History 2: Middle Ages to Classical

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1 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December 2014 Maximum Marks Confirmation Number 1 of 12 Total Marks Give the musical term for ten of the following definitions. Provide one composition title for each term chosen. Composition titles must be chosen from the specific works required for this examination. Term: a male character in an opera, performed by a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto Term: the second statement of the main idea of a fugue, usually heard in the dominant key Term: the projection of a single mood or emotion through an entire composition or movement in Baroque music Term: Italian comic opera sung throughout with no spoken dialogue Term: a Baroque instrumental genre based on the opposition of the concertino and the ripieno Term: a virtuosic solo passage in improvisatory style Term: a style of text setting in which many notes are sung to each syllable Term: a multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dances, generally all in the same key continued next page Copyright 2014 The Royal Conservatory Examinations

2 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 Question 1 continued Term: Latin for fixed song, borrowed material which serves as the structural basis of a new polyphonic composition Term: a performance style in which the soloist alternates with the chorus Term: a late 18th-century literary movement that aimed to shock, frighten, or overwhelm the audience with emotion Term: Latin for false music, a performance practice whereby pitches are raised or lowered to avoid undesirable intervals Term: Renaissance term for an instrumental ensemble, may be whole or broken

3 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of For four of the following, provide the composition title and fill in the blanks. Composition titles must be chosen from the specific works required for this examination. A Mass by Palestrina In which era was this work composed? Which historical event inspired this work? Identify and briefly explain two specific musical features of this work A chanson by Machaut In which era was this work composed? What type of poetic structure is used in this work? Identify and briefly explain two specific musical features of this work A chamber work by Schubert What are the performing forces of this work? What is the basis of the fourth movement? What is the form of the fourth movement? What is the internal form of the theme in the fourth movement? continued next page

4 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 Question 2 continued A madrigal by Gesualdo In which era was this work composed? How many voices are featured in this work? Identify two examples of word painting in this madrigal. 1. Poetic image: Musical depiction: 2. Poetic image: Musical depiction: A keyboard work by Scarlatti In which era was this work composed? For which instrument was this work written? What is the form of this work? Identify two idiomatic features of the keyboard writing in this work A trouvère or troubadour chanson In which era was this work composed? What is the texture of this chanson? Identify and briefly explain two specific musical features of this work continued next page

5 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 Question 2 continued A motet by Josquin In which era was this work composed? Describe the structure of the text. Identify two contrapuntal devices used in this motet Describe the harmonic language in this work.

6 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of [10] 3. a. Discuss two of the following topics. Provide examples where appropriate. i. The musical features of Gregorian chant: ii. The contributions of the Notre Dame School to the development of polyphony: continued next page

7 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 iii. The musical features of the Ars Nova: Question 3 continued iv. The contributions of the Mannheim School and its impact on the development of the sonata cycle: continued next page

8 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 Question 3 continued [10] b. Identify the term to which each of the following descriptions applies by placing the appropriate letter in the space provided. You will not use all of the terms. a Medieval bowed string instrument a. tabor one of the standard dances in the Baroque suite the Medieval ancestor of the trombone a musical number for three voices a small portable reed organ a large, cylindrical Medieval drum a section of the Mass Ordinary a single-line texture a tenor oboe a lively English dance in triple metre, originally associated with sailors b. Offertory c. hornpipe d. taille e. sarabande f. monophonic g. sackbut h. monody i. rebec j. estampie k. Gloria l. terzetto m. regal

9 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of [15] 4. a. Describe the significance and contributions of each of the following to the development of opera. Florentine Camerata Claudio Monteverdi Henry Purcell continued next page

10 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 Christoph Willibald Gluck Question 4 continued Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [5] b. Choose one of the following operas and describe in detail the musical highlights required for this examination. Do not include a plot summary. The Coronation of Poppea Dido and Aeneas The Marriage of Figaro

11 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of [10] 5. a. Fill in the blanks for one of the following works. Cantata no. 80 Who composed this work? What are the performing forces of this work? What is the name of the Lutheran chorale on which this work is based? Who supplied the additional text for this work? What revision did Wilhelm Friedemann make to the orchestration? How many movements are in this work? What is the texture of the first movement? Which voices are the soloists in the second movement? Describe the orchestral accompaniment in the fifth movement. What is the texture of the final movement? continued next page

12 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December of 12 The Creation Who composed this work? What is the genre of this work? Question 5 continued What are the performing forces of this work? Name one of the literary sources of the libretto. Name two types of recitative used in this work and cite the passage in which each is found Identify two examples of word painting found in this work. Provide both the poetic image and its musical depiction. First image: Musical depiction: Second image: Musical depiction: [10] b. Describe two works in detail by choosing one composition from each list. List 1 List 2 Piano Sonata in C Minor, op. 13 (first movement only) Piano Sonata in C sharp Minor, op. 27, no. 2 (first movement only) Piano Concerto in G Major, K 453 (first movement only) Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F Major (first movement only) Water Music, Suite in D Major, HWV 349 (Allegro and Hornpipe) Symphony No. 104 in D Major ( London ) (first movement only)

13 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

14 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

15 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

16 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

17 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

18 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

19 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

20 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

21 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

22 Official Answer Sheet December 2014 Confirmation Number Essay responses MUST be written on both sides of the Official Answer Sheet. Do not write below this line.

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37 Examiner Comments History 2 Examination December 2014 This student paper is based on answers from actual student examinations, assembled to demonstrate the most common errors made by History 2 students. Question 1 The candidate has answered all the questions correctly and a perfect mark (20/20) has been awarded. Question 2 The candidate has answered all of the questions, but only the first four answers have been considered, as per the marking policy. This is especially unfortunate since at least one of the extra answers (Ce fut en mai) was completely correct. This highlights the importance of reading the question carefully and following the requirements outlined in the question. Pope Marcellus Mass The question asks for the era (Renaissance), not for the century. -1 Gloria identifies the section of the mass but does not constitute a musical feature. -1 Features would include: voice reduction to enhance textual clarity, a (mostly) syllabic text setting and metrical shifts. Since I Am Forgotten (Puis qu en oubli) The student has confused rondeau (a 14th-century fixed poetic form) with rondo (a popular 18thcentury instrumental form). -1 This work does not use a cantus firmus; all three parts are newly composed. -1 Trout Quintet The student has mistakenly identified the instrumentation as string quartet, whereas in fact the string instruments are violin, viola, cello and double bass, along with piano Moro, lasso, al mio duolo Only one mark was awarded for the single correct answer provided. -4 The remaining answers were not marked, as explained above. Examiner Commentary

38 History 2 Examination: December 2014 continued 2 Question 3 a. i. Gregorian chant A good answer was provided, outlining the genre s most characteristic traits. a. ii. Ars Nova The student has confused the 13th century with the 1300s. Some accurate information has been provided, but other features to consider would include the complex rhythmic features, such as isorhythm and hocket, as well as the contributions of de Vitry. Although the student mentions the first complete setting of the mass ordinary, inclusion of the title Messe de Nostre Dame would also add depth to the answer b. The errors in this question were caused by confusing hornpipe with sarabande and monody with monophonic. A sarabande is a standard Baroque dance, whereas a hornpipe is a sailor s dance. Monophonic is a musical texture consisting of a single line of melody. -3 Question 4 a. Excellent descriptions were provided to outline the significance and contributions of the Florentine Camerata and Monteverdi. In the case of Purcell, the description was incomplete. The answer should include reference to the influence of international musical styles. Drawing on the musical excerpts studied, references could have been made to Purcell s use of ground bass and word painting. -2 Likewise, the answer for Gluck includes correct information, but leaves out many other important reforms, including constructing the overture from melodies heard later, blending the recitative and aria style as well as adopting a more simple homophonic texture. -2 Several good points about Mozart, but the student could also have referenced his novel approaches to musical forms b. In a ten-mark essay, plot details and background information are generally included. Here, the question specifically asks for a musical description of the musical highlights required for this examination. Therefore, a more detailed musical account of the Coronation Scene, Sinfonia, and final Love Duet should have been included, in place of the more general overview provided by this student. An exemplary answer here would consider textures, word painting, as well as contrapuntal devices (for example, the use of a ground bass). -3 Examiner Commentary

39 History 2 Examination: December 2014 continued 3 Question 5 a. Cantata no The work requires SATB soloists/chorus, strings, oboes and continuo. Choral does not provide enough information about the performing forces. Although Martin Luther (probably) composed the original chorale, Salomo Franck provided the additional text for the cantata. The fifth movement uses the strings and oboes in unison. They also play a melody based on the chorale tune in diminution. The final movement, an SATB texture, is homophonic, or a balance of homophonic/polyphonic elements. b. Piano Sonata in C Minor, op. 13, first movement The student has provided a fine overview of the first movement of this sonata, pointing out its many innovative features. Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F major, first movement -2 Several good points have been raised. For a more successful answer, the student might have: considered how Bach contrasts the two groups (concertino and ripieno) with their own unique themes, observed how the entire movement is spun out from the four motives which comprise the ritornello theme, and considered Bach s main objective: to explore the different coloristic possibilities achieved through the various combinations of the solo instruments. Examiner Commentary

40 History 2: Middle Ages to Classical December 2014 Maximum Marks Confirmation Number 1 of 12 Total Marks Give the musical term for ten of the following definitions. Provide one composition title for each term chosen. Composition titles must be chosen from the specific works required for this examination. Term: a male character in an opera, performed by a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto Term: the second statement of the main idea of a fugue, usually heard in the dominant key Term: the projection of a single mood or emotion through an entire composition or movement in Baroque music Term: Italian comic opera sung throughout with no spoken dialogue Term: a Baroque instrumental genre based on the opposition of the concertino and the ripieno Term: a virtuosic solo passage in improvisatory style Term: a style of text setting in which many notes are sung to each syllable Term: a multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dances, generally all in the same key continued next page Copyright 2014 The Royal Conservatory Examinations

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