Tonality Tonality is how the piece sounds. The most common types of tonality are major & minor these are tonal and have a the sense of a fixed key.

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1 Name: Class:

2 Ostinato An ostinato is a repeated pattern of notes or phrased used within classical music. It can be a repeated melodic phrase or rhythmic pattern. Look below at the musical example below of the ostinato in the bass clef. Riff A Riff is similar to an ostinato except found in popular music and rock. Most popular music you listen to in the charts will be made up of Riffs. Think of Sia s Cheap Thrills as an example. This pop song is full of riffs. Look at the example below.

3 Tonality Tonality is how the piece sounds. The most common types of tonality are major & minor these are tonal and have a the sense of a fixed key. Major sounds happy & open Minor sounds sad/dark & closed. We also have major and minor chords. Atonal music is not related to a tonic note and therefore has no sense of key. This tends to be found in 20 th century music. The music sounds unusual and has no fixed key. Notes usually feel all over the place when listening or performing. Modal music is in a mode. A mode is a seven-note scale found in medieval music before the Baroque period.

4 Ornamentation Ornaments are used to decorate a melody and make it more fancy for the listener. A lot of Baroque music uses ornamentation within the melodic line. Here are some common examples below. A trill sounds like two notes that are close in pitch played back and forth fairly quickly. A mordent sounds like the named note the note above then back to the original named note An appoggiatura is a note that is played just before the original note almost like a passing note but sounding slightly faster. An acciaccatura is a note played just before the original note that and sounds almost crushed into the essential note you need to move to. Turn A turn is the named note the note above the named note the note below and the then the named note played consecutively and quickly.

5 Notes on the Stave Treble clef Bass clef Note lengths

6 Time signatures Time signatures contain two numbers. The top number indicates the number of beats in each bar. The bottom number is a code for what the beat is measured in. The common codes for the bottom number are: 4 = crotchet beats 8 = quaver beats 2 = minim beats Most pop music uses this time signature of 4 beats in a bar. Marches are usually in cut common time. If the music feels like you could um cha cha to it the chances are it is a waltz. 6/8 time is counted like 1 and a 2 and a 3 and a 4 and a etc Melodic Devices

7 Musical Structures Binary form consists of two sections of music starting with section A and finishing on section B. The two sections are totally different. Think of a bicycle that has two wheels. Bi meaning two. A/B Ternary form consists of three sections of music again starting with section A then moving to B but then back to section A again. This gives the structure of the piece 3 sections in total. Think of sandwich bread then the filling then the bread to finish. A/B/A. Rondo form is when the music can keep going on for ever with a new section created each time. You of course start with section A then go to section B then back to A then to section C. A/B/A/C There is also through composed, which means the music has no clear structure and just keeps on going until the end. This can be used in 20 th century music or pop music. Used in pop music there is verse chorus structure or the proper name is strophic form. This is when the structure consists of intro verse chorus verse chorus middle 8 chorus then outro. Think of my favourite friend Adele! Musical Textures Monophonic One line of music. This can be several parts or voices in Unison. Polyphonic- Many lines of music moving independently. Also called Counterpoint/Contrapuntal. Think of Baroque music especially. Homophonic Texture Moving together. Like a hymn. May also refer to a melody and accompaniment. If used in popular music, Melody and Accompaniment is the preferred term.

8 Rhythmic Devices Syncopation is when notes are played off the beat. They can be played on beats 2 & 4. A lot of Latin and Cuban music tends to use exciting off beat rhythms. The music may feel um cha um cha um cha. Cross rhythm is the effect produced when two conflicting rhythms are heard together at the same time. Polyrhythm is when two or more rhythms with different pulses are heard together eg where one is playing in triple time and another is playing in quadruple time, three against four. Part one. 2 beats in a bar Part two. 3 beats in a bar Triplets are three notes played in the time of two. Using triplets allows more notes to fit into the bar so in actual fact it looks like there are more note values than what the beats in a bar add up to but this is not the case.

9 Musical Periods The Western Classical Tradition The Baroque period in music is roughly Monteverdi composed at the beginning of the period and Bach and Handel composed towards the end of the period. Baroque orchestral music Baroque music is characterised by: long flowing melodic lines often using ornamentation (decorative ornament notes such as trills and turns) contrast between loud and soft, solo and ensemble a contrapuntal texture where two or more melodic lines are combined terraced dynamics - sudden changes in the volume level, sometimes creating an echo effect the use of harpsichord continuo (keeps going). Typical Instruments of the Baroque Period strings - violins, violas, cellos and double basses woodwind - recorders or wooden flutes, oboes, and bassoon brass - sometimes trumpets and/or horns (without valves) timpani (kettledrums) continuo small ensemble rather than an orchestra The Classical Period There were clear developments from the baroque period to the classical period. Romantic period (roughly the 19th century) Concertos remained popular during the Romantic period. There were many written for piano and violin. The Romantic concerto: Uses a large orchestra more instruments added to create a thicker texture Music was more expressive full of dynamics Music was often more complex and new ideas began exploits the dramatic conflict between soloist and orchestra often has the emphasis on virtuosic display often has very difficult solo parts has cadenzas (solo part) written by the composer rather than improvised

10 20 th Century Music Here in 20 th century music composers became very experimentive with their style and liked trying new techniques out that were not the norm of contemporary classical music. 20 th century music often sounds unusual and not something you would like to sit down to with a cup of tea and a biscuit at the end of the day. There are particular characteristic styles to look out for within 2oth century music. Dramatic sudden dynamic changes Unusual compound time signatures Complex rhythms Demanding musical techniques for the performer Atonal (no fixed key) Chromatic Disjunct melodic lines Dissonant harmonies (clashing) Composers such as Steve Reich have also been known to use sounds instead of instruments for compositions Popular Music since 1960 Rock music' is a general term that covers many different genres of music which have developed since rock n roll in the 1950s. There have been many stylistic changes in this period. Features of typical rock music are: Use of Riffs (short melodic passages that repeat) Songs usually about love or about fancying another man or woman Texture is melody and accompaniment Accompaniment is chordal with use of major and minor chords Time signature is mostly 4/4 Usual strophic structure Prominent bass line riffs Pentatonic lead guitar solos Use of distortion effects on guitar Famous rock artist Bon Jovi Typical instruments of the style Lead guitar (amplified) Rhythm guitar (amplified) Bass guitar (amplified) Synth/Piano Vocal & backing vocals

11 Folk Music Old to New Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Most traditional folk music was created and composed by unknown composers and artists. Modern folk like any other genre of music has clear characteristics. Folk music only tends to use acoustic instruments The vocal grain of the artists voice maybe heavily influenced by country singers The lyrics maybe about love or to commemorate loved ones or talking of their hometown or heritage Time signatures for country music can be in 4/4 or in a waltz style of ¾. Tempo markings are usually fairly slow for folk Country music tends to have a more upbeat tempo Use of instruments can vary depending on the country for example tradition Scottish folk would use different instruments than Typical instruments of the style Male or female vocalist Backing vocals Acoustic guitar (very prominent) Bass guitar Piano/keys Accordion and other instruments (dependant on style or origins of folk) World Music Reggae Reggae is a much slower form of music than Ska which emerged in the 1960s. It is characterised by: electric guitars and drums line-up amplified bass guitar riffs (short repeated patterns) an association with Rastafarianism (a religious movement worshipping Haile Selassie) characteristic rhythm in 4/4 with missing beat emphasis use of repeated offbeat quavers use of dub remixing techniques where effects such as delay are added simple chord sequences verse and chorus form political themes in lyrics Jamaican accent

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