ARS NOVA RENAISSANCE

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1 ARS NOVA AND THE RENAISSANCE 13OO-154O EDITED BY DOM ANSELM HUGHES AND GERALD ABRAHAM LONDON OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS NEW YORK 1960 TORONTO

2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME III I. ARS NOVA IN FRANCE. By GILBERT REANEY, Lecturer in Music, University of Reading 1 The Social Background 1 The Notation 2 The Roman de Fauvel 5 Philippe de Vitry 6 The Ballade and Virelai 13 Guillaume de Machaut 15 Machaut's Motets 19 Cyclic Masses 21 'Hoquetus David' 23 Machaut's Secular Polyphony. 23 Machaut's Harmony 28 Minor Composers 29 II. THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN ITALY. By LEONARD ELLINWOOD 31 The Social Background 31 Extent of Musical Culture 34 Music in Contemporary Literature 35 Thirteenth-century Influence 37 Influence of the Poets 39 Polyphonic Beginnings 42 Manuscript Sources 45 The Italian Notation 48 The Forms 52 Sacred Works 71 The Composers. 74 Landini 77 Other Composers of the Later Trecento 80 III. ENGLISH CHURCH MUSIC IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. By FRANK LL. HARRISON, Lecturer in Music, University of Oxford 82 Changes in Liturgical Practice 82 The New College Motets 83 The New College Conductus 88 Parallel Movement 89 The Hatton Manuscript 89 The Bury St. Edmunds Manuscript 93 English Descant 95

3 x Isorhythm in English Music 99 The Old Hall Manuscript 101 IV. POPULAR AND SECULAR MUSIC IN ENGLAND (to c. 1470). By MANFRED F. BUKOFZER, late Professor of Music,. University of California 107 Sacred and Secular 107 Popular and Learned 108 Music set to English Words 109 Motets with English Words 111 Popular Music in Fourteenth-century England 112 Popular Hymns 114 The Franciscan Friars 117 Early Carols 119 Polyphonic Carols: their Form and Style 121 Songs in English Manuscripts 126 Chansons by English Composers 128 English Songs in Continental Manuscripts 130 V. THE TRANSITION ON THE CONTINENT. By RUDOLF VON FICKER, late Professor of Musicology, University of Munich 134 Introductory 134 The Transition in France 135 Avignon Mass Settings 137 French Secular Music 139 The Transition in Italy 142 The Reina and Turin Codices 143 Isorhythmic Motets 145 The Netherlands and Burgundy Sources of Mid-fifteenth-century Music 149 English Influences 160 VI. ENGLISH CHURCH MUSIC OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. By MANFRED F. BUKOFZER 165 The English Idiom 165 The Old Hall Manuscript 167 Italian Influence 168 Isorhythmic Compositions 170 Leonel Power 172 Power's First Period 172 Power's Second Period 174 Descant and Fauxbourdon 176 Methods of Canto Fermo Treatment 178 The Egerton and Pepys Manuscripts 181 John Dunstable 184

4 xi Classification of Dunstable's Compositions 186 Plainsong and Declamation 189 Dunstable's Isorhythmic Motets 191 Motets with Double Structure 192 Dunstable's Contemporaries and Followers ' 194 John Plummer 198 The Mass as a Unified Whole 202 The Earliest Cyclic Masses ' 205 Later Cyclic Masses 208 VII. DUFAYAND HIS SCHOOL. By CHARLES VANDENBORREN, Professor of Music, University of Brussels 214 The Significance of Dufay 214 The World of Music in Dufay's Early Years 216 The New Style of Fifteenth-century Music 217 The Schools of Liege and Cambrai 218 Motets, Sacred and Secular 219 Methods of Mass Setting 221 Dufay's Masses 222 French and Italian Songs 225 The Use of Instruments 226 Dufay's Style and Development 227 Gilles Binchois 232 Dufay's Contemporaries 234 Arnold and Hugo de Lantins 235 VIII. THE AGE OF OCKEGHEM AND JOSQUIN. By NANIE BRIDGMAN. 239 introduction 239 The Netherland Style 241 Musical Forms 243 The Performance of Music. 251 Ockeghem and his Church Music 254 Ockeghem's Chansons 259 Busnois 260 Minor Contemporaries 261 The Period of Josquin des Prez 262 Josquin's Masses 265 Josquin's Motets 267 Josquin's Secular Music 270 Obrecht 273 Alexander Agricola 277 Heinrich Isaac 279 German Composers 284

5 xii Pierre de la Rue 288 Loyset Compere 290 Minor Composers 291 Netherland Art in France 294 Netherland Art in Eastern Europe 299 Conclusion 302 IX. ENGLISH POLYPHONY (c ). By FRANK LL. HARRISON ' 303 English and Continental Styles 303 Renaissance Elements in English Music 303 Choral Foundations 305 Liturgical Forms 306 The Eton Choirbook 308 The Development of the Florid Style 309 Davy's 'Passion' 317 Antiphons by Fayrfax and Cornysh 318 Shorter Antiphons 320 A Ritual Antiphon 321 The Magnificat 324 The York Masses 327 Festal Masses by Fayrfax, Ludford, and Lloyd 328 Other Festal Masses 332 Ludford's Lady-Masses 335 Music in Scotland 337 John Taverner 339 A Processional Antiphon 344 Carols and Secular Music 345 X. EUROPEAN SONG ( ). By WALTER SALMEN, Lecturer at the University of Saarbrucken 349 Introduction 349 Popular Song 352 Popular Religious Songs 355 Narrative Songs 357 The Minnesang of the Later Middle Ages 359 The Meistergesang of the Middle and Upper Classes 361 Independent Song Writers -365 The Latin Lyric 368 The Art Song of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 371 Polyphonic Song in Spain ' 377 The Beginnings of the Protestant Hymn 379 XI. SECULAR VOCAL MUSIC IN ITALY (c ). By EVERETT HELM 381 Introductory 381 Popular Music and Courtly Improvisation 382

6 xiii Carnival Songs 383 Laudi 389 The Frottola Forms 390 Development of the Frottola 394 Relation of Text and Music 397 Musical Style 400 Conclusions 405 XII. THE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF THE MIDDLE AGES AND EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY. By YVONNE ROKSETH, late Professor of Music, University of Strasbourg 406 The Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries 406 Instruments in the Lais and Romances 407 Dance Forms 408 The Instrumental Motet 410 Uses of the Viol 411 The Organ 412 Instruments in War and Social Life 414 Fourteenth-century Dances 415 Instruments in Ensemble Music 417 The Earliest Keyboard Music 419 Fifteenth-century Practices 425 Early German Organ Tablatures 426 Italian Lute Music 440 Italian Keyboard Music 443 Attaingnant's Collections for Keyboard 448 Early Tudor Keyboard Music 458 Music for Instruments or Voices 465 XIII. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. By GERALD HAYES 466 Introductory 466 Instruments of Late Classical Days 466 The Early Psaltery 467 Early Organs 468 New Instruments in the Dark Ages 470 Early Craftsmanship 471 Early Bowed Instruments 472 Trumpets and Horns 475 Reed-pipes and Shawms 477 Flutes 479 Psaltery and Dulcimer 481

7 xiv Virginals and Clavichord 483 'Symphony' and Organ 486 Mandora and Lute 487 Citole and Gittern 489 Bells and Drums 491 Uncertain Names 493 Bagpipes 494 Rustic Instruments 496 Marine Trumpet 497 Medieval Usage 498 Lines of Research 500 BIBLIOGRAPHY 503 OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC IN SOUND, VOLUME III 531 INDEX 533

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