1 Independent and Subordinate Clauses What They Are and How to Use Them By: Kalli Bradshaw
2 Do you remember the difference between a subject and a predicate?
3 Identify the subject and predicate in this sentence: Mary decided to go home after school. Mary
4 Divide the sentence into these parts: Mary / decided to go home after school. Mary is the subject of the sentence because the sentence is describing something Mary did. Decided to go home after school is the predicate because it describes what it is that Mary did.
5 So If you can find the subject and predicate of a sentence then you should have no trouble picking out the clause of the sentence. A sentence clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate and is used as a part of a sentence. There are two main types of clauses
6 No!. Not this kind of Claus!.
7 These types of clauses: Independent and Subordinate
8 An independent clause can stand alone if removed from the sentence. When by itself an independent clause becomes a simple sentence. Example of two independent clauses: Mary went straight to the bus stop after school, but she forgot to take her homework with her. and Mary went straight to the bus stop after school, but she forgot to take her homework with her.
9 A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone if removed from the sentence. A subordinate clause is always combined in some way with an independent clause. look for key words: when, which, as, while, since, because, who Example: When she finally reached home, Mary remembered that her homework was in her desk at school. The subordinate clause in red cannot stand by itself without the independent clause after the comma.
10 Can you identify the independent clauses in these sentences? Mary called Bob, and he gave her the next day s homework assignment. Independent Clause #1: Independent Clause #2:
11 Can you identify the independent clauses in these sentences? Mary called Bob, and he gave her the next day s homework assignment. Independent Clause #1: Mary called Bob Independent Clause #2: he gave her the next day s homework assignment Note how these clauses can be sentences all on their own.
12 Can you identify the independent and subordinate clauses in these sentences? After Mary finished her homework, she ate dinner. Independent Clause: Subordinate Clause:
13 Can you identify the independent and subordinate clauses in these sentences? After Mary finished her homework, she ate dinner. Independent Clause: she ate dinner Subordinate Clause: After Mary finished her homework
14 Another Example: I decided to make hamburgers for dinner, which everyone in the family enjoys. Independent clause? Subordinate clause?
15 Another Example: I decided to make hamburgers for dinner, which everyone in the family enjoys. Independent clause? I decided to make hamburgers for dinner Subordinate clause? which everyone in the family enjoys
16 Once you understand the difference between independent and subordinate clauses, you ll be ready to learn about other types of clauses such as: The Adjective Clause The Noun Clause The Adverb Clause
17 References Griffith, Francis and John E. Warriner. English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. New York: 1965.
18 What is an Adverb? Words which are used to modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs are usually referred to as adverbs. I often visit the library It is surprisingly hot today. The train travels very quickly.
19 What is a clause? It is a group of words containing a subject and its verb. A clause forms a sentence or part of a sentence and often functions as a noun, adjective or adverb. Example: "It was late when he arrived"
20 What is an Adverb Clause? A group of words which contains a subject and a finite verb (the main verb in a sentence) that describes a verb, an adjective and another adverb.
21 Adverb Clause can be divided into: 1. Concession 2. Time 3. Reason 4. Contrast 5. Result 6. Purpose 7. Place 8. Manner
22 1. Adverb Clause of Concession These clauses are introduced by though, although, even though, no matter how, no matter what and as, etc.
23 1. Adverb Clause of Concession Dependent clause Independent clause Although he is small, he is very strong. No matter how smart they are, they are required to do the revision. The girl was still dead no matter what the doctor did They show a contrast in ideas. The main or independent clauses show the unexpected outcome
24 1. Adverb Clause of Concession Although, Though, Even though, Even if, While, Whatever, Whenever, No matter
25 2. Adverb Clause of Time These clauses are introduced by when, when, whenever, while, as, before, after, till, until, since and as soon as,
26 2. Adverb Clause of Time When he arrives, he will tell us the truth. Mary was dancing while John was singing. The train left as we arrived.
27 2. Adverb Clause of Time I will stay with you until your mother comes home. After he had got the money, he left home immediately.
28 3. Adverb Clause of Reason These clauses are introduced by because, since, for and as, etc.
29 3. Adverb Clause of Reason I was late because I could not catch the bus. Since I was late, I took a taxi. The manager dismissed Mary, for she was very lazy. As the weather was bad, we cancelled the picnic.
30 4. Adverb Clause of Contrast These clauses are introduced by whereas and while
31 4. Adverb Clause of Contrast We took the train whereas Pete drove. While Tom is a good math student, Pam does well in English.
32 5. Adverb Clause of Result These clauses are always linked with so that, so + adj. / adv. + that and such + a + noun + that, etc.
33 5. Adverb Clause of Result Tom was so weak that he could not run. It was such a strange story that no one believed it.
34 6. Adverb Clause of Purpose These clauses are always linked with so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, etc.
35 6. Adverb Clause of Purpose He arrived earlier, so that he would not be late. They brought a lot of food for fear that they would be hungry during the trip. She brought the credit card in case she did not have enough cash.
36 7. Adverb Clause of Place These clauses are introduced by where and wherever.
37 7. Adverb Clause of Place Nobody knows where he has been to. He travels wherever he likes.
38 8. Adverb Clause of Manner These clauses are introduced by as, as if and as though.
39 8. Adverb Clause of Manner Please do as I have told you. * He cries as if he were mad. * He speaks as though he were the boss. * The subjunctive is used after as if and as though. The link about will help you go over this topic some more.
41 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES dependent clauses that must be joined to independent clauses describe nouns and pronouns often placed in a sentence right after the noun they describe add details to sentences by functioning as adjectives 2
42 ADJECTIVE (RELATIVE) CLAUSES Adjective clauses begin with one of the relative pronouns such as who, whom, whose, where, that, which, Also called relative clauses. 3
43 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Who Refers to people, used as subject in the clause The lady who teaches in Political Science department is my mentor. (Relative pronoun as the subject of the clause) 4
44 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Whom Refers to people, used as object or object of preposition (Formal grammar recommends whom, not who, in the object position) Sally, who(m) he knew, arrived yesterday. (Relative pronoun as the object of the clause) The student of whom he spoke was a foreigner. (Relative pronoun as the object of a preposition) 5
45 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Which or that Refers to things, animals The watch which Ken bought was expensive. The ring that Jamie wears is from her husband. The lion that escaped last night was captured. (Note: the sentence using which is more formal than the one with that) 6
46 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Whose Refers to possession/ownership The father whose child is missing is frantic! The company whose manager has resigned is in dire straits. 7
47 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses When Refers to a time (in + year, in + month, on + day,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted I will never forget the day when I graduated. I will never forget the day on which I graduated. I will never forget the day that I graduated. I will never forget the day I graduated. 8
48 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Where Refers to a place (in + country, in + city, at + school,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to) usually must be added. The house where he stays is old. The house in which he stays is old. The house which he stays in is old. The house that he stays in is old. The house he stays in is old. 9
49 Relative Pronouns & Relative Clauses Why Refers to reason It can be omitted I don t know why he winked. I don t know the reason why he winked. I don t know the reason he winked. 10
50 Adjective Clauses: Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses Restrictive Clauses are necessary for identification tell exactly which thing or person Non-restrictive Clauses are interesting with extra information -but don t identify or tell which one DO NOT have commas around clause Also known as identifying or defining clauses ALWAYS have commas around clause Also known as nonidentifying or non-defining clauses 11
51 Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples: The soccer player who scored the goal is from Liverpool. The girl that borrows my book is my cousin. The district where I live is near the post office. 12
52 Non- Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples: Ms. Tan, who is my English tutor, went to Korea last winter. My dog, which is barking, is in the backyard. William decided to reject the offer, which upset his manager. 13
53 Compare Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses 1. My brother who lives in Bukit Timah is an accountant. This sentence suggests that I have more than one brother. Who lives in Bukit Timah identifies this brother, not the one who lives in Clementi. 2. My brother, who lives in Bukit Timah, is an accountant. This sentence suggests that I only have one brother, who lives in Bukit Timah. 14
54 Which is logically correct? 1. My father, who is a taxi driver, doesn t like to exercise. 2. My father who is a taxi driver doesn t like to exercise. 15
55 Answer 1. My father, who is a taxi driver, doesn t like to exercise. (Correct!) 2. My father who is a taxi driver doesn t like to exercise. (This suggests you have more than one father!) 16
56 Which is logically correct? Situation: You have 3 sisters and you have already made that clear in preceding sentences. One is a doctor, one an air stewardess, and one a model. 1. My sister who is a doctor is not married. 2. My sister, who is a doctor, is not married. 17
57 Answer 1. My sister who is a doctor is not married. (Correct! This tells which sister, so it s identifying.) 2. My sister, who is a doctor, is not married. (Identifying information should not have commas around it.) 18
58 Which is correct? 1. Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England. 2. Paul Smith, who is an excellent researcher, is from England. 19
59 Answer 1. Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England. (Note that proper nouns are considered already identified, so the adjective clause needs commas.) 2. Paul Smith, who is an excellent researcher, is from England. (Correct!) 20
60 Which is correct? 1. The wind, that is howling, is making me nervous. 2. The wind, which is howling, is making me nervous. 21
61 Answer 1. The wind, that is howling, is making me nervous. (Never use commas with a that clause.) 2. The wind, which is howling, is making me nervous. (Correct!) 22
62 References Cain, J. S. (2003).Eye on Editing 2: Developing Editing Skills for Writing. New York: Pearson Education Brizee. A. (Ed.). (2009). Relative Pronouns. OWL Materials. Retrieved September 1, 2009, from 23
63 Web resources On how to use a relative clause (also links on the page on defining/restrictive) and non-defining/nonrestrictive relative clauses) lause.htm A grammar website on relative clauses giving all the details of relative clauses and provide exercises. If you want to know relative clauses inside out, visit: 24
64 Videos on Relative Clauses On defining relative clauses (with movie clips) #docid= Distinguish the use of who and whom in a relative clause #docid=
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