# [source unknown] Cornell CS465 Fall 2004 Lecture Steve Marschner 1

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1 [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 1

2 What light is Light is electromagnetic radiation exists as oscillations of different frequency (or, wavelength) [Lawrence Berkeley Lab / MicroWorlds] 2004 Steve Marschner 2

3 Measuring light Salient property is the spectral power distribution (SPD) the amount of light present at each wavelength units: Watts per nanometer (tells you how much power you ll find in a narrow range of wavelengths) amount of light = 96 d (relative units) wavelength band (width d) wavelength (nm) [modified JED] 2004 Steve Marschner 3

4 The problem of color science Map a Physical light description to a Perceptual color sensation [Stone 2003]? Physical Perceptual 2004 Steve Marschner 4

5 The eye as a measurement device [Greger et al. 1995] We can model the low-level behavior of the eye by thinking of it as a light-measuring machine its optics are much like a camera its detection mechanism is also much like a camera Light is measured by the photoreceptors in the retina they respond to visible light different types respond to 2004 Steve Marschner 5

6 A simple light detector 2004 Steve Marschner 6

7 Light detection math or If we think of s and r as vectors, this operation is a dot product (aka inner product) in fact, the computation is done exactly this way, using sampled representations of the spectra. let λ i be regularly spaced sample points Δλ apart; then: this sum is a dot product 2004 Steve Marschner 7

8 [pictures of eye cells Wandell 49,17,90]

9 [Talton]

10 Cone Responses S,M,L cones have broadband spectral sensitivity S,M,L neural response is integrated w.r.t. λ we ll call the response functions r S, r M, r L Results in a trichromatic visual system S, M, and L are tristimulus values [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 10

11 Luminance (brightness) visual response to a spectrum (independent of its color) [Stone 2003] 2004 Steve Marschner 11

12 Cone responses to a spectrum s 2004 Steve Marschner 12

13 Colorimetry: an answer to the problem Wanted to map a Physical light description to a Perceptual color sensation Basic solution was known and standardized by 1930 s [Stone 2003] Physical Perceptual 2004 Steve Marschner 13

14 A) Red B) Green C) Blue 2004 Steve Marschner 14

15 Basic fact of colorimetry Take a spectrum (which is a function) Eye produces three numbers This throws away a lot of information! Quite possible to have two different spectra that have the same S, M, L tristimulus values Two such spectra are metamers 2004 Steve Marschner 15

16 Dominant wavelength FvD pg Steve Marschner 16

17 Color reproduction Have a spectrum s; want to match on RGB monitor match means it looks the same any spectrum that projects to the same point in the visual color space is a good reproduction Must find a spectrum that the monitor can produce that is a metamer of s [cs417 Greenberg] R, G, B? 2004 Steve Marschner 17

18 Additive Color [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 18

19 Color spaces Need three numbers to specify a color but what three numbers? a color space is an answer to this question Common example: monitor RGB define colors by what R, G, B signals will produce them on your monitor (in math, s = RR + GG + BB for some spectra R, G, B) device dependent (depends on gamma, phosphors, gains, ) therefore if I choose RGB by looking at my monitor and send it to you, you may not see the same color also leaves out some colors (limited gamut), e.g. vivid yellow 2004 Steve Marschner 19

20 CRT display primaries Emission (watts/m 2 ) wavelength (nm) Curves determined by phosphor emission properties 2004 Steve Marschner 20

21 LCD display primaries Curves determined by (fluorescent) backlight and filters 2004 Steve Marschner 21

22 Combining Monitor Phosphors with Spatial Integration [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 22

23 RGB as a 3D space A cube: (demo of RGB cube) 2004 Steve Marschner 23

24 What color is Red in RGB color space? A) (1,0,0) B) (0,1,0) C) (1.0,0.5,0.5) D) (0.5,0.5,0.5) E) (1.0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 24

25 What color is Yellow in RGB color space? A) (1,0,0) B) (0,1,0) C) (1.0,0.5,0.5) D) (0.5,0.5,0.5) E) (1.0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 25

26 What color is Pink in RGB color space? A) (1,0,0) B) (0,1,0) C) (1.0,0.5,0.5) D) (0.5,0.5,0.5) E) (1.0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 26

27 Subtractive Color yellow magenta cyan [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 27

28 Reflection from colored surface [Stone 2003] 2004 Steve Marschner 28

29 [levoy] 2004 Steve Marschner 29

30 What color is Yellow in CMY color space? A) (0,1,1) B) (0,0,1) C) (1.0,0.5,0.5) D) (0.5,0.5,0.5) E) (1.0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 30

31 What color is Red in CMY color space? A) (0,1,1) B) (0,1,0) C) (1.0,0.5,0.5) D) (0.5,0.5,0.5) E) (1.0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 31

32 Two materials java demo Combined color mixing java demo Steve Marschner 32

33 Subtractive color Produce desired spectrum by subtracting from white light (usually via absorption by pigments) Photographic media (slides, prints) work this way Leads to C, M, Y as primaries Approximately, 1 R, 1 G, 1 B 2004 Steve Marschner 33

34 Perceptual dimensions of color - HSV Hue Value Intensity Lightness Y 2004 Steve Marschner 34

35 Perceptual organization for RGB: HSV hue (an angle, 0 to 360) saturation (0 to 1) value (0 to 1) [FvDFH] 2004 Steve Marschner 35

36 What color is Red in HSV color space? A) (0,1,1) B) (0,0,0) C) (60,1,1) D) (0,0.2,1.0) E) (0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 36

37 What color is Yellow in HSV color space? A) (0,1,1) B) (0,0,0) C) (60,1,1) D) (0,0.2,1.0) E) (0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 37

38 What color is Pink in HSV color space? A) (0,1,1) B) (0,0,0) C) (60,1,1) D) (0,0.2,1.0) E) (0,1.0,0.0) 2004 Steve Marschner 38

39 Color reproduction Say we have a spectrum s we want to match on an RGB monitor match means it looks the same any spectrum that projects to the same point in the visual color space is a good reproduction So, we want to find a spectrum that the monitor can produce that matches s that is, we want to display a metamer of s on the screen 2004 Steve Marschner 39

40 Color reproduction as linear algebra Steve Marschner 40

41 Color reproduction as linear algebra The projection onto the three response functions can be written in matrix form: 2004 Steve Marschner 41

42 Color reproduction as linear algebra What color do we see when we look at the display? Feed C to display Display produces s a Eye looks at s a and produces V 2004 Steve Marschner 42

43 YIQ color space Wandell pg Steve Marschner 43

44 [talton]

45 Metamers wandell 82 Color matching wandell 83,84

46

47

48 FvD pg 580, 617(first color plate)(3d view of XYZ color space) 2004 Steve Marschner 48

49 Chromaticity Diagram spectral locus purple line [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 49

50 Chromaticity Diagram [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 50

51 Color Gamuts Monitors/printers can t produce all visible colors Reproduction is limited to a particular domain [source unknown] For additive color (e.g. monitor) gamut is the triangle defined by the chromaticities of the three primaries Steve Marschner 51

52

53 A universal color space: XYZ Standardized by CIE (Commission Internationale de l Eclairage, the standards organization for color science) Based on three imaginary primaries X, Y, and Z (in math, s = XX + YY + ZZ) imaginary = only realizable by spectra that are negative at some wavelengths key properties any stimulus can be matched with positive X, Y, and Z separates out luminance: X, Z have zero luminance, so Y tells you the luminance by itself 2004 Steve Marschner 53

54 Separating luminance, chromaticity Luminance: Y Chromaticity: x, y, z, defined as x y z = = = X X + Y Y X + Y Z X + Y + Z + Z + Z since ( x + y + z = 1, z 1) we only need to record two of the three usually choose x and y, leading to (x, y, Y) coords 2004 Steve Marschner 54

55 Perceptual dimensions: chromaticity In x, y, Y (or another luminance/chromaticity space), Y corresponds to lightness hue and saturation are then like polar coordinates for chromaticity (starting at white, which way did you go and how far?) [source unknown] 2004 Steve Marschner 55

56 Perceptually organized color spaces Artists often refer to colors as tints, shades, and tones of pure pigments tint: mixture with white shade: mixture with black tones: mixture with black and white gray: no color at all (aka. neutral) This seems intuitive white grays black tints shades pure color tints and shades are inherently related to the pure color same color but lighter, darker, paler, etc. [after FvDFH] 2004 Steve Marschner 56

57 Perceptually uniform spaces Two major spaces standardized by CIE designed so that equal differences in coordinates produce equally visible differences in color LUV: earlier, simpler space; L*, u*, v* LAB: more complex but more uniform: L*, a*, b* both separate luminance from chromaticity including a gamma-like nonlinear component is important 2004 Steve Marschner 57

58 Color reproduction as linear algebra Goal of reproduction: visual response to s and s a is the same: Substituting in the expression for s a, color matching matrix for RGB 2004 Steve Marschner 58

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