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1 Module 11 : Link Design Lecture : Link Design Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Design criteria Power Budget Calculations Rise Time Budget Calculation The optical link design essentially is putting the various optical components which we discussed earlier, so that information can be transmitted satisfactorily. The satisfactoriness of the transmission can be defined in terms of some characteristic parameters. The user generally specifies the distance over which the information is to be sent and the data rate to be transmitted. The Designer then has to find the specification of the system components. The designer generally has to define some additional criteria either as per the standards or as per the user specifications. The Design criteria are given in the following. (1) Primary Design Criteria - Data Rate - Link length

2 (2) Additional Design Parameters - Modulation format eg Analog/digital Depends upon the type of signals user want to transmit. For example if it is a TV signal, then may be analog transmission is more suited as it requires less bandwidth and better linearity. On the other hand if data or sampled voice is to be transmitted, digital format may be more appropriate. The digital signals have to be further coded to suite the transmission medium and also for error correction. - System fidelity: BER, SNR The system fidelity defines the correctness of the data received at the receiver. For digital transmission it is measured by the Bit Error Ratio (BER). The BER is defined as In optical system the BER has to be less than. For analog system the quality parameter is the Signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. Also there is a parameter called the inter-modulation distortion which describes the linearity of the system. - Cost : Components, installation, maintenance Cost is one of the important issues of the link design. The cost has three components, components, installation and maintenance. The component and the installations cost are the initial costs. Generally the installation cost is much higher than the component cost for long links. This is especially true for laying the optical cable. It is therefore appropriate to lay the cables keeping in view the future needs. The optical link is suppose is supposed to work for at least 25years. The maintenance costs are as important as the initial cost. An initial cheaper system might end up into higher expenses in maintenance and therefore turn out to be more expensive as a whole. - Upgradeability The optical fiber technology is changing very rapidly and the data rates are increasing steadly. The system should be able to adopt new technology as weel should be able to accommodate higher data rates with least possible changes.

3 - Commercial availability Depending upon which part of the world one is, the availability of the components and the systems may be an issue. Here we discuss design of a simple point-to-point optical link. A simple point to point link is shown in the following Fig. The link has primarily 3 components to design. (1) Optical Transmitter. (2) Optical Fiber (3) Optical receiver The Fig. shows the typical optical power which LEDs and and Lasers can deliver and the photo-detector needs for a BER of.

4 Note: As the data rate increases the power delivering capacity of the source reduces and at the same time the power requirement of the detector increases. The following table gives the combination of the sources and fibers for different link capacity and distance.

5 Considering the cost, speed etc, first choose the laser and the detector. Also the type of fiber is chosen from the above table. Generally a multi-core fiber is laid even if the immediate requirement is only one or two fibers. The link design then reduces to finding locations of the repeater on a long link. Two calculations are carried out in the link design The Fig. show the power loss model of an optical fiber link. The power is lost in various components like, fiber, connectors, splicing. The fiber loss depends upon the wavelength and also the physical conditions of the fiber. The fiber loss is generally higher than that the specified by the manufacturers. This is primarily due to micro-bending of the fiber. Also the micro-bending loss is higher for 1550nm compared to 1310nm. Therefore the over all loss could be higher at 1550nm than at 1310nm, although intrinsically silica glass has minimum loss at 1550nm. Typical loss ate

6 1550nm may lie in the range db/km. The splice loss could be between db per splice. The connector loss is higher and could be db per connector. Power Budget Calculations = Power from the Transmitter in dbm = Sensitivity of receiver in dbm for given BER Maximum permissible loss Beyond this distance the SNR is below the acceptable limit

7 System margin is generally taken to be 6 db to accommodate deterioration of components over time. Rise Time Budget Calculation Rise time analysis gives effective bandwidth of the link Beyond this distance the signal distortion is unacceptable Rise time of a system or component = 1/bandwidth

8 Here, = Total system rise time. = Transmitter rise time = Receiver rise time. Generally. = Dispersion of the fiber = Spectral width of the transmitter = Length = Data bit duration Note: For RZ data the system rise time should be. In the link design two lengths, the power budget length length are calculated. and the rise time budget The repeater has to be installed at a distance. Rise Time Budget Calculation (contd) Generally, the links are power limited and the repeaters are installed at. Typical repeater length is about km in practice. Following example clearly demonstrates this.

9 EXAMPLE: Let us take typical parameters for a link. Data rate = 1 GHz. DFB Laser spectral width = 0.1nm SM fiber dispersion at 1550nm = -20 ps/km/nm = ns/km/nm Rise time of the receiver = 0.1 nsec Rise time of the transmitter = 0.1nsec Fiber loss = 0.4dB/km SOLUTION: Transmitter power -3 dbm Min Detectable power -40 dbm Neglect splice and connector losses. Since distance of less than 77.5Km., the link is power limited and the repeater has to be installed at a Recap

10 In this lecture you have learnt the following Design criteria Power Budget Calculations Rise Time Budget Calculation Congratulations, you have finished Module 11. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side menu of the page

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