Unit 2: RENAISSANCE MUSIC, MODERN MUSIC IN THE 1960 s (part I) and EUROPEAN FOLK MUSIC

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1 Unit 2: RENAISSANCE MUSIC, MODERN MUSIC IN THE 1960 s (part I) and EUROPEAN FOLK MUSIC 1. RENAISSANCE MUSIC 1.1. INTRODUCTION : HISTORY, SCIENCE, SOCIETY, ART Activity 1 : Fill in the gaps with these words : CIRCUMNAVIGATE INQUISITION PRINTING PRESS DOGMA WAGE FREE PROTESTANT REFORMATION HELIOCENTRIC INVESTIGATION DOME EMPIRE SPONSORED 1.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF RENAISSANCE MUSIC: In the Renaissance, the music was polyphonic, using the technique of counterpoint (independent voices, usually with imitative counterpoint) and homophony (different voices with the same rhythm).

2 a) Vocal music In the Renaissance, vocal music was much more important than instrumental music. However, in the 16 th century this situation gradually changed, and composers began to write more instrumental music. SACRED VOCAL MUSIC in the Renaissance Styles of sacred music had an international character. The most important sacred genre in the Catholicism was the motet and the mass, and in the Protestantism (in Germany and Scandinavia) was the choral. Catholic vocal music was sung in Latin and protestant music in their own language. Some composers of sacred music were Tomás Luis de Victoria and Palestrina. SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC in the Renaissance Styles of secular music were particular to each country. The most important musical genres were the madrigal in Italy, the villancico in Spain and the chanson in France. It was sung in the language of every country (Spanish, French, Italian, English ) Some composers of secular music were Juan del Encina, John Dowland or Claude Sermisy. b) Instrumental music Instrumental music became more important during the 16 th century due to: a) Advances in instrument making b) The publication of methods and scores thanks to the invention of the printing press, so people could play instruments at home c) New notation systems (tablature) that did not require extensive musical knowledge. Instrumental music used to accompany songs and dance and it was based on vocal genres. Instrumental music was not completely independent of vocal music until the Baroque period The most important instrumental forms were the variations (known as diferencias in Spain) and dance music: dances were composed in pairs: the first was a slow dance and the second a fast dance. Some of these dances were a pavane, a branle, a galliard Instruments were classified in: Loud music: played with wind and percussion instruments (for celebrations held outside) Soft music: played with string instruments (for more intimate performances indoors) The lute was the most popular instrument during the Renaissance. In Spain, the most popular instrument was the vihuela. Important composers for instruments were Antonio de Cabezón or Luis Milán

3 Activity 2: Identify each picture with these terms: a) Advances in instrument making d) Heliocentric theory g) Vihuela j) Printing press b) Methods about playing music e) The discovery of America h) Lute k) Miguel de Cervantes c) La Gioconda by Leonardo da Vinci f) David by Michelangelo i) Tablature 2. MODERN MUSIC IN THE 1960 s 2.1. INTRODUCTION Musical developments and technological advances characterize the 1960 s. Whereas the emphasis in recordings in the 1950 s had been on capturing the excitement of a live performances, in the 1960 s artist began to create music that could not be played lived. Recording companies created artists that were taught how to conduct themselves in public, how to speak to journalists and how to dance. In the 1960s American Top Forty and Grammy Awards appeared for the first time.

4 2.2. MUSICAL STYLES IN THE FIRST PART OF THE 1960s In the 1960 s the main styles of popular music were born. Those were the years known as the golden age. In the first part of the 60s, two musical focuses were placed in the USA and in England (the so called British Rock Invasion ) In the United States of America two main musical styles were developed: SOUL (a black style ): it is characterized by a vocal style in which the singer s expressive voice has the priority. Soul includes elements of gospel and blues with faster rhythms. Otis Redding, Ben. E. King or Aretha Franklin are some of the most representatives artists. FOLK (a white style ): American traditional music based on voice and the acoustic guitar led to the protest song, which will condemn social problems and political conflicts. Its main representative is the songwriter Bob Dylan. Otis Redding Ben E. King Aretha Franklin Bob Dylan In England two styles were developed: POP: the term pop is an ambiguous name generally applied to all commercial music, widely spread among young people. Pop music is based on the rhythm and electric guitars of rock and roll and the importance of the melodies. The most important pop group was The Beatles (beat style). ROCK: It will recover the rebellion of the first rock and roll by adding distorted guitars, more powerful rhythms and hard critical lyrics. The band that inaugurated this style was The Rolling Stones, that quickly became the bad-boy band with an image of sex and wild behavior. THE BEATLES From the left to the right Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Star, John Lennon THE ROLLING STONES - From up to down: Mick Jagger, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, Brian Jones, Bill Wyman

5 . Activity nº 2: Remember the different parts that you can find in a pop-rock song: (match each definition with its part): *INTRODUCTION *VERSE *CHORUS *BRIDGE *CODA _: instrumental passage at the beginning of the song, before the singer starts: _: it prepares the listener for the end of the song _: a musical phrase that repeats several times during the song with the same lyrics. _: a phrase that joins two sections, or it can pause the song so that an instrument improvises. _: a musical phrase that repeats several times during the song with different lyrics 3. EUROPEAN FOLK MUSIC European folk music is characterized by colorful songs, descending melodies and free rhythm. Scotland Greece Switzerland Hungary Bagpipes Bouzouki Sirtaki dance: created in 1964 for the movie Zorba the Greek, this dance is characterized by the increase in speed and change in time signature 4/ /4) Alpine horn Yodeling is a form of singing which involves repeated and rapid changes of pitch between the low-pitch chest register Cimbalon In general, Romanian music emphasizes melody rather than percussion, with frequent use of the violin for melody and often only the cimbalom for percussion. Italy Russia Portugal Norway Mandolin Balalaika Portuguese guitar Langeleik Fado: it is a song usually with a melancholy theme

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