2 Today s Agenda Discuss / Collect homework Any questions about adjective clauses? Identifying/non-identifying Editing for mistakes Combining sentences Quiz Adverb clauses
3 Clauses Reminder: What is a clause? Subject + Verb Any tense What is an independent clause? Can exist alone as complete sentence What is a dependent clause? Cannot stand alone as a complete sentence Often has a subordinating conjunction
4 Complex Sentences A complex sentence is a sentence with both an independent and dependent clause. I want to eat dinner now because I am hungry. When I was young, I played baseball. If we can get tickets, we ll go to the game. The man that I met yesterday said that he rode the bus every day, even though he has a car. If the dependent clause comes first we put a comma, if it comes after we do not
5 Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses are dependent clauses that indicate how, when, where, why, or under what conditions things happen I went home when the game was over. She dropped out of the race because she was injured. Everywhere I go, I try to have a good time. Your grades will improve if you practice at home. They also indicate a contrast of information They won the game although the score was very close
6 Practice Do these adverb clauses show contrast, place, time, cause/effect or condition? 1. While sports may look good on the surface, problems occur frequently. 2. Because he penalized a player during the Olympics, the referee received death threats. 3. When I got to the stadium, I bought my ticket. 4. I will pay you back if you loan me the money. 5. Although I worked really hard in high school, I didn t get the scholarship that I wanted. 6. We see violence wherever we look.
7 TIME REVIEW: DESCRIPTION OF EVENTS 4:00 Judy parked her car at the mall and went to buy some jeans. 4:03 A thief broke into her car and stole her radio. 4:30 Judy returned to her car. 4:31 Judy called the police. 4:35 The police arrived. 4:35 Judy began crying in frustration. 1. just after 3. when 5. by the time 2. just as 4. while 6. as soon as
8 Cause/Effect Clauses These indicate why something happens She won the medal because she had practiced tirelessly. As I am very sick, I can t go to Las Vegas this weekend. Now that Jack is unemployed, he can t pay his bills. Some why clause words: As, because, now that, since, etc. Have you used all of these?
9 Now that Now that means because now Now that I have finished the semester, I m going to rest a few days and take a trip. Because the semester is now over, I m going to rest a few days and take a trip. Now that is used for present causes of present or future actions!
10 Note Both since and as can be used in both time clauses and why clauses Since Anna doesn t like sports, she refused to go to the game. Anna has been waiting since she arrived at the game. He had to drop out of the game as he was badly hurt. As he was running, he fell and hurt himself. WHEN SINCE IS USED AS A REASON, THE PRESENT PERFECT IS NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY!!!
11 DIFFICULT QUESTIONS Try discussing/answering these questions in your group using the adverb clauses of reason we ve been practicing Why does love hurt? Why do earthquakes happen? Why does nodding of the head signify Yes and shaking of the head No? Why is unemployment high? Why, in general, do women live longer than men do? Which has more power, love or fear? Why? Why is there so much violence on television? Why is the sky blue?
12 Expected or unexpected? Look at these two sentences Which sentence expresses an unexpected result? Because I was tired, I went to bed early. Even though I was very tired, I stayed up late.
13 Unexpected Result Although, even though, and though are used to show an unexpected result Though he is quite young, he was selected for the team. I got hired, even though I don t have a lot of experience. Note: contrast clauses almost always include a comma (before or after)
14 Expected or Unexpected? Fill in the blank with either a subordinating conjunction of reason or contrast to show if it was expected or unexpected Tim s in good physical shape he doesn t exercise much. Melissa has a job, she doesn t make enough money to support her four children. Yoko has a job, she is able to pay her rent and feed her family. Joe speaks Spanish well he lived in Mexico for a year. A newborn baby kangaroo can find its mother s pouch its eyes are not yet open. the earthquake damaged the bridge across Skunk River, the Smiths were able to cross the river they had a boat.
15 Direct Contrast While and whereas show a direct contrast (not necessarily unexpected information) While skiing is very expensive, cross-country skiing is cheap. I like dogs, whereas my roommate prefers cats. Which one is more formal?
16 While While is used both for contrast and time! While they lost the game, they played their best. We ate while we were watching the game. I can t believe she won, while her sister lost. I can t believe she won while he sister was losing.
17 Complete the Sentences Some people have curly hair, while. Whereas some people only know their native language,. Some people prefer to live in the country, whereas. While, others like a quiet night in. Some people, whereas. Some countries, while.
18 Condition Clauses These indicate under what conditions something happens If he apologizes profusely, she will take him back. She won t answer his calls unless he apologizes. Some why clause words: Even if, if, only if, unless, in case, etc. Have you used all of these?
19 What do they mean? Unless = something will happen or be true if another thing does not happen or is not true Unless you train a great deal, you won t be a champion. This will not happen unless you do this. I can t go to the movies unless I clean my room. Can you change these sentences to only if? Unless
20 If vs. Unless Using your adverb clause handout, complete the sentences two ways using if and unless EXAMPLE: I go to the movies every week if I have the time. unless I don t have the time. if my friends want to go with me. unless there s nothing good out.
21 What do they mean? Even if = the condition does not matter; the result will be the same Even if he practices constantly, he won t make the team. Even if I live in France for a year, I will never learn French. Even if Whether ( ) or not = basically, the same as even if I am going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. I am going to go swimming tomorrow whether it is cold or not.
22 Even if/whether or not practice Do these sentences have the same meaning? Even if I get an invitation to the reception, I m not going to go. I won t go to the reception without an invitation. Even if you don t want help, I plan to be at your house at 9:00. I m going to help you because I think you need help. I have to go to work tomorrow whether or not I feel better. Whether I go to work or not depends on how I feel. I won t forgive John whether he apologizes or not. I don t care if John apologizes. It doesn t matter.
23 Even if Situations Exercise 28, p. 380: Write sentences about these situations using even if or whether or not
24 What do they mean? In case = in order to be prepared for a possible future happening We d better take along some extra money in case we run into difficulties. I am going to invite this girl I m dating to the party in case my ex is there. In case
25 In case Practice Exercise 30, p. 381: Combine the sentences using in case
26 What do they mean? Only if = only one condition will produce a result Bi-Yun will make the team only if another athlete drops out. I will see the movie only if it gets good reviews. Only if Inversion occurs if the sentence begins with only if!
27 Only if Practice Exercise 37, p. 384: Combine the sentences using only if
28 HOMEWORK When I assign homework from English Grammar, there is a specific way I would like you to do your homework: Complete the homework on a separate sheet of paper (not in your book) Correct your own homework using the answer key in the back of the book Try to understand why you got the answer wrong; if you cannot find out why, make a note and ask me during class Tonight s homework: Chapter 17: ex 13, 26, 27, 38, & 39
REVIEW: SENTENCE ADVERBS Occur at the beginning, middle, end Beginning or end = comma Middle Position After Be verb: I am basically in favor of that. After modals: I have to basically agree with the plan.
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Group 1 the a is you to and we that in not for at with it on can will are of this your as but be have the a is you to and we that in not for at with it on can will are of this your as but be have the a
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