A BAND STUDENT S GUIDE TO MUSIC HISTORY

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1 A BAND STUDENT S GUIDE TO MUSIC HISTORY Renaissance Music ( AD) Jump to Music

2 THE RENAISSANCE

3 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What traits distinguish medieval from Renaissance music? What was the relationship between humanism and music? What new harmonies did Renaissance Composers employ and why? What invention fundamentally changed the way music was performed and consumed? How did church politics affect the development of Renaissance Music?

4 RENAISSANCE The rebirth (Fr.) Revival of the ideals of classical antiquity Philosophy Technology The Arts "Man is the measure of all things." Sandro Botticelli, Magnificat, , tempera on panel, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

5 ROAD TO THE REBIRTH Implications of the Black Death Italian Origin Medici Family Fall of Constantinople Migration of Greek and Roman scholars Adoption of humanism Emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and affirms their ability to improve their lives through the use of reason

6 SCIENCE Inventions: Printing Press Telescope Mechanical Clock Microscope Eyeglasses Gunpowder Alchemy Ancestor to chemistry Astronomy Move from geocentric to heliocentric Geography Cladius Ptolemy

7 THE AGE OF DISCOVERY Why? Colonialism Mercantilism Colonization of Americas, Southern Asia, Africa Drove discovery at great ethical expense

8 RELIGION Turmoil in the papacy Reformation Martin Luther Protestant led to others Counter-reformation Council of Trent Martin Luther, shown in a portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, initiated the Protestant Reformation in 1517.

9 ART

10 CLASSICAL ORDER

11 LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Pietro Perugino's use of perspective in this fresco at the Sistine Chapel ( ) helped bring the Renaissance to Rome.

12 FORESHORTENING

13 LEONARDO DA VINCI Polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer

14 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Writer, poet, playwright

15 ISAAC NEWTON Scientist: Theory of gravity, laws of motion

16 GALILEO GALIEI Scientist: Astronomer, physicist, troublemaker

17 CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS Explorer, navigator, colonizer

18 MUSIC IN SOCIETY Secular Cultural Capital Courts and capella Composers more mobile Sacred Large patronage Resident composers

19 HUMANISM AND HARMONY Judgement of ears over tradition Guido de Arezzo Musicus vs. cantor Ramos de Pareja Guido was perhaps a better monk than a musician 3rds & 6ths: CONSONANT One example of the Guidonian hand, from a Bodleian Library MS

20 THE CONTENANCE ANGLOISE The English guise Lively consonances Dominated by 3rds, 5ths, 6ths The Triad John Dunstaple Quam pulchra es 100 Years War

21 DEPARTURES FROM MEDIEVAL STYLE Pervading imitation More homogeneous textures More lyrical melodic lines Conjunct Increasing use of instruments

22 SACRED VOCAL MUSIC The Mass Cyclic mass Cantus firmus Large-scale Motets Smaller-scale Polyphonic Word painting Orlando de Lassus leading a chamber ensemble, painted by Hans Mielich

23 REFORMATION ERA Chorales Communal participation Anthems English evolution of motet Council of Trent Polyphony on the chopping block Music in service of text A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving

24 SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC Leaning towards homophony Simpler harmonies Variations: Chanson (Fr.) Madrigal (It.) Lied (Ger.) Villancico (Sp.) English Madrigal Claudio Monteverdi in 1640 by Bernardo Strozzi. Monteverdi was the most influential composer of madrigals after 1600.

25 INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Cornett Sackbutt Dulcian Bowed strings Shawm, bagpipes, recorder Organ, harpsichord Percussion

26 GIOVANNI PALESTRINA Polyphony + intelligible text Wrote mostly sacred music 105 masses 140 madrigals 300 motets Missa Papae Marcelli m/watch?v=3n8xdkkrqg o

27 JOSQUIN DE PREZ 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime Cross-over composer Sacred and secular Wrote in all vocal styles of the age First master of the High Renaissance style El grillo Frottola

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