Baroque Vocal Music. Higher. Written by I. Horning King's Park Secondary School

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1 Baroque Vocal Music Higher

2 Baroque The fashion was for ornamentation everywhere. Musicians adapted the word to describe the musical styles of this time. Sacred music was particularly popular at the time

3 A useful table Write the subtitle ways to perform using the voice Glue this very useful table into your jotter Concept Accompanied Unaccompanied Unison Single Line Harmony A capella Vibrato Register Definition One or more instruments support the melody No instruments support the melody Two or more people sing the same line. (also applies to instruments). One musical part Two or more parts performing different notes A cappella is Italian for "in the style of the chapel". Vocal music with no accompaniment. The singer makes the note they are singing waver in pitch very slightly bringing warmth to the tone of their voice. How high or low a voice is Syllabic (word setting) Where each syllable has a new note Melismatic (word setting) Where each syllable has many notes

4 Accompanied or Unaccompanied One or more instruments support the melody No instruments support the melody

5 Unison or Harmony Two or more people sing the same line Two or more parts performing different notes

6 Syllabic or Melismatic Where each syllable has a new note Where each syllable has many notes

7 Vibrato The singer makes the note they are singing waver in pitch very slightly bringing warmth to the tone of their voice.

8 A cappella A cappella is Italian for "in the style of the chapel". Vocal music with no accompaniment.

9 Recitative In Venice a group of secular composers named The Florentine Camereta began composing short vocal pieces called monodies. These were a vocal melodic line with a keyboard simple accompaniment over a bass line. Because of the small number of performers involved it meant that the singer was at liberty to sing the rhythms with an amount of freedom in accordance with the nature of the text as if reciting a poem. This style of singing became known as Recitativo. With some development this then was introduced into the pastoral plays that were popular in Italy at the end of the 16th Century.

10 Recitative Recitative Secco (dry recitative) accompanied only by the continuo instruments. Because of the sparseness of texture long sections of dialogue could proceed quickly and the singer could take more liberties with the rhythm. Recitative Accompagnato More instruments were involved and this meant the singer had less freedom with the rhythm but gave the composer more dramatic opportunities.

11 Recitative Sung speech Often before an aria Chordal accompaniment Basso Continuo Used to move the story along There Were Shepherds from Handel s Messiah

12 Aria The Aria was a new type of vocal operatic form. Similar to Recitative Accompagnato in that it was scored for singer, continuo and orchestral instruments. An Aria is often a reflective moment in an opera, where a single character is alone to share their thoughts and feelings with the audience (just like the soliloquy in a play)

13 Aria A song for solo voice Accompanied by orchestra Basso Continuo Beautiful melody Ave Maria arranged by Gounod

14 Da Capo Aria It had a clear form known as the Da Capo Aria. Sometimes the accompaniment for this had a solo instrument line that acted as a foil to the voice. This line became known as the Obbligato one is obliged to have the instrumental line playing with the singer.

15 Da Capo Aria Depending upon the style and mood of the aria, the singer, when repeating the first section, would add their own vocal decoration to the printed melody. It became customary to improvise a Cadenza a florid passage displaying the brilliance of the singers technique just before the final cadence of either B or A2.

16 Da Capo Aria An aria in ternary form (ABA). Sometimes A is repeated with ornaments. Handel: Lascia ch io pianga

17 Chorus A group of singers Each part has several singers SATB Choir Often accompanied by orchestra Basso Continuo

18 Oratorio Born at the same time as the Opera, Oratorio took it s name from St, Philip Neri s Oratory in Rome where the first oratorios were performed. At first they were similar to opera made up of recitative, aria, chorus and acted out. The main difference was that the text was based on a sacred story usually from the Bible. In time Oratorios ceased to be acted out, and were performed in Churches and concert halls rather than in the theatre.

19 Oratorio Story from the Bible set to music No costumes or scenery In English Accompanied by an orchestra Can include Recitative Aria Duet Chorus He Shall Feed His Flock from Handel s Messiah

20 Cantata Cantata is similar to oratorio on a smaller scale. It may be based on a secular topic. Cantata is for soloists, chorus and orchestra.

21 Cantata A small scale Oratorio Story from the Bible set to music No costumes or scenery In German Accompanied by an orchestra Can include Recitative Aria Duet Chorus Bach: Gloria sei dir gesungen

22 PASSION A Passion is a vocal sacred work telling the Bible story of the Crucifixion, sung in German churches the week before Easter. Text is in German and features chorales as well as recitatives, arias and choruses.

23 Passion A type of Oratorio which is based on the Crucifixion of Christ Story from the Bible set to music No costumes or scenery In German Accompanied by an orchestra Can include Recitative Aria Duet Chorus

24 Chorale The Chorale is a German hymn tune. It is written in four parts for soprano, contralto (alto), tenor and bass. Some of these chorales were used by Bach in his oratorios and cantatas and are usually homophonic in texture. Music which is sung by the congregation at a church service In German

25 Opera Opera emerged in the Baroque period and is a dramatic form of choral writing. It involves costumes, drama and scenery. Within an opera (as in oratorio) you will find examples of recitative, aria and chorus.

26 Opera A secular drama set to music which is performed on a stage in a theatre No spoken dialogue Singers have trained voices. Costumes and Scenery Music includes Recitative Aria Duet Chorus

27 Opera Synopsis Act 1 A chorus of nymphs and shepherds join Orfeo around the tomb of his wife Euridice in a solemn chorus of mourning; Orfeo is only able to utter Euridice's name. Amore appears, telling Orfeo that he may go to the Underworld and return with his wife on the condition that he not look at her until they are back on earth As encouragement, Amore informs Orfeo that his present suffering shall be short-lived. Orfeo resolves to take on the quest. Act 2 In a rocky landscape, the Furies refuse to admit Orfeo to the Underworld, and When Orfeobegs for pity he is at first interrupted by cries of "No!" from the Furies, but they are eventually let him in. The second scene opens in Elysium. Orfeo arrives and marvels at the purity of the air. But he finds no solace in the beauty of the surroundings, for Euridice is not yet with him. He implores the spirits to bring her to him, which they do. Act 3 On the way out of Hades, Euridice is delighted to be returning to earth, but Orfeo, remembering the condition related by Amore in Act I, lets go of her hand and refuses to look at her, does not explain anything to her. She does not understand his action and reproaches him, but he must suffer in silence Euridice takes this to be a sign that he no longer loves her, and refuses to continue, concluding that death would be preferable. Unable to take any more, Orfeo turns and looks at Euridice; again, she dies. Orfeo decides he will kill himself to join Euridice in Hades, but Amore returns to stop him. In reward for Orfeo's continued love, Amore returns Euridice to life, and she and Orfeo are reunited. Orpheus and Eurydice by Gluck

28 Mass

29 Mass The Mass was the main form of Church music. It was mainly a church service which used a musical setting of the words from the Bible. The Mass Ordinary used a text for any time of the year compared to the Mass Proper that used special text for certain special days. The Ordinary was split into sections that are still used today.

30 Mass Originally used in church worship Based on the text of the Roman Catholic Eucharist In Latin Large-scale work for chorus and soloists, accompanied by the orchestra In the Baroque era, a basso continuo would be present

31 Liturgy You need to learn the names of these sections so that you can recognise them when you hear the Latin words. Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Benedictus Agnus Dei

32 The 6 sections Kyrie Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy. Sanctus Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Your glory. Gloria Celebratory section praising God and Christ. Benedictus This is a continuation of the Sanctus Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Credo This is the longest text of the Mass Setting of the Nicene Creed Agnus Dei This is a setting of the Lamb of God symbolic of Jesus. Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world.

33 Next Listening Lesson Come up with a mneumonic to help you remember the 6 sections in a mass: Kyrie, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Gloria, Agnus Dei CONCEPT TEST: on all of Baroque Vocal Music

34 Badgers Sometimes Kiss And Cuddle Giraffes

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