1 Name Number Hour Learning Targets I know the parts of a plot. (exposition, rising action, initial incident, climax, falling action, resolution, conflict, point of view, protagonist, antagonist) I know the definitions of simile, metaphor, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, oxymoron, and alliteration. I can decode and understand the meaning of words encountered in context. 6 th Grade - Learning Targets Reading Comprehension Notes Exposition: an introduction to the main characters, setting and situations of the plot. Rising Action: the events and complications that lead to an important and dramatic point in the plot and create some sort of conflict for the protagonist. Climax: the point of highest dramatic tension or a major turning point in the action. This is usually the point of greatest interest and emotional involvement in the plot. At the climax the outcome of the story becomes clear. Turning Point: the point in the plot at which the rising action reverses to become the falling action. Falling Action: the events and/or diminishing tensions that develop from the climax and leads to the resolution of the story. Resolution: the final outcome which ties up any lose ends left in the story. Conflict: problems in the story (Types of conflict: person vs. fate, person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. nature, person vs. society) Point of View: 1 st told from point of view character uses I, me, 3 rd told from outsiders view uses They, she, he, names Protagonist: main character of story, hero Antagonist: character or situation that creates conflicts for protagonist, villain Simile: compares two different things using either like or as. He was as cold as ice. Metaphor: compares two different things without using a word of comparison such as like or as. The substitute teacher is a military commander. Personification: when an idea, object, or animal is given the characteristics of a person. The rock stubbornly refused to move. Onomatopoeia: the use of a word whose sound makes you think of its meaning. buzz, gunk, swish, zip Hyperbole: an exaggeration or overstatement used for emphasis: My dad had a cow when he saw my grades! Oxymoron: two contradictory words come together for a special effect. jumbo shrimp Alliteration: the repeating of beginning consonant sounds as in creamy and crunchy. When you come across an unfamiliar word, try to figure out the meaning from the other words in a sentence. Questions to ask yourself: What is the sentence or paragraph about? How is this word used in the sentence or paragraph? What part of speech is the word? What is its relationship to the topic? What other words in the sentence and paragraph suggest possible meanings? What clues can I find? What word(s) can I substitute that make sense? Example: Sara had an ominous feeling when she woke up, but the feeling was less threatening when she saw she was in her own room. (An ominous feeling is a threatening one.)
2 I can identify the main idea of a passage. I know the difference between a fact and an opinion. I can make inferences about the author s and/or character s underlying (not stated) purpose or feeling in a passage. I can cite textual evidence to support my analysis of the text. When you read a passage, it usually gives you a lot of information. How does a reader remember all this information? How does a reader make sense of it? A good reader sorts out the information. What is the big picture in this passage? What is the main point of it? What other information is given? How does t help me understand the main point? When you answer the first two questions, you identify the main idea. The main idea is what the paragraph is about. When you answer the second two questions, you identify the supporting details. These details tell more about the main idea by describing or explaining what, where, why, how much, when, who, or how may. When you read a nonfiction passage, you are usually reading facts. However, the passage may also contain opinions. How does a reader sort fact from opinions? Which statements can be proved? Which statements reflect what the writer thinks or believes? When you answer the first question, you identify the facts. These are statements that can be proved or observed. When you answer the second question, you determine opinions. An opinion is a judgment that reflects a person s beliefs or feelings. It is not necessarily true. When you read a passage, you are not always given every fact or detail. How does a reader learn what this unstated information is? One way is by making inferences. What else do I know about this subject? How does what I know fit with what I have read? These questions help a reader make an inference. An inference is a kind of guess made after thinking about what you have read and what you already know. -Because - For instance - The author stated - According to the text - On page, it said - From the reading/text, - Based on evidence from the text, I can draw conclusions when I read. I can summarize a passage. When you read a passage, you often have to be a detective. You have to find ideas that the writer does not always state. How does a reader do this? One way is by looking for clues and putting them together to draw a conclusion. What clues-fats and details- has the writer given me? How can I use these clues to make a decision about what the writer is telling me? These questions help a reader draw a conclusion. A conclusion is a decision a reader makes after considering all the information given. When you read nonfiction, you want to remember what you read. However, it isn t necessary to recall every word. Instead, you can use the main ideas to help you summarize a passage. A good reader first finds the main ideas. Keep in mind that that main points are not always stated; sometimes they are implied or suggested. After finding the main ideas, a reader might think: How can I restate the main idea in my own words? The next thing a reader does is to identify supporting evidence for the main idea. This evidence can be details, examples, explanations, descriptions, or statistics that expand the main idea. Often, it is helpful to use an outline or graphic organizer to summarize information.
3 I can identify the author s purpose of a passage. I can identify the point of view in a passage. I can identify the theme of a passage. I can identify the mood and/or tone in a passage. From the dialogue, I can make inferences about the author s underlying (not stated) description of a character. When you read a selection, you find both facts and opinions. Many accounts also reflect the writer s point of view or how the writer feels about a subject. A good reader tries to determine what the writer s point of view is. A reader might think? What opinions are expressed? What kinds of words are used to describe people, places, and events? Are these words positive? Negative? How do they express the writer s feelings? Do I agree with this point of view? What might another point of view be? When you answer the first question, you recognize that an opinion is being given. The second question helps you look more closely at the point of view of the writer. When you answer the last two questions, you are thinking about how the writer s point of view affects the information given. Point of view is the perspective in which a story is being written. First Person: In the first person point of view one character tells the story. This character reveals only personal thoughts and feelings of what he/she sees. The writer uses personal pronouns such as I, Me, or My. Second Person: In the second person point of view the narrator tells the story to another character using the pronoun you. The character telling the story is someone similar to you. Third Person: The third person point of view is the most commonly used in fiction. The story is told from an outsiders view. The author uses pronouns such as they, she, he, and names. With a third person perspective the reader will be able to see each character s thoughts and feelings. Theme is the message about life or human nature that is conveyed by a literary work. What message did you take away from the text? Why? Which passage from the text would you consider most significant or important? Why? How do the changes the main character undergoes help you to determine the message/theme? How do the cover illustration, title, and/or chapter titles help you to determine the theme? Mood is the feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader. Descriptive words, imagery, and figurative language all influence the mood of a work. Tone of the literary work expresses the writer s attitude and/or perspective toward his or her subject. What does the character look like? What does the character think? What does the character feel?
4 I can identify the elements (text features, style, and purpose) of informational text. I can identify the organizational patterns (cause/effect, how-to, descriptive, chronological sequence, problemsolution) in informational text. I can explain how authors use text features (footnotes, bibliographies, introductions, summaries, conclusions, and appendices) to enhance the understanding of central, key, and supporting ideas. Text features: - elements that present information visually: Subheadings: section titles which hint at the main idea or topic of the section that follows Graphic aids: maps, photographs, or timelines Captions: provide information about a graphic aid Personal Essay: - to connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of the world to themes A first person, non-fiction story that tells a personal experience. Persuasive Essay: take a position on a statement Organizes and presents evidence to support position Present a strong conclusion to guide the reader to agree or to take action How-to Article: Provides directions Provides explanations on how to do something Provides help on how to operate or implement something Comparative Essay: To compare and contrast two texts, historical figures, scientific procedures To see similarities and differences To make a judgment or choice Research Report: a written document describing and summarizing the findings of an individual or group. To record the research, decisions or event To inform or persuade an audience with factual material Compare Contrast points out the likenesses and/or differences between two or more subjects Sequential (Informational) presents a series of events that take place in a time order. The author traces the sequence or the steps in the process. Cause and Effect One event causes another event to happen. The effect tells what happened. The cause tells why it happened. Look for signal words, such as because, since, until, unless, and after Descriptive - Paints a picture of a person, place, thing, or idea in fiction. Descriptive Informational provides information, such as facts, characteristics, and attributes about a subject, event, person, or concept. This is the most common pattern found in textbooks. Problem Solution describes a problem and presents one or more solutions to the problem. Footnotes: Footnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References or Bibliography section. Do not confuse Footnote and Endnote citations with explanatory Notes that some authors refer to as "Endnotes." These Notes are not considered to be citations but are used to add comments, explanations, or additional information relating to specific passages in the text. Bibliographies: The purpose of a bibliography is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used when writing your paper. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Works Cited: (sometimes referred to as References). An alphabetical list of works cited, or works to which you have made reference. Works Cited and Bibliography are not the same. In Works Cited you only list items you have actually cited. In a Bibliography you list all of the material you have looked at in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work. Appendix: a supplemental addition to a given main work. It may correct errors, explain inconsistencies or otherwise detail or update the information found in the main work, especially if any such problems were detected too late to correct the main work.
5 GENRE DEFINITION ELEMENTS OF GENRE Action/Adventure elements of the action/adventure Realistic Fiction elements of the realistic fiction Mystery elements of the mystery Historical Fiction elements of the historical fiction Fantasy elements of the fantasy Narrative in which the main character engages in a difficult, risky, or unexpected venture Stories that could happen in the real world, in a time and setting that is possible, and characters that are true to life, yet drawn from the writer s imagination. A narrative that involves a crime or intriguing problem around which a plot is built. The sleuth embarks on a search to reveal hidden secrets to explain clue-based events, find the truth, and solve the problems. The focus is on the character and actions of the person solving the crime rather than on the criminal or victims of the crime. A fictional story set in a recognizable period of history; characters and events are realistic, and historical events are necessary to the plot of the narrative. Because a story line takes place in the past does not make it historical fiction. The historical event makes it historical fiction. Fiction contains unrealistic or unworldly elements and magical adventure Setting is vital to plot, realistic qualities, involves natural phenomena Events focus around out-of-doors, survival Identify with character in adverse situation Theme Individuals overcome obstacles Theme Adversity fosters growth Plot carries character toward adventure Themes reflect realistic human and life experiences Protagonist and antagonist True to life, vivid, imaginary events seem real Setting usually takes place in present Suspense is the chief element Protagonist detective, sleuth, or main character acting in that capacity. Antagonist villain Mood dark, dreary, mysterious, scary Setting based on type of crime or mystery Red Herring Use of foreshadowing(clues) Plot o Conflict = Crime o Rising Action - Strategically placed clues and character reaction to clues o Climax involving interactions between sleuth and villain o Conclusion revealing motive and resolution of crime To increase understanding of historical events Character dialogue may reflect dialects related to place and era Characters are historical and fictional mix Setting - the time and / or place play a prominent role rather than serving as a backdrop Conflicts and the characters reactions to the conflicts are historically authentic. Magic Secondary World Good versus Evil Heroism Special Character Types Fantastic Objects Setting imaginary, enchanted or otherworldly
6 Folklore elements of the folklore Fables Folktale Myth Legend Tall Tale Fairy Tale Pourquoi Ghost Stories Science Fiction elements of the science fiction Memoir elements of memoir. Ancient stories originally composed and told for all age groups that have been passed down orally from generation to generation to explain the natural and spiritual worlds. Imaginary text based on current or projected scientific/technological knowledge, developments, and conjecture. A form of autobiography which records personal thoughts, memories, and feelings. Short, predictable narratives Express deep, universal emotions such as joy, grief, fear, jealousy, and awe Identical themes found in tales across cultures Good (e.g., industrious, kind, patient, clever) triumphs over evil (e.g., selfish, greedy, lazy)- justice themes Values of humility, kindness, patience, sympathy, hard work, and courage are rewarded wishes, magical powers, transformations, magical objects, trickery, magical numbers Setting- patterned beginnings and endings Purpose is to convey morals and values of a society Used to reveal human nature Hypothetical (what if) ideas based on predictions from scientific developments Defined by content rather than pattern. Adventure/space exploration High tech, artificial intelligence, virtual reality Life threatening cataclysmic disasters Bioengineering (using principles of engineering to solve medical problems) and immortality Space flight or epic journeys Earth s children - building/creating other worlds Journeys through space and time, aliens, parallel worlds and alternate histories Different types of societies and structure To retell specific real-life thoughts or actions related to an event or experience Life theme related to personal life lessons or observations Descriptions of settings and events including sensory details of places, thoughts, and emotions o Focus on a single period of events in the writer s life o First person narrative Personal Narrative elements of a personal narrative. A personal narrative, written in first person, documents a person s experience. It could tell of a single life shaping event, or simply a mundane daily experience. Description Action-filled Dialogue Specific detail (who, what, when, where, why, how) Expressive, colorful language Sensory description indicating strong feelings Metaphors and similes
7 Auto-biography elements of an autobiography. Biography elements of a biography. Narrative Non-Fiction elements of a narrative non-fiction text. Writer s account of his or her own life written in first person point of view. A true account of a person s life, written by another person. Similar to fiction, except characters, setting, and plot are real, not imaginary. Structures: chronological approach, flashback sequence, and/or reflective mode Focuses on the most important events and people in the writer s life over a period of time. Told in third person point of view The writer - biographer- researches his or her subject in order to present accurate information. Autobiographies Biographies Memoirs Anecdote Informational Text elements of the informational Poetry elements of the poetry Main Idea and Supporting Details Chronological Order Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast Problem-Solution Order Type of literature in which words are chosen and arranged to create certain effects. Central Idea about a topic is supported by details Arrangement of Events in the order in which they happen Pattern of organization that shows relationships between events, ideas, and trends Pattern of Organization that provides a way to look at similarities and differences in two or more subjects. These characteristics are called Points of Comparison. Pattern of Organization in which a problem is stated and analyzed and then one or more solutions are proposed and examined. Poets use a variety of sound devices, imagery, and figurative language to express emotions and ideas. Alliteration Free verse Imagery Meter Rhyme Rhythm Stanza