Kendrick 37

38 Don t worry, be happy Here is a song I wrote You might want to sing it note for note Don't worry be happy In every life we have trouble When you you make it double Don't worry, be happy... Ain't got no place to lay your head Somebody came and took your bed Don't worry, be happy The lord say your rent is late He may to litigate Don't worry, be happy Lood at me I am happy Don't worry, be happy Here I give you my phone number When you me I you happy Don't worry, be happy Ain't got no cash, ain't got no style Ain't got not girl to you smile But don't worry be happy Cause when you worry face will frown And that will down So don't worry, be happy (now)... is this song I wrote I you it note for note Like good little children Don't worry, be happy Listen to what I say In your life expect trouble But when you worry You make it double Don't worry, be happy... Don't don't do it, be happy Put a smile on your face Don't bring everybody like this Don't worry, it will past Whatever it is Don't worry, be happy Bobby McFerrin 38

39 Happy It might what I'm about to say Sunshine she's here You can take a break I'm a hot air balloon That could go to space the air. Like I don't care, baby, by the way (Because I'm happy) Clap along if you feel Like a room a roof (Because I'm happy) Clap along if you feel Like is the truth (Because I'm happy) Clap along if you know What happiness is to you (Because I'm happy) Clap along if you feel Like that's what you to do (Hey, go) Here come bad news this and that (Yeah) Well, give me all you got Don't hold it back (Yeah) Well I should probably warn you I'll be just fine (Yeah) No offense to you Don't waste your time Here's why (Happy) me down Can't (nothing) (Happy) Bring me down My level's too high (Happy) me down Can't (nothing) (Happy) Bring me down, I said (let me you now) (Happy, happy, happy) Bring me down Can't (nothing) (Happy, happy, happy) Bring me down My level's too high (Happy, happy, happy) Bring me down Can't (nothing) (Happy, happy, happy) Bring me down, I said Pharell Williams 39

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