SIMPLE FUTURE. Basic form Subject + WILL + Verb (present form)

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1 FUTURE TENSES

2 SIMPLE FUTURE Basic form Subject WILL Verb (present form) Examples I will clean up my room. I promise! The telephone is ringing. I will pick it up! I think it will rain. He will stay there for hours, doing nothing. The Future Simple is used in many situations such as when making promises or predictions.

3 Use: Promises Unplanned actions Predictions based on experience or intuition Habits (obstinate insistence, usually habitual)

4 Use 1: Promises The first use of the Future Simple to make promises. I promise I will buy you this toy. Promise you will never leave me! I will come back at 10 p.m. Use 2: Unplanned actions Use this tense also to talk about unplanned (spontaneous) decisions. Don't worry! I will help you with this problem. I will close the window. It's starting to rain.

5 Use 3: Predictions We often use the Future Simple when making a prediction based on experience or intuition. It will rain in a moment. It will get more difficult. I think he will regret his choice. Use 4: Habits The last use of this tense is interesting: we can also use the Future Simple to express habits. She will bit her lip if she is thinking or if she's nervous about something. John will keep dropping his towel on the floor after a bath.

6 Form Contracted forms WILL = 'LL She'll dance = she will dance WILL NOT = WON'T She won't dance = she will not dance Declarative Sentences SubjectAuxiliary verbverb I will (work/go/make)

7 NOTE: Simple Future can be used instead of Simple Present to express:

8 a) Offering or Proposal: That box looks heavy, I ll help you lift it. If you need more money, I ll lend you some. b) Agreeing or refusing to do something Can you help me? Of course, I ll do whatever I can. ohn was invited but he says he won't go. c) Promising to do something I can't talk to you now. I ll call you as soon as I can.

9 The simple future can also be used to ask someone to do something, giving a polite tone (polite) to the request. In this case, in Portuguese, use an imperative. Will you close the window, please? Close the window, please! Will you lock the door, please? Lock the door please!

10 When the speaker offers to do something, or are you suggesting something, wondering if the other person accepts the suggestion, we Shall never will. Shall I close the window? (You want me to close the window?) Shall we order? (We can make the request?)

11 QUESTIONS: Auxiliary verb Subject Verb will I /a dog work /go /make Will he be surprised when he sees me? Will Mark be able to do the shopping before 10 a.m.? Will there be plenty of people in church? Will you study harder?

12 Remember We often use "will" with: probably, most likely I think I'll probably drop in on uncle. This gift is great. I think we'll love it. I'm sure It's not going to be boring there. I'm sure there will be a lot of boys at your age I wonder (if, what, when, etc.) I expect It's a bit late. I wonder if he'll come. I haven't seen Matthew today. I expect he'll call today.

13 NEGATIVE: Subject Auxiliary verb Verb I /a dog will not work /go /make I won't take any heavy equipment with me. I'm sorry I won't be able to help you with your English today. I expect that Sally will not clean up her room, unless you help her.

14 BE GOING TO FUTURE

15 QUESTIONS: Auxiliary verb Subject Auxiliary verb Verb is/are I/a dog going to go/take Is he going to apologise to Mary for his behavior? Is the USA going to close down military bases in Western Europe? I can see dark clouds in the sky. Is it going to rain?

16 NEGATIVE: Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb I/a dog isn't/aren't going to go/take The Government is not going to lower the taxes. I'm not going to take my driving test this year.

17 1. Going to be is used to refer to a planned or desired (intended) action. Tonight I'm going to study for tomorrow's test. John says he's going to be an engineer When he grows up. 2. Be going to is used to express an action which will or may happen in the immediate future. Look at those dark clouds. I think it's going to rain. 3. Also going to be used to warn about a dangerous situation. Watch out! You're going to hit that car! Be careful! You're going to break the glasses.

18 FUTURE CONTINUOUS Basic form Subject WILL BE Verb (continuous form) Tomorrow at this time, I will be taking my English exam.

19 Use Future actions in progress Guesses about the present or the future Polite questions about somebody's intention

20 Use 1: Future actions in progress The first use of the Future Continuous is to express future action in progress. In an hour, I will be sitting in front of my TV. In the evening, I will be baking a birthday cake.

21 Use 2: Guesses Use this tense also to make guesses about something in the present or future. He won't be coming any time soon. He is still at the office. Beatrice will be getting married very soon. Use 3: Questions And the last use of the tense is to make polite questions about something or somebody. Will you be coming home before or after 10 PM? Will you be going to the supermarket? I have something to buy.

22 Declarative Sentences Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb ing I /a dog will be working /going She'll be having a bath when I'm back home. I'll be watching TV when my mother arrives. They will be getting home just about now.

23 QUESTIONS Auxiliary verb Subject Auxiliary verb Verb ing? will I/you/we etc. be dancing / taking Is she going to be cooking when we knock at the door? Will Mark be playing football at 6 p.m.? Will you be using the screwdriver?

24 NEGATIVE SENTENCE Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb ing a dog will not be working /going/ We won't be having supper tomorrow before 8 o'clock. I am not going to be learning English tomorrow at this time. John won't be sleeping now (= I think John isn't sleeping now)

25 Future Perfect Basic form Subject WILL HAVE Verb (past participle) I will have graduated from university by May. Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by the next month. We use the Future Perfect tense to talk about actions that will be finished before some point in the future. We also use this tense to express situations that will last for a specified period of time at a definite moment in the future.

26 Use Completion before a specified point in the future Actions or situations that will last in the future (for a specified time)

27 Use 1: Completion before a specified point in the future To talk about future actions that will be finished before some specified point in the future. Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house. John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the birthday party starts!

28 Use 2: Duration in the Future To talk about actions will last after a given point in the future. By the next year, I will have known Monica for 30 years. Patrick will have lived in Hong Kong for 20 years by 2015.

29 Common Time Expressions Time expressions that are commonly used with the Future Perfect: By By the time Before By tomorrow/7 o'clock/next month Until/till

30 Declarative Sentences Subject e.g. I/a dog etc. Auxiliary verb will Auxiliary verb have Past participle e.g.eaten/given/go neetc. I will have retired by the end of this year. I read 40 pages a day. If I keep up the pace, I will have read the book by Tuesday.

31 QUESTIONS Auxiliary verb Subject Auxiliary verb Past participle will I /a dog have eaten /given Will they have graduated from Cambridge by July 2015? Will I have retired by the end of the year?

32 NEGATIVE: Subject Auxiliary verb not Auxiliary verb Past participle I / she will not have eaten/given/gone They won't have graduated from Cambridge by July My uncle won't have retired by the end of the year.

33 Future Perfect Continuous Basic form Subject WILL HAVE BEEN Verb ing By the next year, I will have been working as a teacher for 30 years. We will be making a rest stop in half an hour, because you will have been driving the car for 6 hours by then. We use the Future Perfect Continuous tense to express situations that will last for a specified period of time at a definite moment in the future. We also use this tense to express certainty about the cause of some future situation.

34 Use Duration at a definite moment in the future Cause of a future situation

35 Duration We use this tense to express situations that will last for a specified period of time at a definite moment in the future. It is important that we expect these situations to last longer. Before they come, we will have been cleaning the house for 5 hours. By the next year, Ben and his wife will have been living together for 50 years.

36 Cause To express certainty about the cause of some future situation. By this time, he will have been working for 12 hours, so he will be very tired.

37 Declarative Sentences Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb ing I / a dog will have been eating /giving We will have been driving 6 hours by the time we get home. In the summer Mike will have been trying to find a new job for five months.

38 QUESTIONS Auxiliary verb Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb ing will I/ a dog have been eating /giving Will he have been writing the composition for a month by the end of February?

39 NEGATIVE: Subject Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb Verb ing I /a dog will not have been eating /giving She won't have been writing the book for four months by the end of October.

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