Short Story and Literature Notes. English 9 Mrs. DiSalvo

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1 Short Story and Literature Notes English 9 Mrs. DiSalvo

2 I. Narrative Forms A. Allegory: a story in which characters and events symbolize ideas or concepts B. Anecdote: a short, funny tale or biographical incident C. Character Sketch: a short, vivid description of a character within a story

3 I. Narrative Forms (continued) D. Fable: a brief tale told to teach a lesson or moral E. Short Story: prose fictional writing under 10,000 words F. Novel: tells a complex story through the actions, speech, and thoughts of characters

4 II. Structural Techniques A. Setting: where and when the story takes place 1. Creates atmosphere/emotional effect 2. Reveals Character 3. Verisimilitude: when a setting is accurately portrayed

5 II. Structural Techniques (continued) B. Foreshadowing: clues about what is going to happen as the story unfolds; creates suspense C. Narrator: the character or voice telling the story

6 II. Structural Techniques (continued) D. Point of View: the perspective from which the story is told 1. When determining the point of view, ask: a. Who is telling the story? b. How much does this narrator know/want us to know? c. If another narrator told the story, how would it be different?

7 II. Structural Techniques (continued) D. Point of View (continued) 2. Types of Point of View a. 1 st person i. an I tells the story; is a character in the story (readers see/hear only what narrator sees/hears) b. 3 rd person limited i. an outside narrator (not a character in story) tells us what the characters do and say c. 3 rd person omniscient i. an all-knowing narrator (not a character) tells us what the characters do, say, and think

8 II. Structural Techniques (continued) E. Tone: the attitude the speaker or writer takes toward a subject

9 III. Diction: the writer s word choice A. Denotation: dictionary definition of a word B. Connotation: the attitudes/feelings associated with a word (fat vs. plump, redfaced vs. rosy) C. Euphemism: a nice way of saying an uncomfortable term or concept

10 III. Diction (continued) D. Dialect: regional speech (y all) E. rhetorical question: question asked without the expectation of a response to make a point F. cliché: an overused saying, expression, or idea 1. i.e. quiet as a mouse or having butterflies in one s stomach

11 IV. Plot: the sequence of events that moves the story along A. Exposition = the beginning 1. Characters/setting introduced 2. Narrative Hook/Initiating Event grabs the reader s attention B. Rising Action = complications develop; conflict occurs

12 IV. Plot (continued) C. Climax = story s turning point 1. most tense/exciting moment 2. changes the main character D. Falling Action = story slows down 1. stories have varying amounts E. Resolution/Denouement = story ends 1. most or all problems resolved

13 V. Conflict: problem(s) within the story A. external conflicts: caused by something outside the character 1. person vs. person 2. person vs. nature 3. person vs. machine 4. person vs. society 5. person vs. supernatural beings B. internal conflicts: a character struggles against some personal quality 1. person vs. self

14 VI. Characterization A. Direct Characterization 1. Author tells us directly what the character is like B. Indirect Characterization 1. We interpret the character s nature through the author s description of the character s a. appearance b. speech c. actions d. private thoughts e. effect on other characters

15 VII. Characters: the story s actors A. Protagonist: main character, usually likeable/admirable or a rascal (i.e. Scrooge in A Christmas Carol) B. Antagonist: character or force in conflict with the protagonist 1. rarely ALL bad C. Foil: a character who provides a striking contrast to another character

16 VII. Characters (continued) D. Dynamic Characters: change throughout story in an important/believable way E. Static Character: minor character who stays the same throughout story F. Flat Character: minor character with 1-2 key personality traits, easily described

17 VII. Characters (continued) G. Round Character: a minor character, more complex than a flat character H. Caricature: exaggerating/distorting a person/thing I. Stereotype: conforming characters to a fixed pattern/single trait

18 VIII. Theme A. Theme: an idea giving meaning to a story s characters and events 1. Theme is a generalization about life/human nature; it does not refer to specific characters, but is a complete statement about the entire story. 2. Theme is not stated in the story, it is not a summary or the story s moral. 3. Clues to help find theme: a. How has the protagonist changed? b. Title of the story c. Ask what the story reveals

19 IX. Figurative Language: ideas beyond the literal meanings of words A. Symbols: object, setting, event, animal, or person representing something greater than itself B. Metaphor: comparison of two things C. Simile: comparison using like or as D. Analogy: a point-by-point comparison between two things that are alike in some way

20 IX. Figurative Language (continued) E. Personification: giving human qualities to an object, animal, or idea F. Allusion: reference to another literary work, famous person, place, or event G. Imagery: descriptive words/phrases that appeal to the reader s senses

21 IX. Figurative Language (continued) H. Irony and Satire 1. Verbal Irony: character says one thing but means another a. Sarcasm: irony using words in a harsh/cruel way 2. Situational Irony: the opposite happens from what the reader expects to happen 3. Dramatic Irony: the reader knows what is in store for the character, but the character does not know 4. Satire: writing that uses humor to bring about social reform

22 IX. Figurative Language (continued) I. Pun: play on words J. Hyperbole: an exaggeration of the truth K. Understatement: saying less than what is actually true (opposite of hyperbole)

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