Programmable Logic Design Techniques II

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1 Programmable Logic Design Techniques II. p. 1 Programmable Logic Design Techniques II Almost all digital signal processing requires that information is recorded, possibly manipulated and then stored in some way. Then it makes sense to design small modules that perform the basic signal processing operations. Such modules can be combined into more complex designs performing more complex operations etc. The result is a design with a hierarchy of levels. Building such designs is much easier than building a large circuit by stitching together a large number of primitive gates. In this Lab you will design a module performing a frequently-used operation such as "1-bit" addition. Then you will use it to create a 4-bit adder. Also, you will use other already designed modules to create a relatively complex circuit for recording the number of events an "8-bit" up counter. To be successful in this Lab you should review DH p.270-p.284 and the Guides to the Xilinx software and hardware posted on the PHY440 WWW site. Problem 1. Create a digital circuit that accepts two "1-bit" binary numbers and outputs an "1-bit sum", i.e. an 1-bit adder. Simulate the design, download it to the FPGA demo board and test it. As specified, the circuit has to have at least two inputs (one for each 1-bit number) and one output (for the 1-bit sum). But it is possible that the sum will not fit into1 bit. For example, adding two 1-bit numbers like 1 and 1, results in a sum 10(2), which requires 2 bits to represent it. For this reason, an extra carry output has to be added to indicate when this overflow occurs. And if the adder can have a carry output, then it makes sense that it should also have a carry input. The truth table for such a 1-bit adder with carry input and output is as follows: Input 1 Input 2 Carry Input Sum Output Carry Output Transform the truth table into a gate-level logic design using relevant gate primitives from the Schematic Library of Xilinx Foundation Series Software. For those of you having difficulties in creating design of their own, a hint is given below:

2 Input0 Input1 Sum Carry Input Carry Output Suppose you have designed and simulated the 1-bit adder successfully. Now you have to assign the three inputs of the circuit to three pins of the XC4003 FPGA which can be driven by the SW3-1 to SW3-8 switch(es) on the board. You have pins # 19,20,23,24,25,26,27 and 28, correspondingly, at your disposal. The outputs may be assigned to any of the pins # 49,48,47,46,45,50 and 51which drive a corresponding segment of a single 7-segment LED on the board. Since each LED segment is turned on by driving the corresponding pin to logic 0 you may invert the output signal (as done in the circuit above). Then you will have a LED segment on when the output of the summer is 1 and not 0.

3 Now you may wish to create a module that can be saved and used in other designs. First, get rid of the inverters, the input (IBUF) and output buffers (OBUF) and the associated pins. Then select Hierarchy -> Create Macro Symbol from Current Sheet menu item. Select a proper name for your adder and put in relevant comments. Then save it. It will be appended to the SC library and so can be used in future designs. Problem 2. Create a design that accepts two 4-bits numbers (A3..A0 and B3..B0) and outputs a 4-bit sum (Sum3..Sum0). Make use of your 1-bit adder module. Simulate the design, download it to the Xilinx demo board and test it. An example of such a 4-bit adder is given below. This time you may associate the outputs with pins # 61,62,65,66, 57,58,59 and 60 which drive 8 LED bars (D9-D16 row) on the Xilinx board. Please, note that the pin ordering is important. Pins # 61 and # 60 should be associated with the most and least significant bit of an 8-bit number, respectively. You may invert the output signal to have the LED segments on when the output of the summer is 1. Also, you may associate pins 19,20,23 and 24 with the bits A3..0, and pins 25,26,27 and 28 with the bits B3..0. B3 A3 SUM3 B2 A2 SUM2 B1 A1 SUM1 B0 A0 GND SUM0

4 Problem 3. Design an 8-bit counter triggered by an oscillating signal. Use the internal 5- frequency signal generator module, OSC4, to trigger (clock) the counter. Use the 8-bit loadable cascadable bidirectional binary up/down counter with clock enable and clear, CB8LED, to count the events. Direct the output to pins # 61,62,65,66, 57,58,59 and 60 which drive 8 LED bars (D9-D16 row) on the Xilinx board. Download and test the design. Provide external control over the reset/clear, enable/disable and up/down inputs of the counter using switch SW3 (pins # 19,20,23,24,25,26,27 and 28) and the SW5/SPARE push button (associated with pin #18 ) on the Xilinx demo board. For reference, the CB8CLED module, given below, has the following inputs and outputs: Inputs: UP = 1 / 0 = up/down; D[7:0] an 8-bit number that can be used to initialize the counter; L = 1 / 0 = enables/disables the usage/download of D[7:0] CE = 1 / 0 = clock enable/disable; C = signal from internal or external clock; CLR = 1 = counter reset (clear); Outputs: TC = 1 indicates that the Terminal ( for an up counter) Count has been reached; CEO to be connected to the CE input of the next counter in a cascade configuration; Q[7:0] the current number of counts accumulated (an 8-bit number);

5 The OSC4 module has four outputs: F8M, F500K, F16K, F490 and F15 providing clock pulses (square-wave signal) with frequency 8 MHz, 500 KHz, 16 KHz, 490 Hz and 15 Hz, respectively. A possible design is given below. Please, note that the design relies on the usage of both busses and wires. For reference, a bus is a named set of discrete signals (wires), BUS_NAME[X:Y]. The constituent signals are called bus members and are ordered from the left (X) to the right (Y) with the leftmost bit/signal is treated as the most significant. In order to connect a single wire to a bus, you need to draw a wire that starts or ends at the bus line. A wire connected to a bus should bear the name of a signal that is a member of the bus. Also, you may find useful the primitives GND = "0" and VCC="1". For more information, see the Xilinx Foundation Help Topics.

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