Maria plays basketball. We live in Australia.

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1 RECAPITULARE GRAMATICA INCEPATORI I. VERBUL 1. Verb to be (= a fi): I am, you are, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are Questions and negatives (Intrebari si raspunsuri negative) What s her first name? (What is.) She isn t married. (She is not.) Negatives and short answers (Raspunsuri negative si scurte) No, she isn t (No, she is not) 2. Present simple : se formeaza: vb la infinitiv scurt work, iar pentru persoana III sg, se adauga s : works Questions and negatives: Does he speak French? Yes, he does. No, he doesn t. (datorita s lui de la persoana a III a sg a auxiliarului do = does, verbul conjugat nu mai are s la persoana a III a sg, la interogativ speak ) (Raspunsul la intrebare de face prin persoana corespunzatoare a auxiliarului do ). Cand il folosim (When do we use it) 1. General facts (fapte generale) I like milk. They speak Turkish. Maria plays basketball. We live in Australia. 2. Repeated actions and habits (actiuni repetate si obiceiuri) He often arrives late. I usually get up at I walk to school every day. My brother usually walks with me. 3. Things that are always true (lucruri mereu adevarate) The sun rises in the east. The earth goes round the sun. Cum se scrie: (spelling) go = goes miss = misses Watch = watches wash = washes Relax = relaxes Adverbele de frecventa care il insotesc (Frequency adverbs that go with Present Simple) Always (intotdeauna) = 100% = Tim always wears jeans. Usually (de obicei) = 80% = I usually go to bed at Often (adesea) = 60% = Sue often goes to the cinema. Sometimes (uneori) = 40% = Sam sometimes walks to school. 1

2 Never (niciodata) = 0% = It never rains here in August. Pozitionarea adverbelor de frecventa (How do we use frequency adverbs in a sentence) The frequency adverb goes between subject and verb. Monday always comes after Sunday. 3. Present Continuous: se formeaza: vb to be la prezent + forma terminata in ing a verbului de conjugat I am sitting in my car. She s watching (is watching) television. Questions and negatives Are you walking to school today? (vbul la prezent be, + subiect + verbul de conjugat terminat in ing ) I m not (am not) walking to school today. (subiect+ be prezent + not + ing ) Cand il folosim (When do we use it) We use the present continuous to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. (actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii) Jim is watching television at the moment. Cum se scrie (spelling) 1. 2 vowels (2 vocale) and ending in 1 consonant (cu terminatie intr-o consoana) = add -ing wait = waiting 2. verbs ending in e (terminate in e ) drop e (renunta la e ) and add -ing make = making decide = deciding write= writing 3. verbs ending in 1 vowel+1 consonant (terminate in 1 voc+ 1 cons), double the consonant (dubleaza consoana) sit = sitting swim = swimming cut = cutting 4. verbs ending ie (terminate ie ), change ie to y ( ie devine y ) lie = lying tie = tying die = dying 5. verbs ending in 1 vowel and y (terminate in 1 voc + y), add -ing stay = staying play = playing say = saying 2

3 4. Present simple # Present Continuous Joe lives in New York. New York is his home. He lives there all the time. We are living near the station at the moment. We want to move to another house soon. * Verbs usually used with the Present Simple cost This bike costs 200. Like Anna likes rap music. Know Do you know the answer? Understand I don t understand this. Believe Do you believe me? * Some verbs have one meaning in the simple form, but a different meaning in the continuous form: Do you have a bike? = Do you own a bike? (general) I m having a great time = It s a great party! (at the moment) I think this film is great! = I like this film a lot (general) Quiet! I m thinking. = I m doing a diffult exercise (at the moment) 5. Past simple (Timpul trecut, simplu): se formeaza: la verbele regulate prin terminatia ed adaugata infinitivului. Yesterday I watched a great film on TV. Questions and negatives * Yes/No questions: Did you start learning English last year? (verbul do (a face) la past simplu + subiect + vbul de conjugat la infinitiv start ) Answer = Yes, I did / No, I didn t. * Wh- questions: When did you start learning English? Answer: I started learning English last year. * Negatives: I didn t start. ( do la past simple + not + vbul de conjugat la infinitiv) Cand il folosim (When do we use it) - to describe finished events in the past (evenimente trecute terminate) John played football last week. My grandparents moved to Scotland last year. The bus arrived at In 1998 I decided to move to Australia. Kate stayed in Turkey last summer. Yesterday I walked to school. 3

4 Cum se scrie (spelling) Fit = fitted stop = stopped Cry = cried try = tried * 2 syllable verbs with the stress in the 1 st syllable do NOT double the final consonant (verbele din 2 silabe cu accent pe prima NU dubleaza consoana finala) admit (accent pe a 2a) = admitted answer (accept pe prima) = answered Alte verbe regulate (Other regular verbs) Answer listen start Arrive live stop Decide marry turn Like open watch * Verbe neregulate (irregular verbs) go = went eat = ate come = came do = did have = had get = got take = took bring = brought begin = began drink = drank find = found fly = flew give = gave know = knew make = made meet = met run = ran sent = sent stand = stood tell = told wear = wore they were * Past simple of be : I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, II. THERE IS/THERE ARE (aici este/acolo sunt, sens existential) There is a book on the table. = Este/ se afla o carte pe masa. Negativ: There isn t an armchair. There aren t any flowers. Interogativ: Is there a table? Are there any photos? III. THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE We use this and these to talk about people/things that are near to us. ( This = acesta/aceasta pl. these = acestea, pt lucruri/persoane aflate langa noi). I like this ice-cream. I want these shoes. We use that and those to talk about people/things that aren t near to us. ( That = acela/aceea pl. those = acelea, aceia, pt lucruri departe de noi) Do you like that picture on the wall? Who are those children outside? 4

5 IV. COUNT AND UNCOUNT NOUNS (Substantive numarabile si ne-numarabile) 1. Count nouns (Subst numarabile) = we can count them (le putem numara) a book two books; an egg two eggs - primesc a/an la singular - primesc some/any/not any la plural some = afirmativ; any = interogativ; not.any = negative There are some chairs in the other room. Are there any chairs in the other room? There aren t any chairs in the other room. 2. Uncount(able)/ mass nouns (Subst nenumarabile) = we cannot count them (nu le putem numara) some coffee some milk some rice some bread - toate primesc some/any/not any We bought some tea. (niste ceai) Did you buy any tea? We didn t buy any tea. 3. Change of meaning (Schimbare de sens) a fish = un peste viu a coffee = o cana de cafea a paper = un ziar a wood = o padure an iron = un fier de calcat a glass = un pahar some fish = peste gatit some coffee = cafea boabe some paper = coli de hartie some wood = bucati de lemn lucrat some iron = unelte din fier some glass = sticla, geamuri 4. Uncountables with no s plural. (Fara s la plural) advice Can I have some advice? Spaghetti I d like some spaghetti. English (language) Your English is good. Hair Your hair is beautiful. Furniture This furniture is very modern. Information Could you give me some information? Weather The weather is awful Money The money is on the table. Luggage My luggage is in the taxi. bread) 5. Other problems (alte probleme) people There are some people in the garden. There is a person in the garden. Bread Could you buy a loaf of bread? (We cannot say a Fish One fish, two fish, etc. Police The police are coming! (sg form, pl verb) News The news is on TV. (pl form, sg verb) 5

6 6. Some nouns are both! (Unele substantive sunt si numarabile si nenumarabile) Do you like ice-cream? (nenumarabil, inghetata in general) We d like three ice-creams, please. (numarabil, 3 inghetate) V. MUCH/MANY (mult) 1. Uncountable: There isn t much time. Is there much time? 2. Countable: There aren t many seats. Are there many seats? 3. In informal statements, we use lots of. There is lots of time. There are lots of seats. 4. In formal statements, we use many. Many people believe in ghosts. Mr Harrison visited Argentina many years ago. 5. How much/how many? How much = uncountables How much homework have you got? How much time have we got? How much milk do you want? Lots! We ve got fifteen minutes. Not much. How many = countables How many pages do you have to read? How many brothers and sisters have you got? How many people are there here? How many players are there? Ten. Two brothers. A hundred. Not very many VI. SOME AND ANY Positive: There are some flowers. Some + plural noun Negative: There aren t any cups. Any + plural noun Question: Are there any books? Any + plural noun VI. CAN, CAN T : verb modal care exprima capacitate, posibilitate (modal of ability and possibility) = a putea 1. se conjuga: I can, you can, he/she/it can, we can, you can, they can past: could pentru toate persoanele 2. afirmativ (statement): I can swim. Negative: I can t swim. Interogativ (question): Can I swim? 3. cannot = (can+not) in formal writing and speech. (limbaj formal) 4. Short answers: Can you see it? Yes, I can. No, I can t. 5. Tag questions ( Nu-I asa?): You can see it, can t you? You can t see it, can you? 6

7 6. Pentru past (trecut): could. Pentru viitor: be able to. VII. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE (prep de loc): on (pe), under (sub, dedesubt), next to (langa), in front of (in fata) VIII. TIME EXPRESSIONS (expresii temporale): Last night yesterday morning Monday afternoon Week evening Month year in the morning at seven o clock September night Summer weekends 1994 the 20 th century on Saturday Sunday evening XIX. DO YOU LIKE? / WOULD YOU LIKE? Do you like = Iti place? Would you like = Ai vrea? 1. Do you like tea? = Iti place ceaiul? Would you like some tea? = Vrei ceai? Sa te servesc cu ceai? I like biscuits = Imi plac biscuitii. I d like a biscuit (I d = I would) = As vrea un biscuit. 2. Would you like some chips? Can I have some tea? but: Are there any chips? Is there any tea? We use some NOT any when we request and offer things. We use any NOT some on other questions and negatives. 7

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