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1 8.2a-h Topic the main idea of a presentation 8.2a-h Body Language Persuasion Mass Media the use of facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, posture, and movement to communicate a feeling or an idea writing or speaking that attempts to convince others to accept a position on an issue of concern to the writer a means of public communication that reaches a large audience Bias the attitudes or beliefs that affect a writer s ability to present a subject objectively Name-calling/Innuendo creating a negative attitude; hinting or implying; using loaded, emotional, or slanted language

2 Glittering Generalities/Card Stacking telling only part of the truth; generalizing from a shred of evidence Bandwagon Testimonials creating a desire to join a large group satisfied with the idea; making one feel left out if not with the crowd using the declaration of a famous person or authoritative expert to give heightened credibility Appeal to Prestige or Snobbery Appeal to Plain Folks Appeal to Emotions using a spokesperson who appeals to the audience: a wellknown or appealing person the audience wants to emulate or a person whose lifestyle appeals to the audience using a spokesperson who appeals to the audience: a person like the audience members with whom they can identify connecting with emotions: loyalty, pity, or fear; love of family, peace, or justice

3 8.3b 8.3b Values Viewpoint important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not; broad guidelines in all situations. the mental attitude that determines a person's opinions or judgments; point of view Fact a statement that can be proven true Opinion a belief that can be supported but not proved to be true Advertisement a notice, such as a poster or a paid announcement in the print, broadcast, or electronic media, designed to attract public attention or patronage

4 Editorial Stereotype an article in a publication expressing the opinion of its editors or publishers OR a commentary on television or radio expressing the opinion of the station or network a conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image Source a document or person that supplies information 8.2a-h Audience Simile Metaphor the person or people to whom you direct your message; the audience can be a group of people or just one person a figure of speech that uses like or as to make a direct comparison between two unlike ideas Example: My love is like a red, red rose a figure of speech in which something is described as though it were something else. A metaphor points out a similarity between two unlike things. Example: Fame is a bee.

5 Personification Hyperbole Analogy dog:bone :: cat:catnip Pun Figurative Language a type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics Example: The trees danced in the wind a type of figure of speech that is an intentional exaggeration for emphasis or comic effect Example: His book bag weighed a ton. makes a comparison between two or more things that are similar in some ways but otherwise unalike; analogy relationships include: type or example, characteristic, association, operator, degree, mathematical, number the usually humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literally 8.4b,e Context determining the meaning of words or phrases by using the surrounding words or phrases

6 8.4b,e Connotation the emotional associations a word calls to mind 8.4b,e Denotation Haiku Limerick the objective meaning of a word; its definition independent of other associations the word calls to mind an unrhymed poem form of Japanese origin having three lines usually containing 5, 7, and 5 syllables respectively; This type of poem usually is written about nature. a light or humorous poem of 5 lines with a rhyme scheme of aabba Ballad Free Verse a song that tells a story (often dealing with adventure or romance) or a poem imitating such a song poetry not written in a regular, rhythmical pattern, or meter; the poet is free to write lines of any length or with any number of stresses, or beats

7 8.5 Couplet two consecutive lines of verse with end rhymes; often, a couplet functions as a stanza 8.5 Quatrain a unit or group of four lines of verse 8.5a 8.5a 8.5a 8.5a Repetition Alliteration Assonance Consonance repeating words or phrases in a piece of narrative writing or poetry; often used for effect or emphasis the repetition of initial consonant sounds in accented syllables; a tongue twister Example: Polly picked a peck of peppers the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables containing dissimilar consonant sounds Example: lake and fate the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables containing dissimilar vowel sounds Example: leaf and loaf; room and roam

8 8.5a Onomatopoeia words such as buzz and plop that suggest the sounds they name 8.5a 8.6b Symbol Inference something that is itself and also stands for something else Example: A dove is usually a symbol for peace using factual knowledge and evidence to derive a logical conclusion 8.6b Imply to involve or indicate by inference, association, or necessary consequence rather than by direct statement; to suggest or infer 8.6b Draw conclusions, Conclude using what you ve read to reach a logical judgment or conclusion Tone a writer s attitude toward the subject

9 Voice Mood the distinctive qualities of a writer s style, including diction, attitude, sentence style, and ideas the atmosphere or feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage; a writer often creates it at the beginning of a work that he or she sustains throughout. Sometimes, however, it changes dramatically. Point of View First Person the perspective or vantage point from which a story is told; three types include: first person, third person limited, and third person omniscient told by a character who uses the first person pronouns I, we, us Third Person Limited The narrator uses third-person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters. The narrator relates the inner thoughts and feelings of only one character, and everything is viewed from this character s perspective.

10 Third Person Omniscient The narrator uses third-person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters. The narrator knows and tells about what each character feels and thinks. 8.5d Theme the central idea, concern, or purpose in a piece of narrative writing, poetry, or drama 8.5e 8.5e Imagery Word Choice words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses Writers use images to describe how their subjects, look, sound, feel, taste, and smell. using precise words with precise meanings or for a specific effect 8.5e 8.5e Rhyme Rhyme Scheme the repetition of identical or similar final word sounds at the ends of lines of verse example: fun and sun the regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem or stanza

11 8.5e Rhythm the form or pattern of words or music in which accents or beats come at certain fixed intervals 8.5e Meter the rhythmic pattern of a poem 8.6f Fact a statement that can be proven true 8.6f Opinion a belief that can be supported but not proved to be true Persuasive Writing writing that attempts to convince others to accept a position on an issue of concern to the writer Prewriting A stage of the writing process in which writers gather and organize ideas prior to writing. Strategies include: brainstorming, webbing, mapping, outlining, clustering, listing, and using graphic organizers.

12 Drafting Revising Proofreading/Editing Publishing Rubric A stage of the writing process that follows prewriting and precedes revising in which a writer gets ideas on paper in a rough format. Spelling and grammar are not important at this stage of the writing process. A stage of the writing process in which a writer reworks a rough draft to improve form and content. The writer goes back to: give details, depth, voice, tone embed phrases and clauses add vivid and precise vocabulary add figurative language improve sentence variety add transitional words and phrases The stage of the writing process where the writer goes back to check for errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar, format, and mechanics. The stage of the writing process when the writer completes the final draft of the paper making any necessary changes to the document. an assessment tool, generally organized in a grid, to indicate the range of success or failure according to specific criteria Elaboration to expand something in detail

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