Key Terms. Chapter 12. Classical Timeline. Late 18th Century. The Enlightenment. Emperor Joseph II. Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment

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1 Chapter 12 Prelude: Music and the Enlightenment Key Terms Enlightenment Repetition Rococo Cadences Divertimento Sonata form Opera buffa Minuet Classical style Rondo Classical orchestra Theme and Classical variations counterpoint Classical Timeline Late 18th Century Enlightenment flourished New Classical style emerged Vienna a center for music Rise of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven The Enlightenment Emperor Joseph II Intellectual movement centered in France Rooted in a faith in reason and science Applied rational methods to social sphere Attacked social injustice and religion Major figures: Voltaire and Rousseau Enlightened ruler Emancipated peasants Furthered education Reduced power of clergy Supported music and literature Encouraged free press Reigned during Vienna s golden years ( )

2 Vienna as Musical Center American Contribution to the Enlightenment Declaration of Independence and Federalist Papers A new state founded on rational principles Emphasis on human rights life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Art and Entertainment Jean-Jacques Rousseau An age of good living Valued intelligence, wit, sensitivity Invented salon, coffee house, public concert Arts meant to entertain, to please Rococo style Similar style in music Light, charming, frivolous Divertimento designed to divert and entertain The first alienated intellectual Emphasized nature and the individual Blasted social institutions Wrote articles on politics and music Attacked Baroque opera Advocated simpler, more natural music that focused on real life Encouraged development of comic opera The Novel Genre took hold around 1750 Literary equivalent of the new comic opera Realistic observation of contemporary life Sensitive depiction of feeling Could be sexually explicit, sentimental, and moralistic all at once The Rise of Concerts Prompted by growing middle class Proliferated throughout Europe Lent new importance to orchestral works Composers began to write for public concerts (Haydn, Mozart) Church and court patronage, opera houses still important

3 Two Central Concepts Rhythm The natural and pleasing variety Can work hand in hand Can also oppose each other Natural can be too simple, boring Pleasing variety can invite unnatural complexity Appear in all elements of Classical technique Create a new expressive quality New flexibility valued Gradual increase or decrease in energy Sudden contrasts Sudden stops Smooth, continuous motion Pressing forward by fits and starts Real contrasts become possible Dynamics Tone Color New precision in notating dynamics New emphasis on gradations of volume Rise in popularity of the pianoforte Increasing attention to tone color Orchestra developed into subtle, versatile instrument The Classical Orchestra Development of the Classical Orchestra Strings still at the heart Woodwinds and brass given clearly defined roles Percussion used in new ways Offered enormous variety in musical elements and overall effect

4 Melody: Tunes Texture: Homophony The natural dominates Baroque melody now unnatural New preference for clear, simple tunes Some works use tuneful phrases Others use entire tunes (theme and variations) The natural dominates A single melody dominates the texture Simple but flexible accompaniment Continuo fell out of use More control over specific color and spacing of chords Classical Counterpoint Baroque vs. Classical Style Homophony was dominant Polyphony still offered expressive possibilities Creating tension and intensity Creating contrast with homophony Contrapuntal texture frequent in sonata form development sections Baroque Repetitive, dance-influenced rhythms Only two dynamics (f, p) Same colors throughout Basic or festive Baroque orchestra Complex, ornate melodies Unequal phrase lengths Polyphonic texture Constant continuo support Homogeneous single affect expressed in each work Classical Flexible, constantly changing rhythms Many dynamic gradations Variety of colors in one piece Larger orchestra, regular use of brass and winds Clear, memorable tunes Regular phrase lengths Homophonic texture Constantly varied accompaniment Heterogeneous variety of feelings express in each work Form in Classical Music Repetition and Return The problem: How can you extend a musical work over a long time span when music must be natural, simple, and easy to understand? The Classical solution: Repetition and return Transitions between themes Clear cadences First theme repeats immediately First theme often returns later Other main themes handled the same way Makes themes easy to remember Return provides a homecoming feel

5 Transitions between Themes Clear Cadences Themes connected with transitions Prominent; distinct from surrounding themes Not very melodic no clear tune, no repetition Create urgency to get to next theme Transition lends emphasis to beginning of next theme Themes often end with repeated cadences The more important the theme, the more emphatic the repetitions Clear cadences strengthen the ending of a theme Repetitions and Cadences Classical Forms Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II Mozart, Don Giovanni, Ho capito A frame of reference for composers and audiences Permit contrasts pleasing variety Control, even tame contrasts Clarified by repetitions, transitions, and cadences Sonata, minuet, rondo, theme and variations

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