Music of the Renaissance. A. Gabriele

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1 Music of the Renaissance A. Gabriele

2 The Renaissance the period after the Middle ages that lasting until 1600 translates to rebirth or revival humanism was the major intellectual movement the revial of ancient Greek and Roman cultural ideals Italy was where it all began (specifically Florence) geographically close to the classic art and architecture of antiquity wealthy families (i.e. the Medici) trade center (thanks Marco Polo!) city-states and principalities wanted to show off

3

4 Europe 1500

5 Period of Exploration Christopher Columbus Amerigo Vespucci Ferdinand Magellan Sir Frances Drake Sir Walter Raleigh Vasco da Gama Hernán Cortes John Cabot Jacques Cartier Juan Ponce de Leon Hernando de Soto

6 Period of Science Johannes Kepler Tycho Brahe Galileo Galilei Nicolaus Copernicus Leonardo da Vinci Johannes Gutenberg

7 Period of the Arts development of perspective interest in realism Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Donatello Dante Alighieri William Shakespeare

8 Period of the Religious Change Martin Luther s famous document of 1517, The 95 Theses, was the catalyst for the Protestant Reformation He protested the church s act of absolving people of their sins in exchange for money, something known as indulgences. The use of the printing press, invented by Gutenberg, helped disseminate his Theses In General, Northern Europe became Protestant and Southern Europe remained Catholic, with few exceptions.

9 Music of the Renaissance Every educated person was expected to be trained in music, a continuation of the ideals of Plato and Aristotle from Antiquity. Vocal Music is still more prevalent and important than instrumental music, like the Middle Ages. Polyphony (separate, simultaneous melodic lines) remains the predominant texture of music. However more homophonic chordal music (voices moving together) was created during this period.

10 Music of the Renaissance Rhythms became more fluid and steady. Composers used word painting matching the musical elements to the text (words) being sung An expanded bass register, lower and lower notes used by composers, made the music sound fuller than ever before

11 Sacred Music The polyphonic motet continued its popularity from the Middle Ages, and included sacred Latin text not used during the Mass. The Mass was a polyphonic vocal work set to the liturgy of the Catholic ceremony in Latin. It has 5 main sections: Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei

12 Sacred Music Con t The most important composers of Sacred Music: Guilliam DuFay (Burgundian) Johannes Ockeghem (Franco-Flemish) Josquin des Prez (Franco-Flemish) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Italian) William Byrd (English) From the Protestant Reformation came a new type of hymn writing known as the chorale, where the whole church congregation sung, not just the choir.

13 Secular Music Secular music during the Renaissances exploded with the rise of individual national styles: Italy: frottola, an earthy, fourpart, strophic, homophonic song, and the madrigal, a more sophisticated throughcomposed setting of a poem France: chanson, a mostly homophonic song. England: developed their own version of the madrigal Germany: lied was a polyphonic song.

14 Secular Music Con t The Renaissance also saw the rise of instrumental music. Instruments often played vocal music, replacing one or all of the voices. Instrumental music s most important function was as dance music Dances were grouped in twos and threes, alternating a slow dance in duple meter and a fast one in triple meter. France: pavane and galliard. Italy: passamezzo and saltarello.

15 Some common instruments of the Renaissance...

16 Recorder a wind instrument

17 Shawm a double reed wind instrument, forerunner to the oboe

18 Trumpet a brass wind instrument

19 Lute a string instrument with frets

20 The Viol Family a string instrument with frets

21 Organ a keyboard instrument

22 Clavichord a keyboard instrument, a metal wedge strikes a string

23 Harpsichord a keyboard instrument, a quill plucks a string

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