# Chapter 2 Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and

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1 Frequency Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation Chapter 2 Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and 1. Pepsi-Cola has a 25% market share, found by 9/36. (LO 3) 2. Three classes are needed, one for each player. (LO 1) 3. There are four classes: winter, spring, summer, and fall. The relative frequencies are.1,.3,.4, and.2, respectively. (LO 1) 4. (LO 1) City Frequency Relative Frequency Indianapolis 1.5 St. Louis Chicago Milwaukee a. A frequency table. Color Frequency Relative Frequency Bright White 13.1 Metallic Black 14.8 Magnetic lime Tangerine Orange Fusion Red Total b. Graphic Presentation 5 Chart of Frequency vs Color White Black Lime Color Orange Red 2-1

2 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation c. d. 35, orange; 25, lime; 22, red; 1, white, and 8, black, found by multiplying relative frequency by 1,, production. (LO 3) 6. Maxwell Heating & Air Conditioning far exceeds the other corporations in sales. Mancell electric & Plumbing and Mizelle Roofing & Sheet Metal are the two corporations with the least amount of fourth quarter sales. (LO 2) 7. Mizelle Maxwell Mancell Long Bay J & R Hoden , 2 64 therefore 6 classes (LO 4) = 32, 2 6 = 64 suggests 6 classes. \$29 \$ i 4.47 Use interval of 5. (LO 4) = 128, 2 8 = 256 suggests 8 classes i 41.5 Use interval of 45. (LO 4) 8 1. a. 2 5 = 32, 2 6 = 64 suggests 6 classes b. i 14.5 Use interval of 15 and start first class at 4. (LO 4) 6 2-2

3 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 11. a. 2 4 =16 suggests 5 classes b i Use interval of 1.5 c. 24 d. f Relative frequency 24 up to up to up to up to 3. 3 up to Total e. The largest concentration is in the 27 up to 28.5 class (8). (LO 5) 12. a. 2 4 = 16, 2 5 = 32, suggest 5 classes b i Use interval of 1. c. 5 d. f Relative frequency 5 up to up to up to up to up to Total 2 1. e. The fewest number is about 5, the highest about 1. The greatest concentration is in classes 6 up to 7 and 7 up to 8. (LO 5) Visits f 13. a. up to up to up to up to up to up to 18 1 Total 51 b. The largest group of shoppers (21) shop at BiLo 3, 4 or 5 times during a month period. Some customers visit the store only 1 time during the month, but others shop as many as 15 times. c. Number of Percent of Visits Total up to up to up to up to up to up to Total 1. (LO 5) 2-3

4 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 14. a. An interval of 1 is more convenient to work with. The distribution using 1 is: f 15 up to up to up to up to up to up to up to 85 3 Total 4 b. Data tends to cluster in classes 45 up to 55 and 55 up to 65. c. Based on the distribution, the youngest person taking the Caribbean cruise is 15 years (actually 18 from the raw data). The oldest person was less than 85 years. The largest concentration of ages is between 45 up to 65 years. d. Ages Percent of Total 15 up to up to up to up to up to up to up to Total 1. (LO 5) 15. a. Histogram b. 1 c. 5 d. 28 e..28 f g. 13 (LO 6) 16. a. 3 b. about 26 c. 2 d. frequency polygon (LO 6) 2-4

5 Number of Employees Miles Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 17. a. 5 b. 1.5 thousands of miles c. Histogram of Frequent Flier Miles Employees d. X = 1.5, Y = 5 e. Frequency Polygon of Frequent Flier Miles Miles() f. For the 5 employees about half earn between 6 and 8 thousand frequent flier miles. Five earn less than 3 thousand frequent flier miles, and two earn more than 12 thousand frequent flier miles. (LO 6) 2-5

6 Frequency Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 18. a. 4 b. 2.5 c. 2.5 d Lead Time(Days) c y e n 8 r e q u 6 F Lead Time (Days) e. Based on the charts, the shortest lead time is days, the longest 25 days. The concentration of lead times is 1-15 days. (LO 6) 19. a. 4 b. 5 c. 11 or 12 d. about \$18 per hour e. about \$9 per hour f. about 75% (LO 7) 2-6

7 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 2. a. 2 b. about 5 or \$5, c. about \$18, d. about \$24, e. about 6 homes f. about 13 homes (LO 7) 21. a. 5 b. Miles f CF up to up to up to up to up to c Frequent Day s Absent Flier Files d. about 8.7 thousands of miles (LO 7) 2-7

8 Preference Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 22. a. 13, 25 b. Lead Time f CF up to up to up to up to up to c Lead Time (day s) d. 14 (LO 7) 23. a. Qualitative variables are ordinarily nominal level of measurement, but some are ordinal. Quantitative variables are commonly of interval or ratio level of measurement. b. Yes, both types depict samples and populations. (LO 1) 24. A frequency table calls for qualitative data. On the other hand, a frequency distribution involves quantitative data. (LO 1) 25. a. A frequency table. b. 14 Chart of Preference vs Activity Planned Non-planned Activity Unsure No Answer 2-8

9 Count Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation c. Pie Chart of Preference vs Activity No Answer 8.% Planned 21.% Unsure 26.% Non-planned 45.% d. The pie chart may be easier to comprehend. (LO 3) 26. a. The scale is ordinal and the variable is qualitative. b. Performance Frequency Early 22 On-time 67 Late 9 Lost 2 c. Performance Relative Frequency Early.22 On-time.67 Late.9 Lost.2 d. 7 Bar Chart of Delivery Performance On-time Early Late Performance Lost 2-9

10 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation e. Delivery Performance Early 22.% Late 9.% Lost On-time 2.% 67.% f. 89% of the packages are either early or on-time and 2% of the packages are lost. So they are missing both of their objectives. They must eliminate all lost packages and reduce the late percentage to below 1%. (LO 3) and suggest 7 classes (LO 4) = 128, 2 8 = 256 suggests 8 classes i Use interval of 6. (LO 4) a. 5 because and b. i 6.4 use interval of 7. 5 c. 15 d. Class Frequency 15 up to up to up to up to up to e. It is fairly symmetric with most of the values between 22 and 36. (LO 4) 3. a. 6 because and b. 1, found by c. d. Class Frequency up to up to up to up to up to up to (LO 4) 2-1

11 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 31. a. 2^5 = 32 <45 < 64 = 2^6. Thus 6 classes are recommended. b. The interval width should be at least 1.5, found by (1-1) /6. Use 2 for convenience. c. d. Class Frequency up to up to up to up to up to up to 12 2 e. The distribution is fairly symmetric or bell-shaped with a large peak in the middle two classes of 4 up to 8. (LO 4) 32. a. 2^5 = 32 <36 < 64 = 2^6. Thus 6 classes are recommended. b. The interval width should be at least 2, found by (15-3) /6. Use 2.2 for convenience and to ensure there are only 6 classes c. 2.2 d. Class Frequency 2.2 up to up to up to up to up to up to e. The distribution is fairly symmetric or bell-shaped with a large peak in the middle two classes of 6.8 up to (LO 4) 33. Class Frequency up to up to up to up to up to 1 2 This distribution is positively skewed with a large tail to the right or positive values. Notice that the top 7 tunes account for 4342 plays out of a total of 5968 or about 73 percent of all plays. (LO 5) 2-11

12 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 34. a. 2 5 = 32 < 33 < 64 = 2 6. Thus 6 classes are recommended. b. The interval width should be at least 1253, found by ( ) /6. Use 15 for convenience. c. d. Class Frequency up to up to up to up to up to up to 9 3 e. This distribution is negatively skewed with a few very small values which likely correspond to the start up phase of this publication. The crest of the distribution is in the 6 up to 75 class which contains the greater part or 2 of the 33 months. (LO 4) 35. a. 56 b. 1 (found by 6 5) c. 55 d. 17 (LO 7) 36. a. Cumulative frequency polygon b. 25 c. 5 (found by 1 5) d. \$24, e. \$23, (LO 4) 37. a. \$3.5, (found by )/6 b. \$35 c. \$7 up to \$ up to up to up to up to up to 28 1 Total 44 d. The purchases ranged from a low of about \$7 to a high of about \$28. The concentration is in the \$15 up to \$175 class. (LO 4) 2-12

13 Number of Companie Number of Companie Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 38. a. Class interval is 19, found by ( )/7. We selected 2. Stockholders Number of Less than () companies CF 13 up to up to up to up to up to up to up to Total 32 b Number of Shareholders c Number of Shareholders d. About 22 thousand, found by ¾ of 32 = 24. The 24th company has about 22 thousand shareholders found by drawing a line to the curve from 24 and down to the X-axis. e. The largest number of companies (9) have 15 up to 17 thousand shareholders. The smallest number is about 13 thousand, the largest number is about 27 thousand. (LO 7) 2-13

14 Number of Accounts Expenditures Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 39. (LO 3) Depreciation Insurance Repairs Interest Fuel Amount 4. a. Balance f CF up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to up to Total 4 Probably a class interval of \$2 would be better. b Balances c. About 67% have less than a \$4 balance. Therefore, about 33% would be considered preferred. d. Less than \$5 would be a convenient cutoff point. (LO 7) 2-14

15 Frequency Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 41. 3% South Carolina AGI 2% 3% 8% 11% 73% Wages and Salaries Dividends, Interest, and Capital Gains IRAs and Taxable pensions Business income pensions Social Security Other sources By far the largest part of income in South Carolina is earned income. Almost three-fourths of adjusted gross income comes from wages and salaries. Dividends and IRAs each contribute roughly another ten percent. (LO 3) 42. a. 5 6 Since , 6 classes are recommended. The interval should be at least (1.1.4)/6 = 1.6. So we will use two as a convenient value. Hours f up to up to up to up to up to up to 12 1 Total 6 b Hours The typical person used the computer about 5 hours per week and everyone is within about five hours of that amount. (LO 6) 2-15

16 Frequency Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 43. a. 6 7 Since , 7 classes are recommended. The interval should be at least ( )/7 = use 15 as a convenient value. (LO 4) Values f up to up to up to up to up to up to 15 1 Total 7 b Value 44. (LO 3) Audience percentages ABC 5.9% CBS 7.6% Fox 5.5% NBC 6.% WB 2.% UPN 2.2% Others 7.8% 2-16

17 Amount Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 45. a. pie chart b. 215, found by.43(5) c. Seventy-eight percent are in either a house of worship (43%) or outdoors (35%). (LO 3) 46. a %, found by 44.54% % b. Corporate taxes (8.31%) are more than license fees (2.9%) c billion, found by (.4454)(6.3), in sales taxes and 2.73 billion, found by (.4334)(6.3), in individual taxes (LO 3) 47. a. Chart of Amount Mineral fuel and oil Vehicles Machinery Plastic electric machinery Paper and paperboard Product b. Mineral fuel and oil are 28.4%, found by 63.9/224.9, of total exports to the U.S. Vehicles are 14.1%, found by 31.6/ The two categories together represent 42.5% of Canada s total exports to the United States. c. Mineral fuel and oil are 5.3%, found by 63.9/127, of the top five exported products to the U.S. Vehicles are 24.9%, found by 31.6/127. The two categories together represent 75.2% of Canada s top five exports to the United States. 2-17

18 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 48. There are 5 observations so the recommended number of classes is 6. However, there are several states that have many more farms than the others, so it may be useful to have an open ended class. One possible frequency distribution is. Farms in USA Frequency up to up to up to up to up to or more 3 Total 5 Twenty-nine of the 5 states, or 58 percent, have fewer than 4, farms. There are three states that have more than 1, farms. (LO 4) 49. M & M s Blue 12% Orange 8% Green 7% Brown 29% Red 22% Yellow 22% Brown, yellow, and red make up almost 75 percent of the candies. The other 25 percent is composed of blue, orange, and green. (LO 2) 5. a. Class Cumulative Frequency up to up to up to up to up to

19 Cumulative Frequency Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation b. 3 Cumulative Frequency Polygon for Minneapolis Y Upper class limit c. 6 days saw fewer than 3. d. The highest 8 percent of the days had at least 3 families. (LO 7) i Use interval of Selling Price F CF 11 up to up to up to up to up to up to up to a. Most homes (53%) are in the 18 up to 25 range. b. The largest value is near 355; the smallest, near 11. c Selling Selling Price Price About 42 homes sold for less than 2. About 55% of the homes sold for less than 22. So 45% sold for more. Less than 1% of the homes sold for less than

20 Cum. Freq. Count Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation d. 3 Chart of Twnship Twnship 4 5 Townships 3 and 4 have more sales than average and Townships 1 and 5 have somewhat less than the average. (LO 7) 52. a. Since , use 5 classes. The interval should be at least ( )/5 = 34.3 (in millions of dollars). Use 4. The resulting frequency distribution is: Class f 2 up to up to up to up to up to 22 1 b. 1. The typical team payroll is 9. It ranges from 2 to 22 (in millions). 2. The distribution is positively skewed. The higher payroll teams are further from the center than the lower payroll teams. The Yankees appear to be quite unusual! Cumulative Frequency Polygon of 21 Team Salaries Class

21 Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation 1. Forty-percent of the teams have payrolls less than \$75,,. 2. Twenty-two teams pay less than \$1,,. 3. The lowest five teams pay less than \$6,,. c. Use 5 classes here also. The interval should be at least (56, 34,77)/5 = Use 5 for convenience. The resulting frequency distribution is: Class f 33, up to 38, 3 38, up to 43, 13 43, up to 48, 5 48, up to 53, 8 53, up to 58, 1 1. A typical stadium seats 42,. The sizes cluster between 38, and 48,. 2. The distribution is fairly balanced with a slight positive skew. No stadium is out of line with the others. d. Use 5 classes here also. The interval should be at least ( )/5 = Use 2 for convenience and to include extreme values. The resulting frequency distribution is below. Class f 191 up to up to up to up to up to The typical stadium was built around The majority cluster in the years between 199 and The distribution is negatively skewed because 2 old stadiums are at least 8 years older than the rest. 53. Since 2 6 = 64 < 8 < 128 = 2 7, use 7 classes. The interval should be at least (18 741)/7 = miles. Use 4. The resulting frequency distribution is: Class f 73 up to up to up to up to up to up to up to 11 2 a. The typical amount driven is 83 miles. The range is from 74 up to 11 miles. b. The distribution is bell shaped around 83. However, there are two outliers up around 1 miles. 2-21

22 Cum.Freq. Chapter 2 - Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation c. 9 Cumulative Frequency of Miles Driven per Month Mile Forty percent of the buses were driven fewer than 82 miles. Fifty-nine busses were driven less than 85 miles. d. Pie Chart of Bus Type Category Bluebird Keiser Thompson Pie Chart of Seats Category The first chart shows that Bluebird makes most of the buses. The second diagram shows that nearly three fourths of the buses have 55 seats. (LO 7) 2-22

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