INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL CECYT 8 NARCISO BASSOLS ETS ENGLISH GUIDE EXAM ENGLISH III

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1 1. Simple Past of be: was/were INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL CECYT 8 NARCISO BASSOLS ETS ENGLISH GUIDE EXAM ENGLISH III Additional grammar notes Was is the past of am and is, and were of are. Was and were are used to talk about both recent and distant completed actions in the past. I was tired this morning. Caesar was a Roman Emperor. Was and were are used exactly like is and are, they are invented to make questions (he was; was he?) and not (n t) is added to make negatives (wasn t weren t) Example: Where were /was Lesley born? 1 I wasn t / weren t at home last night. 2 Were / Was Steve and Michelle at Tim s party? 3 Where you were / were youon Tuesday? 4 The shops wasn t / weren t open yesterday. 5 We was / were at the gym last Sunday. 6 Yesterday were / was Monday 2. Past Simple: regular verbs call called arrive arrived type typed relax relaxed chat chatted listen listened text texted stop stopped look looked ask asked Additional grammar notes. It is important to emphasize that the past simple is used for completed actions in the past, both distant and recent. The form of regular past simple verbs is very easy. The main problem Sts have is the pronunciation, and remembering to use the infinitive, not the ed form, after did/didn t. Examples: We studied English yesterday. Did you listen to the news yesterday? He didn t cook dinner yesterday. Did she play sport yesterday?

2 Use the past simple form of the verb in brackets. Example: My parents lived(live) in Italy. Now they live in the USA. 1 When the film (finish)? 2 They (not like) the food in the café. 3 We (not phone) because it was late. 4 I (study) yesterday morning. 5 The man (stop) his car near my house. 6 What time he (arrive)? 7 you (watch) the match? 8 The shop (not open) until 10 a.m. Complete the conversation. Mel Did you and Joe go out last night? Rosa Yes, we did.we went to a restaurant. Mel Did you drive there? Rosa No, we 1. We went by bus. Mel What did you wear? Rosa I 2 my new jeans. Mel What did you have to eat? Rosa I 3 a curry. Mel What time did you leave? Rosa We 4 at half past eight. Mel Did you go home after that? Rosa No. We 5 a film at the cinema. Mel What time did you get home? Rosa We didn t 6 home until Complete the sentences with a verb from the box. go have see show stay stay Example: Did he stay for a week? 1 Did she all the sights? 2 Did he to Paris by car? 3 Did you in a hotel? 4 Did they a good time? 5 Did you Mark around the city? 3 Additional grammar notes: There are clear rules governing the formation of Comparative Adjectives. The spelling rules for big, hot, etc, are the same as for verbs ending in ing, big bigger. To simplify the rules even further. For short adjectives (one syllable), add - er. For all the rest (two syllables or more), add more (except adjectives ending in y). Comparative adjectives: high higher dirty dirtier

3 good better bad worse thin thinner slow slower cheap cheaper easy easier more dangerous more interesting far further Complete the sentences with the comparative form of the adjective in brackets. Example: My sister is younger (young) than me. 1 Your computer was (expensive) than mine. 2 Sara s a (bad) cook than me. 3 I think the mountains are (beautiful) than the beach. 4 It s (hot) in Greece than in Sweden. 5 Anton s a (good) dancer than you. 6 Swimming in the sea is (dangerous) than swimming in a pool. 7 I m (happy) now than when I was a teenager. 8 This year s course is (hard) than last year s 4 Additional grammar notes. Superlative Adjectives Formation of superlatives is very easy once Ss know comparatives, -er changes to est in short adjectives and more changes to the most before long adjectives. Spelling rules These are exactly the same as for comparatives, hotter the hottest; prettier the prettiest. the hottest the cheapest the worst the easiest the biggest the best the smallest the hottest the most beautiful the most popular Complete the sentences with the superlative form of the adjective in brackets. Example: Who s the oldest (old) person you know? 1 Phil s the (bad) football player I know. 2 What is the (hot) place in the world? 3 He bought the (expensive) shoes in the shop. 4 Winter is the (dangerous) time of the year for drivers. 5 They went to the (cheap) restaurant in the city. 6 She s the (good) swimmer in the class. 7 My dad s the (funny) person in my family. 5 Additional grammar notes: going to + simple form is the most common way to express

4 future plans and the main future taught in this level. It is often used with time expressions like tonight, next week, next summer, examples: We are going to book our hotel next summer. I am going to stay in that hotel. She is going to eat with her family next week. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of going to and a verb from the box. rain be buy not drive not drop pass have Example: It s very cloudy. I think it s going to rain soon. 1 My mobile phone is old. When you a new one? 2 Be careful with those glasses! Don t worry. I them. 3 Bill his exams? Of course, he s a good student. 4 Hurry up! We late for the class. 5 What we for dinner? I don t know. It s your turn to cook! 6 They to work today because they can t start their car. Additional grammar notes: In this case, Ss learn the future form will won t +verb in simple form, and that it can also be used to make predictions: You are going to be very happy. It s going to be a surprise. Sometimes both forms are possible: I think the government will lose the election. I think the government is going to lose the election. Ss will learn other uses of the future (will/won t) in promises, offers, and decisions. Write predictions with will / won t. Example: you / think / it / snow tonight? Do you think it will snow tonight? 1 we / miss / the train? 2 there / be / heavy rain this evening 3 she / not pass / the exam 4 I / sure / I / not enjoy / Ben s party 5 what time / Judit and Janos / arrive? 6 I / not think / we / find / anywhere to park Complete the sentences with will / ll, won t, or shall and a verb. not drive not forget go have help make open Example: I can t do this exercise. Don t worry I ll help you. 1 I you a cup of coffee?

5 2 We to Glasgow; we ll take the bus. 3 It s hot in here. I the window. 4 I ll ring you tomorrow I! 5 How will you get to Lyon? I by train. Additional grammar notes: The present perfect is presented here in two of the most basic Uses: For recent past actions and past experience when the time is not referred to. The form of the present perfect may also be problematic, as it is the first time, Ss have seen (have) used as an auxiliary verb with all its contractions. I have I ve You have You ve He has He s She has She s It has She s We have We ve You have You ve They have They ve. seen that film. Present Perfect Tense: I have been in the USA. I haven t been in the USA. Have you been in the USA? She has broken the window. She hasn t broken the window. Has she broken the window? be was/ were been break broke broken do did done eat ate eaten fall fell fallen forget forgot forgotten go went gone leave left left sing sang song speak spoke spoken take took taken wear wore worn Regular verbs should not cause any problems for Ss since they are the same as the past simple. Ss simply have to remember the pronunciation rules for ed endings. Many irregular past participles also have the same form as the past simple. However, ones which are different (speak spoke spoken) may cause problems. Pay attention to these verbs. Complete the dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the past simple. A Have you seen (you / see) this film before? B No, I 1. What about you? A I 2 (see) it last year at the cinema. B I 3 (meet) the main actor a few years ago.

6 A Wow! I 4 (not / meet) anyone famous. B It 5 (be) before he was famous. He 6 (go) to the same school as my brother, Mark. Mark s an actor, too. A Really? 7 (he / be) on TV? B No, he usually works in the theatre. Use the words to write positive (+) and negative ( ) sentences and questions (?) with the present perfect. Example: I / read / this book / twice (+) I ve read this book twice. 1 Marco / fall / in love again (+) 2 we / buy / any CDs recently ( ) 3 you / ever / eat / Moroccan food (?) 4 your parents / be / to Russia before (?) 5 Sally / hear / John sing before ( ) 6 anyone / find / my mobile phone (?) 7 I / appear / on TV twice (+) adjectives#sthash.9uzi8amh.dpuf- -

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