Theme and Variations

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1 Sonata Form Grew out of the Baroque binary dance form. Binary A B Rounded Binary A B A Sonata Form A B development A B Typically, the sonata form has the following primary elements: Exposition: This presents the opening ideas of the piece. The first theme is usually in the home key. The second theme is in another key, often the dominant or relative Major. The exposition is followed by a development section which tends to be more chromatic, and works with the motivic elements of the exposition. The recapitulation brings back the themes from the exposition. However, this time the second theme is usually in the home key as well. and Trio The minuet and trio was made of two binary form dances A B or rounded binary A B A of which the first is played first with repeats after which the second dance (trio) is played Trio Many multi-movement pieces would have 3-4 movements. The first and last were likely to be in Sonata form though they might also be a theme and variations or a Sonata Rondo, less likely a fugato. The Slow movement would be free or ABA. The other movement would be a minuet and trio. The following is a list of multi movement works. (those in italics normally omit the minuet and trio movement) Concerto, Piano Quintet, Piano Sonata, Piano Trio, Sonata for solo instrument and piano, String Quartet, String Quintet, String Trio, Symphony. Followed once again by the first dance, this time without repeats. A B Rondo Form: (While there are many types of Rondo forms, this is the most classical. Note how simi lar it is to the sonata form) A B A C A B A I V I? I I I (Sonata Form) (exposition) (development) (recapitulation) A B C A B A Rondo consists of a main theme (A) in the tonic key that alternates with other themes. In the sonata rondo form the B musical theme takes the place of the second theme in the exposition. The C theme is the development section. Some examples of movements in the Rondo form include Theme and Variations The theme and variations form continued in popularity from the Baroque era. In this form there is a principal theme, with at least a period structure (two phrases: the first usually ends on a half cadence. The second ends on a full cadence). The composer then does a series of variations on the theme, altering rhythms and textures, as well as mode and sometimes harmony. Some examples of pieces in the Theme and variations include Beethoven s Diabelli variations and Mozart s

2 The previous page shows the look of the finished form chart. Copy each of these pages (they may be copied on white paper or on a light color for some variation). Cut out each of the squares. Each form has a cover page explaining the form followed by two pages with examples from the literature. Glue the second of these literature examples in the appropriate box on the chart. Glue the first page of these two pages to the form description in such a way that when the page is folded up the printing will still be right side up. Glue this description page along the top only to the chart. and Trio Followed once again by the first dance, this time without repeats. of which the first is played first with repeats after which the second dance (trio) is played The minuet and trio was made of two binary form dances A B or rounded binary A B A A B Trio Theme and Variations Rondo Form: (While there are many types of Rondo forms, this is the most classical. Note how simi lar it is to the sonata form) The theme and variations form continued in popularity from the Baroque era. In this form there is a principal theme, with at least a period structure (two phrases: the first usually ends on a half cadence. The second ends on a full cadence). The composer then does a series of variations on the theme, altering rhythms and textures, as well as mode and sometimes harmony. Some examples of pieces in the Theme and variations include Beethoven s Diabelli variations and Mozart s piano sonata k284. A B A C A B A I V I? I I I (Sonata Form) (exposition) (development) (recapitulation) A B C A B A Rondo consists of a main theme (A) in the tonic key that alternates with other themes. In the sonata rondo form the B musical theme takes the place of the second theme in the exposition. The C theme is the development section. Some examples of movements in the Rondo form include

3 Sonata Form Grew out of the Baroque binary dance form. Binary A B Rounded Binary A B A Sonata Form A B development A B Typically, the sonata form has the following primary elements: Exposition: This presents the opening ideas of the piece. The first theme is usually in the home key. The second theme is in another key, often the dominant or relative Major. The exposition is followed by a development section which tends to be more chromatic, and works with the motivic elements of the exposition. The recapitulation brings back the themes from the exposition. However, this time the second theme is usually in the home key as well. Theme A cm Measure 43 Theme B EbM Measure 61 Theme A returns in cm Exposition Beethoven Sonata Rondo Pathetique Sonata in cm Measure 79 Theme C Development Section Measure 120 A returns Measure 154 B theme in cm Recapitulation Measure 171 A theme in cm

4 Beethoven and Trio from Sonata fm Op. 2#1 Sonata Form Mozart Sonata in FM K280 Theme A in FM Exposition Measure 27 Theme B in CM (Dominant)

5 Development section (measure 57) Measure 83 Theme A returns in F Major Measure 109 Theme B returns in FM Recapitulation Mozart Piano Sonata in D Major K.284 movement 3

6 Sonata form here and Trio here Many multi-movement pieces would have 3-4 movements. The first and last were likely to be in Sonata form though they might also be a theme and variations or a Sonata Rondo, less likely a fugato. The Slow movement would be free or ABA. The other movement would be a minuet and trio. The following is a list of multi movement works. (those in italics normally omit the minuet and trio movement) Concerto, Piano Quintet, Piano Sonata, Piano Trio, Sonata for solo instrument and piano, String Quartet, String Quintet, String Trio, Symphony. Rondo here Theme and Variations here

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