2 First, let s review some vocabulary: literal = means exact or not exaggerated. Literal language is language that means exactly what is said. Most of the time, we use literal language. figurative = the opposite of literal language. Figurative language is language that means more than what it says on the surface. Often used by poets and other writers. 2
3 Review vocabulary, continued: denotation = the dictionary definition of a word or phrase connotation = a meaning suggested by a word or phrase, in addition to its exact (denotative) meaning; can be the emotional feelings associated with the word Think of the denotative and connotative meanings of words such as home, mother, love, peace, friend, etc. 3
4 T is for TITLE Analyze the title first. What do you predict this poem will be about? Write down your predictions. We will reflect on the title again after we have read the poem. The next step is often omitted, but it is the most important!!!!
5 READ THE POEM!!!!
6 P is for PARAPHRASE Paraphrasing is putting something in your own words. After reading the poem, rewrite it in your own words. This may be three sentences or a page, depending on the particular poem.
7 C is for CONNOTATION Analyze the figures of speech and sound effects of the poem. These are the poetry vocabulary we have already studied. These elements add to the meaning.
8 A is for ATTITUDE / Tone is the attitude of the speaker toward the subject of the poem. ATMOSPHERE
9 S is for SHIFT If there is a change in Time Tone Speaker This should always be noted as this will also affect the meaning.
10 T is for THEME As you already know, theme is the general insight into life conveyed by the author through his/her work. It does not make a judgment. example: Don t do drugs is not a theme. It merely states something that is true to life and the human condition.
11 How do I find the THEME? Look at the other parts of TPCASTT. What insight are all of these working together to convey? What is the poet trying to say about life?
12 TP-CASTT is an ACRONYM for Title Paraphrase Connotation Attitude Shift Theme 12
13 Title: What predictions can you make about the poem from the title? What are your initial (first) thoughts about the poem? What might be the theme of the poem? 13
14 Title: What predictions can you make from the title? The poem might be simply about a piano or playing a piano. Is it about some memory the author has or some special feelings he has about his piano? (now read the poem) 14
15 Piano by D. H. Lawrence. Softly, in the dusk, a woman is singing to me; Taking me back down the vista of years, till I see A child sitting under the piano, in the boom of the tingling strings And pressing the small, poised feet of a mother who smiles as she sings. In spite of myself, the insidious mastery of song Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong To the old Sunday evenings at home, with winter outside And hymns in the cozy parlour, the tinkling piano our guide. So now it is vain for the singer to burst into clamour With the great black piano appassionato. The glamour Of childish days is upon me, my manhood is cast Down in the flood of remembrance, I weep like a child for the past. 15
16 Title: What predictions can you make from the title? Read the poem. What are your initial (first) thoughts about the poem? What might be the theme of the poem? 16
17 Title: What predictions can you make from the title? Read the poem. What are your initial (first) thoughts about the poem? What might be the theme of the poem? It seems like the author is saddened by a childhood memory. Maybe the theme is regret or nostalgia. 17
18 Paraphrase: Describe what happens in the poem, in your own words. 18
19 Paraphrase: Describe what happens in the poem, in your own words. The poet/speaker hears a woman singing, which makes him vividly recall a childhood memory. He listened to his mother playing the piano, while sitting underneath the piano and touching her feet. He longs to be back in the cozy, happy home of his family, when he was a child. He is overcome by emotion and cries. 19
20 Connotation: What might the poem mean beyond the literal level? Find examples of imagery, metaphors, similes, personification, symbolism, idioms, hyperbole, alliteration, rhyme scheme, rhythm, etc. and think about their possible connotative meanings. Consider the emotional feelings that the words may give the reader. 20
21 Connotation: What might the poem mean beyond the literal level? Find examples of imagery, metaphors, similes, personification, symbolism, idioms, hyperbole, alliteration, rhyme scheme, rhythm, etc. and think about their possible connotative meanings. Consider the emotional feelings that the words may give the reader. The poem might mean that the author/speaker is unhappy with his current adult life. Things seemed to be quite loving and warm in his childhood. There is a simple rhythm in the three-stanza, rhyming couplet structure, maybe related to his pleasant, more simple childhood. The piano itself is a symbol of rhythmic emotion. Rich imagery created by use of such devices as onomatopoeia (boom, tingling, tinkling) and simile (weep like a child). The word appassionato suggests heightened emotions (passion). Manhood is cast down suggests he is giving in to his longings for the past. 21
22 Attitude: Describe the tone of the poem. What is the poet s attitude toward the subject of the poem? The speaker s attitude? Find and list examples that illustrate the tone and mood of the poem (these show attitude). 22
23 Attitude: Describe the tone of the poem. What is the poet s attitude toward the subject of the poem? The speaker s attitude? Find and list examples that illustrate the tone and mood of the poem (these show attitude). The poet/speaker s tone seems to be one of sadness and longing, as shown by till the heart of me weeps to belong, the glamour of childish days is upon me, and I weep like a child for the past. softly, in the dusk a mother who smiles as she sings betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to belong cast down in a flood of remembrance 23
24 Shift: Is there a shift (a change) in the tone or speaker of the poem? Where does the shift happen in the poem? What does it shift from and to? 24
25 Shift: Is there a shift (a change) in the tone or speaker of the poem? Where does the shift happen in the poem? What does it shift from and to? There is a subtle shift in tone from the beginning of the poem,which seems like a simple recollection of a childhood memory. In the second stanza, the author/speaker uses words like betrays and weeps to indicate a desire to return to these happier times. Then in the third stanza, words like it is in vain, appassionato, manhood is cast down, flood of remembrance, and I weep like a child for the past demonstrate a more painful longing to have things the way they used to be. 25
26 Title: Look at the title again. Have your original ideas about the poem changed? How? What do you think the title means now? 26
27 Title: Look at the title again. Have your original ideas about the poem changed? How? What do you think the title means now? I think the title Piano represents a focal point for the author/speaker s feelings. Pianos and music are, by nature, connected with our emotions and often with other people in our lives. Music can prompt us to feel very deeply, and thus the piano comes to represent a much happier time in the life of the author/speaker. 27
28 Theme: What is the overall theme of the poem? What insight, understanding, lesson, or truth are we supposed to have after reading this poem? 28
29 Theme: What is the overall theme of the poem? What insight, understanding, lesson, or truth are we supposed to have after reading this poem? The theme of the poem appears to be longing for the past, which may seem to have been more loving and happy. 29
30 Analyzing songs for poetic value Lyric poetry consists of a poem, such as a sonnet or an ode, that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. The lyric poet addresses the reader directly, portraying his or her own feeling, state of mind, and perceptions
31 Lyric Poetry This is the most personal kind of poetry wherein the topics range from anything that appeals to the author. It can be any kind of reflection or revelation based on the author s experiences. It is a fairly short poem which expresses a personal mood or feeling of the poet. There tends to be a song-like quality in the poem. The most common subjects of lyrical poetry are love and grief.
32 Analyzing a song 1. What is the mood of the song? 2. How is the mood achieved? (what kinds of words, instruments, etc.) 3. What is the theme? (the message of the song) 4. What emotions is the songwriter trying to express? 5. What lyrics especially move you or what words do you have a connection with? 6. What imagery in this song is especially vivid for you? 7. Are there any symbols? If so, what do they represent? 8. Are there any examples of figurative language?
33 Analyzing a Song 1. Who is speaking? 2. To whom is he/she speaking? 3. What is the occasion? 4. Is there a sense of time in the song? 5. Where is it taking place, what are the mentioned locations? 6. What do you like/dislike about this song? 7. What is the storyline of this song?
34 You will find a song and apply this analysis to it by Monday. It will be marked and graded 34
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