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1 Contents Acknowledgements...ii Preface... iii CHAPTER Clefs, pitches and note values... 1 CHAPTER Time signatures... 8 CHAPTER Grouping CHAPTER Keys and key signatures CHAPTER Transposition and transcription CHAPTER Scales CHAPTER Intervals CHAPTER Triads CHAPTER Doubling of notes CHAPTER Melody writing CHAPTER Music expressions CHAPTER Sol-fa notation CHAPTER General BIBLIOGRAPHY

2 CHAPTER 2 Time signatures 2.1 Simple time signatures In Grade 3 knowledge of all simple time signatures, as explained in Table 2.1, is required. These time signatures have already been discussed in previous grades. Simple duple time Simple triple time Simple quadruple time Table Compound time signatures In Grade 3 three compound time signature are discussed:. 3 In contrast to simple time where a beat consists of a single note value, in compound, a beat time consists of a dotted note value. Each compound time signature has a corresponding simple time signature that has the same number of beats. However, the value of their beats differ (Example 2.1). Example 2.1 To determine the number of beats in a bar and the beat value of a compound time signature, its corresponding simple time signature must first be determined. This can be done by making the following calculation: divide the compound time signature s top number by 3 and the bottom number by 2 (Example 2.2). 3 Only and are prescribed for the UNISA syllabus. 8

3 The rules in compound time are an extension of the rules in simple time: Beat 1 and 2 are grouped together if consisting of a single note. Beat 2 and 3 are grouped together if consisting of a single note. Beat 3 and 4 are grouped together if consisting of a single note. If two or more beats consist of a single note, they are written as one note. Do not use tied notes. If a note occupies the 1 st and 2 nd, or the 2 nd and 3 rd subdivision of a beat, a single note, instead of tied notes, is used. Therefore, the same principles that apply to the grouping of notes in simple triple time also apply to the division of individual beats in compound time Rules regarding the grouping of rests A separate rest is used for each silent beat. If a beat is silent, a dotted rest or two rests (the dot written out in the form of another rest) is used. Take note: These two methods may not both be use in the same exercise or composition. 18

4 The rules that were applicable to the grouping of rests in simple triple time also apply to the division of separate beats in compound time. The only difference is that if the first two divisions of a beat in compound time are silent, they are written as one rest. If a whole bar is silent, regardless of the time signature, a semibreve rest is used to indicate that. Exercise 3.1 Improve the grouping of the following bars: 19

5 Exercise 3.4 Improve the grouping of the following examples where necessary: Exercise 3.5 Improve the grouping of the following bars where necessary: 22

6 CHAPTER 4 Keys and key signatures Demarcation of the different syllabi UNISA ABRSM Trinity Guildhall Major and minor keys up to 4 sharps and 4 flats. Major and minor keys up to 4 sharps and 4 flats. Major and minor keys up to 2 sharps and 2 flats. 4.1 Major keys Major keys with sharps as key signature Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle Count the sharps from left to right Major keys with flats as key signature Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle Count the flats from right to left 4.2 Minor keys All major keys' relative minor is determined in the same manner: count three semitones to the left of the major s tonic. Example 4.1 D major s relative minor is B minor. 28

7 Exercise 4.1 Give the related keys of each of the following: E minor G minor D major E major D minor C minor F minor E major C major F minor B major C minor Exercise 4.2 Name the major and minor that corresponds to the following key signatures: e.g. C major A minor 4.4 The writing of key signatures As mentioned in previous grades, there is a specific order in which sharps or flats of a key signature is written. They also occur at specific places on the staff (Example 4.2 to 4.5). Key signatures up to and including 4 sharps and 4 flats can be derived from the following examples: 29

8 Exercise 4.4 Answer the following questions: What is the key signature of F minor? Name the minor that has four flats as key signature Is there a key such as F major? What is the relative major of D minor? Which two keys have an F, C, G, and D as key signature? 4.5 Determining a key The method to determine a key was discussed in previous grades. The following figure provides a summary thereof. Pay attention to the: Key signature o With key signature o Without key signature: make a list of the accidentals and arrange them in the order of a key signature are there any chromatic notes? Note on which the extract ends. It can be the: o Tonic (if it is the last note of the composition) o Any scale degree if the extract is from the middle of a composition Movement to and from the leading tone. This is the final test since the leading tone always moves as follows: o submediant leading tone tonic o tonic leading tone submediant o tonic leading tone tonic o subdominant which leaps down to the leading tone and then resolve to the tonic Exercise 4.5 Determine the key of the following examples: 31

9 5.2 Transcription 6 When music is copied for a different instrument or in a different clef while maintaining the same pitch, it is called transcription. In Grade 3 transcription is done between the treble clef and the bass clef. Since the music is transcribed to a different medium, indications such as the title, composer, dynamics, articulation, phrasing, etc. should also be copied (Example 5.1). Transcribed Example 5.1 If the transcription involves too many ledger lines and spaces, octave indications (ottava sopra or ottava sotto) may be used (Example 5.2). 7 Example Prescribed for the UNISA syllabus only. 7 These signs are fully discussed in Chapter 11, Music expressions. 38

10 Exercise 5.5 Transcribe the following examples in the F clef. Write with key signature. 39

11 The ascending melodic minor that is related to A major. Write the scale with key signature in the bass clef. Use the indicated rhythm. The ascending melodic minor which is related to C major. Write the scale with key signature in the bass clef. Use the indicated rhythm. The ascending harmonic minor of which F is the raised leading tone. Write the scale without key signature in the G clef. Write the descending major of which the given notes are the upper (second) tetrachord. Write the scale without key signature in the soprano clef. The ascending major of which C is the submediant. Write the scale with key signature in the F clef. A major descending in the G clef. Write the scale without key signature and use the indicated rhythm. 46

12 Revision 1. Figure the following primary triads: 2. Write E major ascending in the bass clef. Write with key signature. 3. Study the following example and answer the questions that follow. 3.1 Transcribe the example in the G clef. 3.2 Name the key. 3.3 What is the letter name of the highest note? 3.4 In which bar does a dotted note occur? 3.5 Circle all the tonic scale degrees. 3.6 Why is there a natural in front of the A in bar 3? 3.7 What is the range of the example? 47

14 Exercise 8.1 Figure the following triads in the major keys indicated by the key signatures. The first one is given as an example. Exercise 8.2 Figure the following triads which are found in the indicated minor keys. The first one is given as an example. Exercise 8.3 Write the following triads with key signature: 59

15 8.5 Triads in other forms 12 Until now, broken chords and arpeggios were written in root position and first inversion. In Grade 3, second inversion is also prescribed The broken chord In a broken chord, the notes of a triad are played in succession. Example 8.7 shows the conversion of triads into broken chords. The lowest note (bass note) of a broken chord determines its position. Example The arpeggio The arpeggio is similar to a broken chord, but stretches over an octave. Example 8.8 shows the conversion of triads into arpeggios. The lowest note of the arpeggio determines its position. Example 8.8 Exercise Write the following broken chords with key signature. Use quavers in the form of a triplet. 12 Prescribed for the Trinity Guildhall syllabus only. 62

16 CHAPTER 9 Doubling of notes 14 A triad can be written in four parts by doubling one of the notes (Example 9.1). In Grade 3, the doubling of the root of the primary triads is discussed. 15 These chords have to be written in the root position only. The notes of a chord in four parts are stacked on each other. Root is doubled Root position: Root in bass Example The positioning of voices Since four notes are involved, a chord is written in four voices or parts: soprano, alto, tenor and bass. The four voices are written over two staves: the soprano and alto parts are in the treble clef and the tenor and bass parts are in the bass clef (Example 9.2). The two stave s bar lines are connected and there is also a bar line on the left hand side. When two or more staves are connected in this manner, it is known as a system. Example Prescribed for the UNISA and Trinity Guildhall syllabi only. 15 The Trinity Guildhall syllabus requires the tonic triad only. 66

17 Exercise 9.2 Complete the following chords in four parts by adding a note in the soprano and alto part. Exercise 9.3 Complete the following chords in four parts by adding notes in the bass and tenor. Exercise 9.4 Complete the following chords in four parts by adding notes in the alto and tenor. 69

18 Exercise Figure the following excerpts from compositions. Write the key in front and the indicated chords on the lines. The start of the first excerpt is given as an example. In the case of quavers, only look at the first note. JS Bach a: i JS Bach JS Bach JS Bach 16 Prescribe for the UNISA syllabus only. 72

19 CHAPTER 10 Melody writing 17 In Grade 3, two bars should be added to a given two-bar opening in major keys up to two sharps and two flats. Exercise 10.1 At each number, there are two examples. Play the examples and tick the example that sounds the best Prescribed for the UNISA syllabus only. 75

20 CHAPTER 12 Sol-fa notation 18 In Grade 3, you must be able to write sol-fa notation in major keys up to three sharps and three flats. As in the case of C major, doh is the tonic after which the other scale degrees follow (Example 12.1). Doh is C C Major Doh is G Doh is D Doh is A G Major D Major A Major Doh is F Doh is B Doh is E F Major B Major E Major Example Summary of information discussed in previous grades Bar lines and double bar lines are indicated in the same way as in notation. Staff notation Sol-fa notation 18 Prescribed for the UNISA syllabus only. 90

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