Misc Fiction Irony Point of view Plot time place social environment

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1 Misc Fiction 1. is the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood. In this usage, mood is similar to tone and atmosphere. 2. is the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing 3. describes the author s attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. 4. means the literal, dictionary definition of the word plump and obese both mean calorically challenged 5. means the implied or suggested meaning attached to a word, or the emotional tag that goes along with the word. 6. are clues that suggest events yet to come. Irony 1. In, the words literally state the opposite of the writer s (or speaker s) true meaning. 2. In, events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen. 3. In, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work. Point of view 1. The story is told from the point of view of a character in the story. It uses I, me, and mine when speaking about the narrator. 2. The story is told from the point of view of a an all knowing narrator. This narrator can report on the thoughts, feelings, and actions of any character in the story at any time. Uses the pronouns it, they, he, she, or a name. 3. The story is told from the point of view of a an narrator that knows the thoughts, feelings, and actions of only one character. This narrator reports in only the actions and spoken words of characters around him/her. Uses the pronouns it, they, he, she, or a name. 4. The story is told in a way that makes the reader feel involved. Uses the pronouns you and your. Plot 1. is the introductory material, which creates the tone, give the setting, and introduces the characters. 2. is the physical and social context in which the action of a story occurs. The major elements of setting are the time, the place, and the social environment that frames the characters. 3. is the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. 4. is the struggle within the plot between opposing forces. 5. is everything from the initiation of conflict to the climax. 1

2 6. The part of the story where create some sort of smaller conflict for the protagonist that make the larger conflict harder to solve 7. is the anxious anticipation of a reader to the outcome of a story, especially concerning the character or characters with whom sympathetic attachments are formed, usually the protagonist. 8. the moment of greatest emotional tension in a narrative, usually marking a turning point in the plot at which the rising action reverses to become the falling action. 9. The protagonist usually makes a decision that leads to the actions that will end the conflict. It is usually marked by intense tension, internally or externally. 10. is characterized by diminishing tensions. This is the time where the protagonist takes actions resolve the conflict. 11. is the resolution of the plot s conflicts and complications 12. The is central idea of message of a work, the insight it offers into life. It is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey. Character 1. is when the author steps in to describe and sometimes judge the character for the reader 2. is when the reader has to figure out what kind of person the character is by seeing their thoughts, actions, and what they say 3. The is the central character who engages the reader s interest and empathy - NOT THE GOOD GUY! 4. The is the character, force, or collection of forces that stands directly opposed to the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story - NOT THE BAD GUY! 5. The character does not change throughout the work, and the reader s knowledge of that character does not grow. 6. The character is one that changes from the beginning of the play to the end 7. The character embodies one or two qualities, ideas, or traits that can be easily described in a brief summary. They are not complex characters and therefore are easy to understand to readers. 8. characters are more complicated than flat characters, and are often have malfunctions similar to most real people. They are more fully developed, and therefore are harder to summarize. 9. characters are vital to the development and resolution of the conflict. In other words, the plot and resolution of conflict revolves around these characters. 10. characters serve to complement the major characters and help move the plot events forward. 2

3 Sound devices 1. the repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginning of words 2. the repetition of consonant sounds in a short sequence of words, often at the end of words 3. the repetition of vowel sounds in a short sequence of words 4. the use of words whose sound suggests their meanings 5. has to do with the words that rhyme at the end of a line 6. the pattern of end rhyme in a poem 7. has to do with the lines that have words that rhyme within the line 8. called sight or spelling rhymes, refer to words having the same spelling but different sounds 9. words that come near rhyming, but do not really rhyme Figurative Language 1. is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. This figurative language draws resemblances with words like, than, compared, or as 2. this figurative language is used to signify ideas that are symbolic 3. this is a reference to a famous person, place, thing or historical event. 4. this is an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis 5. This figurative language is used to make situations seem less important than they really are 6. this is giving human qualities to an object, animal, or idea 7. this is the images of a literary work; sensory language 8. this is a direct comparison between two or more seemingly unrelated subjects 9. a figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together with the help of similes or metaphors. Unlike an extended metaphor, this figurative language lasts the whole poem Rhetorical Appeals 1. is an argument using logic, evidence, and facts--not feelings or opinions--to persuade. 2. is argument based on using the feelings of the audience to agree with you 3. is an argument that relies on morality (right and wrong) as a culture sees it or the expertise of someone's profession Rhetorical Devices 1. --comparing two similar things to clarify or simplify a point 3

4 2. --expressing the same idea using the same words 3. --expressing the same idea using different words 4. --repeating the same grammatical structure 5. --using contrasting words, ideas. or images 6. --asking a question for effect, not to get an answer speaker first asks a question and then answers it is a list of three, or a sentence in which there are three parts or clauses. The cumulative effect of three has a powerful effect on an audience using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted. It is used to stress the importance of each item 10. the act of positioning close together to call attention to contrast 11. referencing something well known and popular Rhetorical Strategy 1. when one event causes (the why) another to happen (the what) 2. a portrayal of a person, object, or event 3. the use of a stories to illustrate a point 4. a series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about results 5. something that is representative or a group or a similar cases that can be used as a model or pattern 6. to point out similarities and differences to assess value or worth 7. a comparison between two things that are similar or typically to clarify a point 8. grouping based on similarities and differences 9. to tell the meaning of a phrase, word or idea the order in which things happened assigning order of value to information and presenting it that order present a problem and then present your solution an order relying on proximity closest to farthest away or vice versa Time Period 12. through Adam and Eve's fall, every person is born sinful - concept of Original Sin. Adam and Eve s sin had damned most people for all eternity. Humans were inherently evil and had to struggle to overcome sin. 13. God "saves" those he wishes - only a few are selected for salvation - concept of predestination. Only a select few known as the elect would be saved. Personal salvation depends solely on the grace of God not on individual efforts. 4

5 14. - Jesus died for the chosen only, not for everyone. Jesus Christ had only been sent to earth to save particular people God's grace is freely given, it cannot be earned or denied. Grace is defined as the saving and transfiguring power of God. It was difficult to know for certain if one is saved or damned, so the Puritans tried to behave in as exemplary a manner as possible those elected by God have full power to interpret the will of God, and to live uprightly. If anyone rejects grace after feeling its power in his life, he will be going against the will of God - something impossible in Puritanism 17. This is the belief that "saved" believers, those with visible signs of grace, can fall into temptation and become sinners (or the unregenerated ). To prevent this, believers were expected not to become smug, do constant soul-searching, be introspective, and pray constantly. Satan was particularly interested in snaring such believers. 18. You were saved by the grace of God, and you could feel this grace arriving in an intensely emotional fashion. 19. The inner arrival of God s grace was demonstrated by your outward behavior. After receiving grace, you were reborn as a member of the community of saints, and you behaved like a saint. 20. Many people put less stock in revealed religion People were more interested in the progress of ordinary individuals and relating to their fellow beings through emotions and experiences they shared as colonists People are basically good and perfectible. Human history is marked by progress toward a more perfect existence 21. Believed that the best form of worship was to do good for others. Since God wants people to be happy they worship God best by helping other people. 22., rather than supernatural grace viewed as basis for the moral life This reliance on as a catalyst for moral choice encouraged the belief that each individual had the power to control his or her spiritual destiny 23. -our capacity to know things spontaneously and immediately through our emotions rather than through our reasoning abilities 24. s beauty as a path to spiritual and moral development. Contemplating the natural world until dull realities fell away to reveal underlying beauty and truth 25. The stayed very close to traditional European form 26. instead focused on very American themes such as heading west. 27. A time period A fundamental belief in the unity of the world and God. One must transcend, or go beyond, everyday human experience in the physical world Identification of the individual soul with God leads to self-reliance and individualism.intuition is an important tool in discovering the truth 28.A Self conscious in his intellectual activities and doesn t relate thoughts 5

6 to those thinkers in other disciplines 29. Has a total awareness in which he sees how his thoughts are related to the wisdom of other people. 30. often wrote about: The conflict between good and evil Psychological effects of guilt and sin, madness, derangement, the evil lurking beneath the social respectability in people 31. were writers who aimed at a very meticulous fidelity to the common course of ordinary life. These writers tried to represent faithfully the environment and the manners of everyday life: the way people lived, dressed, what they thought about, talked about, and felt. 32. is literature that emphasizes a specific geographic setting and that makes use of the speech and manners of the people who live in that region. 33. For, human behavior was determined by forces beyond the individual s power, especially by biology(heredity) and environment. 34.The movement graced literature, painting, music, and other arts. It was powered by disillusionment with traditions that seemed to have become empty institutions and called for a bold experimentation and wholesale rejection of traditional themes and styles 6

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